Abstract

A micro-prism film, with spectral characteristics, is attached on a display panel to show images appearing with + 10° ~ + 50° and −10° ~-50° bright regions and with a + 10° ~-10° dark region. When both eyes separately receive the bright region and the dark region of an image, interocular delay would appear to generate a stereo perception. With the optical simulation software, LightTools 7.3.0, to simulate the brightness change, the light with lower brightness appears on the 0° region and the light with the highest brightness appears on the ± 10° region. The optimal viewing distance of 25cm could accurately deliver the image with shading parallax to both eyes. The actual measurement of brightness presents the shading distribution, achieving the condition of binocular retinal illumination, and the angle of visibility appears on the ± 50° region, causing interocular delay so that the viewer generates the stereo perception.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

S. Scher, J. Liu, R. Vaish, P. Gunawardane, and J. Davis, “3D+ 2DTV: 3D displays with no ghosting for viewers without glasses,” ACM Trans. Graph.32(3), 1–10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

K. Jacobs and R. Karpf, “Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles for mobile devices,” Proc. SPIE8304, 830406-1–830406-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2009 (2)

M. T. Pourazad, P. Nasiopoulos, and R. K. Ward, “An H.264-based scheme for 2D to 3D video conversion,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron.55(2), 742–748 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lambooij, M. Fortuin, I. Heynderickx, and W. IJsselsteijn, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: A review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.53(3), 030201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis.8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chang, M. D. Ke, C. C. Lin, and Y. M. Chen, “A novel high brightness parallax barrier stereoscopy technology using a reflective crown grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.50(6), 1610–1616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, T. T. Yang, and W. S. Sun, “Optics system design applying a micro-prism array of a single lens stereo image pair,” Opt. Express16(20), 15495–15505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying 3 dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, R. Renaud, and N. Hur, “Effect of disparity and motion on visual comfort of stereoscopic images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 94–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “Image distortion correction for lenticula misalignment in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng.45(1), 017007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol.1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2), 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2–3), 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, “Neural mechanisms underlying binocular fusion and stereopsis: position vs. phase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.94(10), 5438–5443 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Scotcher, D. A. H. Laidlaw, C. R. Canning, M. J. Weal, and R. A. Harrad, “Pulfrich’s phenomenon in unilateral cataract,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.81(12), 1050–1055 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

T. Carney, M. A. Paradiso, and R. D. Freeman, “A physiological correlate of the Pulfrich effect in cortical neurons of the cat,” Vision Res.29(2), 155–165 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. J. Morgan and R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpolation in human spatial vision,” Nature299(5883), 553–555 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

M. J. Morgan, “Perception of continuity in stroboscopic motion: A temporal frequency analysis,” Vision Res.19(5), 491–500 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Burr and J. Ross, “How does binocular delay give information about depth?” Vision Res.19(5), 523–532 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

J. E. Slagsvold, “Pulfrich pendulum phenomenon in patients with a history of acute optic neuritis,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)56(5), 817–826 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

D. Rushton, “Use of the Pulfrich pendulum for detecting abnormal delay in the visual pathway in multiple sclerosis,” Brain98(2), 283–296 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Morgan and P. Thompson, “Apparent motion and the Pulfrich effect,” Perception4(1), 3–18 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

J. Ross, “Stereopsis by binocular delay,” Nature248(446), 363–364 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

1958 (1)

1955 (1)

1951 (1)

A. Lit and A. Hyman, “The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereophenomenon as a function of distance of observation,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.28(11), 564–580 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1922 (1)

C. Pulfrich, “Die Stereoskopie im Dienste der isochromen und heterochromen Photometrie,” Naturwissenschaften10(35), 751–761 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis.8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anzai, A.

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, “Neural mechanisms underlying binocular fusion and stereopsis: position vs. phase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.94(10), 5438–5443 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banks, M. S.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis.8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burr, D. C.

D. C. Burr and J. Ross, “How does binocular delay give information about depth?” Vision Res.19(5), 523–532 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canning, C. R.

S. M. Scotcher, D. A. H. Laidlaw, C. R. Canning, M. J. Weal, and R. A. Harrad, “Pulfrich’s phenomenon in unilateral cataract,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.81(12), 1050–1055 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, T.

T. Carney, M. A. Paradiso, and R. D. Freeman, “A physiological correlate of the Pulfrich effect in cortical neurons of the cat,” Vision Res.29(2), 155–165 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, M. C.

C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chang, M. D. Ke, C. C. Lin, and Y. M. Chen, “A novel high brightness parallax barrier stereoscopy technology using a reflective crown grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.50(6), 1610–1616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chang, M. D. Ke, C. C. Lin, and Y. M. Chen, “A novel high brightness parallax barrier stereoscopy technology using a reflective crown grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.50(6), 1610–1616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, T. T. Yang, and W. S. Sun, “Optics system design applying a micro-prism array of a single lens stereo image pair,” Opt. Express16(20), 15495–15505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, N.

Chen, Y. M.

C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chang, M. D. Ke, C. C. Lin, and Y. M. Chen, “A novel high brightness parallax barrier stereoscopy technology using a reflective crown grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.50(6), 1610–1616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. J.

Davis, J.

S. Scher, J. Liu, R. Vaish, P. Gunawardane, and J. Davis, “3D+ 2DTV: 3D displays with no ghosting for viewers without glasses,” ACM Trans. Graph.32(3), 1–10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Diamond, A. L.

Fortuin, M.

M. Lambooij, M. Fortuin, I. Heynderickx, and W. IJsselsteijn, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: A review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.53(3), 030201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. D.

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, “Neural mechanisms underlying binocular fusion and stereopsis: position vs. phase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.94(10), 5438–5443 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Carney, M. A. Paradiso, and R. D. Freeman, “A physiological correlate of the Pulfrich effect in cortical neurons of the cat,” Vision Res.29(2), 155–165 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis.8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunawardane, P.

S. Scher, J. Liu, R. Vaish, P. Gunawardane, and J. Davis, “3D+ 2DTV: 3D displays with no ghosting for viewers without glasses,” ACM Trans. Graph.32(3), 1–10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, J.

Han, T. H.

Harrad, R. A.

S. M. Scotcher, D. A. H. Laidlaw, C. R. Canning, M. J. Weal, and R. A. Harrad, “Pulfrich’s phenomenon in unilateral cataract,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.81(12), 1050–1055 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heynderickx, I.

M. Lambooij, M. Fortuin, I. Heynderickx, and W. IJsselsteijn, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: A review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.53(3), 030201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis.8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, J.

Hur, N.

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, R. Renaud, and N. Hur, “Effect of disparity and motion on visual comfort of stereoscopic images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 94–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hyman, A.

A. Lit and A. Hyman, “The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereophenomenon as a function of distance of observation,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.28(11), 564–580 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IJsselsteijn, W.

M. Lambooij, M. Fortuin, I. Heynderickx, and W. IJsselsteijn, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: A review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.53(3), 030201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, K.

K. Jacobs and R. Karpf, “Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles for mobile devices,” Proc. SPIE8304, 830406-1–830406-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying 3 dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol.1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karpf, R.

K. Jacobs and R. Karpf, “Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles for mobile devices,” Proc. SPIE8304, 830406-1–830406-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M. S.

Ke, M. D.

C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chang, M. D. Ke, C. C. Lin, and Y. M. Chen, “A novel high brightness parallax barrier stereoscopy technology using a reflective crown grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.50(6), 1610–1616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol.1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kim, S. K.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol.1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Kooi, F. L.

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2–3), 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2), 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwack, K. D.

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying 3 dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laidlaw, D. A. H.

S. M. Scotcher, D. A. H. Laidlaw, C. R. Canning, M. J. Weal, and R. A. Harrad, “Pulfrich’s phenomenon in unilateral cataract,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.81(12), 1050–1055 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambooij, M.

M. Lambooij, M. Fortuin, I. Heynderickx, and W. IJsselsteijn, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: A review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.53(3), 030201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, C.

Lee, J.

Lee, Y. G.

Y. G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “Image distortion correction for lenticula misalignment in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng.45(1), 017007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chang, M. D. Ke, C. C. Lin, and Y. M. Chen, “A novel high brightness parallax barrier stereoscopy technology using a reflective crown grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.50(6), 1610–1616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lit, A.

A. Lit, “Magnitude of the Pulfrich stereophenomenon as a function of target thickness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.50(4), 321–327 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lit and A. Hyman, “The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereophenomenon as a function of distance of observation,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.28(11), 564–580 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

S. Scher, J. Liu, R. Vaish, P. Gunawardane, and J. Davis, “3D+ 2DTV: 3D displays with no ghosting for viewers without glasses,” ACM Trans. Graph.32(3), 1–10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Min, S. W.

Morgan, M. J.

M. J. Morgan and R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpolation in human spatial vision,” Nature299(5883), 553–555 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Morgan, “Perception of continuity in stroboscopic motion: A temporal frequency analysis,” Vision Res.19(5), 491–500 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Morgan and P. Thompson, “Apparent motion and the Pulfrich effect,” Perception4(1), 3–18 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nasiopoulos, P.

M. T. Pourazad, P. Nasiopoulos, and R. K. Ward, “An H.264-based scheme for 2D to 3D video conversion,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron.55(2), 742–748 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohzawa, I.

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, “Neural mechanisms underlying binocular fusion and stereopsis: position vs. phase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.94(10), 5438–5443 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paradiso, M. A.

T. Carney, M. A. Paradiso, and R. D. Freeman, “A physiological correlate of the Pulfrich effect in cortical neurons of the cat,” Vision Res.29(2), 155–165 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. G.

Park, J. H.

Pourazad, M. T.

M. T. Pourazad, P. Nasiopoulos, and R. K. Ward, “An H.264-based scheme for 2D to 3D video conversion,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron.55(2), 742–748 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pulfrich, C.

C. Pulfrich, “Die Stereoskopie im Dienste der isochromen und heterochromen Photometrie,” Naturwissenschaften10(35), 751–761 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Ra, J. B.

Y. G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “Image distortion correction for lenticula misalignment in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng.45(1), 017007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, R.

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, R. Renaud, and N. Hur, “Effect of disparity and motion on visual comfort of stereoscopic images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 94–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ross, J.

D. C. Burr and J. Ross, “How does binocular delay give information about depth?” Vision Res.19(5), 523–532 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ross, “Stereopsis by binocular delay,” Nature248(446), 363–364 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rushton, D.

D. Rushton, “Use of the Pulfrich pendulum for detecting abnormal delay in the visual pathway in multiple sclerosis,” Brain98(2), 283–296 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saveljev, V. V.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol.1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scher, S.

S. Scher, J. Liu, R. Vaish, P. Gunawardane, and J. Davis, “3D+ 2DTV: 3D displays with no ghosting for viewers without glasses,” ACM Trans. Graph.32(3), 1–10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, I. R. A.

Scotcher, S. M.

S. M. Scotcher, D. A. H. Laidlaw, C. R. Canning, M. J. Weal, and R. A. Harrad, “Pulfrich’s phenomenon in unilateral cataract,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.81(12), 1050–1055 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, G.

Slagsvold, J. E.

J. E. Slagsvold, “Pulfrich pendulum phenomenon in patients with a history of acute optic neuritis,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)56(5), 817–826 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, J. Y.

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying 3 dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol.1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speranza, F.

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, R. Renaud, and N. Hur, “Effect of disparity and motion on visual comfort of stereoscopic images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 94–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. S.

Tam, W. J.

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, R. Renaud, and N. Hur, “Effect of disparity and motion on visual comfort of stereoscopic images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 94–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, P.

M. J. Morgan and P. Thompson, “Apparent motion and the Pulfrich effect,” Perception4(1), 3–18 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toet, A.

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2–3), 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2), 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaish, R.

S. Scher, J. Liu, R. Vaish, P. Gunawardane, and J. Davis, “3D+ 2DTV: 3D displays with no ghosting for viewers without glasses,” ACM Trans. Graph.32(3), 1–10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ward, R. K.

M. T. Pourazad, P. Nasiopoulos, and R. K. Ward, “An H.264-based scheme for 2D to 3D video conversion,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron.55(2), 742–748 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watt, R. J.

M. J. Morgan and R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpolation in human spatial vision,” Nature299(5883), 553–555 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weal, M. J.

S. M. Scotcher, D. A. H. Laidlaw, C. R. Canning, M. J. Weal, and R. A. Harrad, “Pulfrich’s phenomenon in unilateral cataract,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.81(12), 1050–1055 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T. T.

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

S. Scher, J. Liu, R. Vaish, P. Gunawardane, and J. Davis, “3D+ 2DTV: 3D displays with no ghosting for viewers without glasses,” ACM Trans. Graph.32(3), 1–10 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) (1)

J. E. Slagsvold, “Pulfrich pendulum phenomenon in patients with a history of acute optic neuritis,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)56(5), 817–826 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. (1)

A. Lit and A. Hyman, “The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereophenomenon as a function of distance of observation,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.28(11), 564–580 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. M. Scotcher, D. A. H. Laidlaw, C. R. Canning, M. J. Weal, and R. A. Harrad, “Pulfrich’s phenomenon in unilateral cataract,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.81(12), 1050–1055 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brain (1)

D. Rushton, “Use of the Pulfrich pendulum for detecting abnormal delay in the visual pathway in multiple sclerosis,” Brain98(2), 283–296 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Displays (2)

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2–3), 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2), 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

M. T. Pourazad, P. Nasiopoulos, and R. K. Ward, “An H.264-based scheme for 2D to 3D video conversion,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron.55(2), 742–748 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol.1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Lambooij, M. Fortuin, I. Heynderickx, and W. IJsselsteijn, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: A review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.53(3), 030201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Vis. (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis.8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chang, M. D. Ke, C. C. Lin, and Y. M. Chen, “A novel high brightness parallax barrier stereoscopy technology using a reflective crown grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.50(6), 1610–1616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

J. Ross, “Stereopsis by binocular delay,” Nature248(446), 363–364 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Morgan and R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpolation in human spatial vision,” Nature299(5883), 553–555 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naturwissenschaften (1)

C. Pulfrich, “Die Stereoskopie im Dienste der isochromen und heterochromen Photometrie,” Naturwissenschaften10(35), 751–761 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “Image distortion correction for lenticula misalignment in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng.45(1), 017007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Perception (1)

M. J. Morgan and P. Thompson, “Apparent motion and the Pulfrich effect,” Perception4(1), 3–18 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying 3 dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, “Neural mechanisms underlying binocular fusion and stereopsis: position vs. phase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.94(10), 5438–5443 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, R. Renaud, and N. Hur, “Effect of disparity and motion on visual comfort of stereoscopic images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 94–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Jacobs and R. Karpf, “Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles for mobile devices,” Proc. SPIE8304, 830406-1–830406-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (3)

D. C. Burr and J. Ross, “How does binocular delay give information about depth?” Vision Res.19(5), 523–532 (1979).
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M. J. Morgan, “Perception of continuity in stroboscopic motion: A temporal frequency analysis,” Vision Res.19(5), 491–500 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. E. Brigham, J. C. Schultz, and B. L. Weaver, “Stereoscopic 3D liquid crystal display apparatus with scanning backlight,” U.S. Patent 2008/0084519 A1 (Apr. 10, 2008).

L. Richard, Gregory, “Seeing brightness and movement,” in Handbook of Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing, 5th ed. (Princeton University Press, 1997).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The structure of attaching a single-sided micro-prism film on the panel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of light distribution with shading parallax (a) bright region; (b) dark region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of optical path of the micro-prism film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of brightness of the stereo display system with shading parallax (Simulation).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The prism surface structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Real brightness change with shading parallax.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distribution of brightness of the stereo display system by measuring the shading parallax.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Parallactic brightness difference in the real shooting.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Likert’s 6-point Questionnaire

Tables Icon

Table 2 Statistical Analyses of the Questionnaire.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ o = sin 1 { nsin[ 90° sin 1 ( sin θ i n )α ] }
logE=log( E Brightness / E Dark )

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