Abstract

We present a novel integration method for packaging silicon photonic sensors with polymer microfluidics, designed to be suitable for wafer-level production methods. The method addresses the previously unmet manufacturing challenges of matching the microfluidic footprint area to that of the photonics, and of robust bonding of microfluidic layers to biofunctionalized surfaces. We demonstrate the fabrication, in a single step, of a microfluidic layer in the recently introduced OSTE polymer, and the subsequent unassisted dry bonding of the microfluidic layer to a grating coupled silicon photonic ring resonator sensor chip. The microfluidic layer features photopatterned through holes (vias) for optical fiber probing and fluid connections, as well as molded microchannels and tube connectors, and is manufactured and subsequently bonded to a silicon sensor chip in less than 10 minutes. Combining this new microfluidic packaging method with photonic waveguide surface gratings for light coupling allows matching the size scale of microfluidics to that of current silicon photonic biosensors. To demonstrate the new method, we performed successful refractive index measurements of liquid ethanol and methanol samples, using the fabricated device. The minimum required sample volume for refractive index measurement is below one nanoliter.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (1)

F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip12, 3032–3035 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, K. Oberg, M. Malkoch, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip11, 3136–3147 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Antelius, K. B. Gylfason, and H. Sohlström, “An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics,” Opt. Express19, 3592–3598 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem.84, 793–821 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, M. Cornaglia, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A High-Yield Process for 3-D Large-Scale Integrated Microfluidic Networks in PDMS,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19, 1050–1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne, and J. H. Schmid, “Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response,” Opt. Lett.33, 596–598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir24, 13399–13405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Movassagh and M. Soleiman-Beigi, “Synthesis of thiocarbamates from thiols and isocyanates under catalyst-and solvent-free conditions,” Monatshefte für Chemie139, 137–140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol.23, 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. P. Kartalov and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic device reads up to four consecutive base pairs in DNA sequencing-by-synthesis,” Nucleic Acids Research32, 2873–2879 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Kodadek, “Protein microarrays: prospects and problems,” Chemistry & Biology8, 105–115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure and Appl. Opt.: J. European Optical Society Part A5, 453+ (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Alanjary, M.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antelius, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnati, M.

C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

Bailey, R. C.

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem.84, 793–821 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Banuls Polo, M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolozzi, I.

Bertie, J. E.

Bienstman, P.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Branciforte, J. T.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Branting, A.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bustillo, J.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlborg, C. F.

F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip12, 3032–3035 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, K. Oberg, M. Malkoch, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip11, 3136–3147 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, M. Cornaglia, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A High-Yield Process for 3-D Large-Scale Integrated Microfluidic Networks in PDMS,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19, 1050–1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sandstrom, R. Z. Shafagh, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “One step integration of gold coated sensors with OSTE polymer cartridges by low temperature dry bonding,” in “16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2778–2781.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

Carlborg, F.

J. M. Karlsson, F. Carlborg, F. Saharil, F. Forsberg, F. Niklaus, W. van der Wijngaart, and T. Haraldsson, “High-resolution micropatterning of off-stoichiometric thiol-enes (OSTE) via a novel lithography mechanism,” in “16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2012).

Cawley, S. E.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheben, P.

Chiari, M.

C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

Claes, T.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clark, T. A.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornaglia, M.

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, M. Cornaglia, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A High-Yield Process for 3-D Large-Scale Integrated Microfluidic Networks in PDMS,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19, 1050–1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cretich, M.

C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

Cui, Y.

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol.23, 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davey, M.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1, 225–235 (2009).
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K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15, 7610–7615 (2007).
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Densmore, A.

Dimalanta, E.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir24, 13399–13405 (2008).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1, 225–235 (2009).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
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Haraldsson, T.

F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip12, 3032–3035 (2012).
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C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, M. Cornaglia, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A High-Yield Process for 3-D Large-Scale Integrated Microfluidic Networks in PDMS,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19, 1050–1057 (2010).
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C. Errando-Herranz, F. Saharil, A. Mola Romero, N. Sandström, R. Z. Shafagh, W. van der Wijngaart, T. Haraldsson, and K. B. Gylfason, “Integration of polymer microfluidic channels, vias, and connectors with Silicon photonic sensors by one-step combined photopatterning and molding of OSTE,” in “17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1613–1616.

J. M. Karlsson, F. Carlborg, F. Saharil, F. Forsberg, F. Niklaus, W. van der Wijngaart, and T. Haraldsson, “High-resolution micropatterning of off-stoichiometric thiol-enes (OSTE) via a novel lithography mechanism,” in “16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2012).

C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

N. Sandstrom, R. Z. Shafagh, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “One step integration of gold coated sensors with OSTE polymer cartridges by low temperature dry bonding,” in “16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2778–2781.
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Hinz, W.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
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Janz, S.

Johnson, K.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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Karlsson, J. M.

J. M. Karlsson, F. Carlborg, F. Saharil, F. Forsberg, F. Niklaus, W. van der Wijngaart, and T. Haraldsson, “High-resolution micropatterning of off-stoichiometric thiol-enes (OSTE) via a novel lithography mechanism,” in “16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2012).

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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
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C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
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Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir24, 13399–13405 (2008).
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Lan, Z.

Landry, J. P.

Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir24, 13399–13405 (2008).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

Simons, J. F.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohlstrom, H.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohlström, H.

Sokolsky, T.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sola, L.

C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

Soleiman-Beigi, M.

B. Movassagh and M. Soleiman-Beigi, “Synthesis of thiocarbamates from thiols and isocyanates under catalyst-and solvent-free conditions,” Monatshefte für Chemie139, 137–140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stemme, G.

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, M. Cornaglia, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A High-Yield Process for 3-D Large-Scale Integrated Microfluidic Networks in PDMS,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19, 1050–1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sandstrom, R. Z. Shafagh, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “One step integration of gold coated sensors with OSTE polymer cartridges by low temperature dry bonding,” in “16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2778–2781.
[CrossRef]

Stoner, I. B.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. S.

Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir24, 13399–13405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sychugov, V. A.

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure and Appl. Opt.: J. European Optical Society Part A5, 453+ (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tishchenko, A. V.

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure and Appl. Opt.: J. European Optical Society Part A5, 453+ (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van der Wijngaart, W.

F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip12, 3032–3035 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, K. Oberg, M. Malkoch, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip11, 3136–3147 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, M. Cornaglia, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A High-Yield Process for 3-D Large-Scale Integrated Microfluidic Networks in PDMS,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19, 1050–1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Saharil, A. Mola Romero, N. Sandström, R. Z. Shafagh, W. van der Wijngaart, T. Haraldsson, and K. B. Gylfason, “Integration of polymer microfluidic channels, vias, and connectors with Silicon photonic sensors by one-step combined photopatterning and molding of OSTE,” in “17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1613–1616.

N. Sandstrom, R. Z. Shafagh, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “One step integration of gold coated sensors with OSTE polymer cartridges by low temperature dry bonding,” in “16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2778–2781.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

J. M. Karlsson, F. Carlborg, F. Saharil, F. Forsberg, F. Niklaus, W. van der Wijngaart, and T. Haraldsson, “High-resolution micropatterning of off-stoichiometric thiol-enes (OSTE) via a novel lithography mechanism,” in “16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2012).

Vivien, L.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldron, P.

Wang, W. U.

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol.23, 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. B.

Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir24, 13399–13405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, A.

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D. X.

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol.23, 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X. D.

Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir24, 13399–13405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem.84, 793–821 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Chemistry & Biology (1)

T. Kodadek, “Protein microarrays: prospects and problems,” Chemistry & Biology8, 105–115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on Silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, M. Cornaglia, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A High-Yield Process for 3-D Large-Scale Integrated Microfluidic Networks in PDMS,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19, 1050–1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lab on a Chip (3)

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, K. Oberg, M. Malkoch, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip11, 3136–3147 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Saharil, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biocompatible ”click” wafer bonding for microfluidic devices,” Lab on a Chip12, 3032–3035 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

Y. S. Sun, J. P. Landry, Y. Y. Fei, X. D. Zhu, J. T. Luo, X. B. Wang, and K. S. Lam, “Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.” Langmuir24, 13399–13405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monatshefte für Chemie (1)

B. Movassagh and M. Soleiman-Beigi, “Synthesis of thiocarbamates from thiols and isocyanates under catalyst-and solvent-free conditions,” Monatshefte für Chemie139, 137–140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

G. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol.23, 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

J. M. Rothberg, W. Hinz, T. M. Rearick, J. Schultz, W. Mileski, M. Davey, J. H. Leamon, K. Johnson, M. J. Milgrew, M. Edwards, J. Hoon, J. F. Simons, D. Marran, J. W. Myers, J. F. Davidson, A. Branting, J. R. Nobile, B. P. Puc, D. Light, T. A. Clark, M. Huber, J. T. Branciforte, I. B. Stoner, S. E. Cawley, M. Lyons, Y. Fu, N. Homer, M. Sedova, X. Miao, B. Reed, J. Sabina, E. Feierstein, M. Schorn, M. Alanjary, E. Dimalanta, D. Dressman, R. Kasinskas, T. Sokolsky, J. A. Fidanza, E. Namsaraev, K. J. McKernan, A. Williams, G. T. Roth, and J. Bustillo, “An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing,” Nature475, 348–352 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucleic Acids Research (1)

E. P. Kartalov and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic device reads up to four consecutive base pairs in DNA sequencing-by-synthesis,” Nucleic Acids Research32, 2873–2879 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pure and Appl. Opt.: J. European Optical Society Part A (1)

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure and Appl. Opt.: J. European Optical Society Part A5, 453+ (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. F. Carlborg, M. Cretich, T. Haraldsson, L. Sola, M. Bagnati, M. Chiari, and W. van der Wijngaart, “Biosticker: patterned microfluidic stickers for rapid integration with microarrays,” in “15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2011), pp. 311–313.

N. Sandstrom, R. Z. Shafagh, C. F. Carlborg, T. Haraldsson, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “One step integration of gold coated sensors with OSTE polymer cartridges by low temperature dry bonding,” in “16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2778–2781.
[CrossRef]

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Saharil, A. Mola Romero, N. Sandström, R. Z. Shafagh, W. van der Wijngaart, T. Haraldsson, and K. B. Gylfason, “Integration of polymer microfluidic channels, vias, and connectors with Silicon photonic sensors by one-step combined photopatterning and molding of OSTE,” in “17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems,” (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1613–1616.

J. M. Karlsson, F. Carlborg, F. Saharil, F. Forsberg, F. Niklaus, W. van der Wijngaart, and T. Haraldsson, “High-resolution micropatterning of off-stoichiometric thiol-enes (OSTE) via a novel lithography mechanism,” in “16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS),” (2012).

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics(CRC, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The integration scheme: The top mold is a glass mask combining chromium patterns for photolithography of vias with SU8 reliefs for microchannel molding. The insets show photographs of the reliefs and via patterns on the mask. The bottom PDMS mold defines the chip outline and the fluidic connectors. After UV curing, development, and dry-bonding of the microfluidic layer to the photonic chip, the integrated chip is ready for measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A schematic cross-section of the fabrication of the OSTE microfluidic layer and its bonding to a photonic silicon chip: (a) OSTE-70 is poured into a PDMS mold. (b) A UV cure through a glass mask polymerizes exposed parts by a thiol-ene reaction. (c) The fluidic and optical vias are developed in butyl acetate. (d) A silanized silicon photonic chip is then aligned and bonded to the fluidic layer and cured for 10 min at 70 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A photograph of the ring resonator chip. In the magnified image, the surface grating couplers of a ring resonator sensor device are visible. (b) The design of one of the ring resonator sensors fabricated in the silicon chip and the OSTE microchannel dimensions. (c) The measurement setup, with connected optical and fluidic ports.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Resonance spectra for different concentrations of ethanol in water. The red shift increases as the ethanol concentration increases. (b) The measured resonance wavelength shift shows a linear dependence on the refractive index of the injected solution.

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