Abstract

We present an experimental realization of coherent diffraction imaging in reflection geometry illuminating the sample with a laser driven high harmonic generation (HHG) based XUV source. After recording the diffraction pattern in reflection geometry, the data must be corrected before the image can be reconstructed with a hybrid-input-output (HIO) algorithm. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of sources of spoiling the reconstructed image due to the nonlinear momentum transfer, errors in estimating the angle of incidence on the sample, and distortions by placing the image off center in the computation grid. Finally we provide guidelines for the necessary parameters to realize a satisfactory reconstruction within a spatial resolution in the range of one micron for an imaging scheme with a numerical aperture NA < 0.03.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a personal tour,” Appl. Opt.52(1), 45–56 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express19(23), 22470–22479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. Marathe, S. S. Kim, S. N. Kim, C. Kim, H. C. Kang, P. V. Nickles, and D. Y. Noh, “Coherent diffraction surface imaging in reflection geometry,” Opt. Express18(7), 7253–7262 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Szoke, H. He, M. R. Howells, H. Padmore, R. Rosen, J. C. H. Spence, and U. Weierstall, “Coherent X-ray diffractive imaging: applications and limitations,” Opt. Express11(19), 2344–2353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. E.

Amirbekian, B.

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A.

Baines, S. B.

Bajt, S.

A. V. Martin, F. Wang, N. D. Loh, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Hantke, G. van der Schot, C. Y. Hampton, R. G. Sierra, A. Aquila, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, N. Coppola, S. W. Epp, B. Erk, H. Fleckenstein, L. Foucar, M. Frank, H. Graafsma, L. Gumprecht, A. Hartmann, R. Hartmann, G. Hauser, H. Hirsemann, P. Holl, S. Kassemeyer, N. Kimmel, M. Liang, L. Lomb, S. Marchesini, K. Nass, E. Pedersoli, C. Reich, D. Rolles, B. Rudek, A. Rudenko, J. Schulz, R. L. Shoeman, H. Soltau, D. Starodub, J. Steinbrener, F. Stellato, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, G. Weidenspointner, T. A. White, C. B. Wunderer, A. Barty, I. Schlichting, M. J. Bogan, and H. N. Chapman, “Noise-robust coherent diffractive imaging with a single diffraction pattern,” Opt. Express20(15), 16650–16661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balaur, E.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barthelmess, M.

Barty, A.

A. V. Martin, F. Wang, N. D. Loh, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Hantke, G. van der Schot, C. Y. Hampton, R. G. Sierra, A. Aquila, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, N. Coppola, S. W. Epp, B. Erk, H. Fleckenstein, L. Foucar, M. Frank, H. Graafsma, L. Gumprecht, A. Hartmann, R. Hartmann, G. Hauser, H. Hirsemann, P. Holl, S. Kassemeyer, N. Kimmel, M. Liang, L. Lomb, S. Marchesini, K. Nass, E. Pedersoli, C. Reich, D. Rolles, B. Rudek, A. Rudenko, J. Schulz, R. L. Shoeman, H. Soltau, D. Starodub, J. Steinbrener, F. Stellato, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, G. Weidenspointner, T. A. White, C. B. Wunderer, A. Barty, I. Schlichting, M. J. Bogan, and H. N. Chapman, “Noise-robust coherent diffractive imaging with a single diffraction pattern,” Opt. Express20(15), 16650–16661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beetz, T.

Benner, W. H.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berry, A.

Bogan, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogan, M. J.

Bostedt, C.

Boutet, S.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bozek, J. D.

Burmeister, F.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cadenazzi, G. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Caleman, C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

A. V. Martin, F. Wang, N. D. Loh, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Hantke, G. van der Schot, C. Y. Hampton, R. G. Sierra, A. Aquila, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, N. Coppola, S. W. Epp, B. Erk, H. Fleckenstein, L. Foucar, M. Frank, H. Graafsma, L. Gumprecht, A. Hartmann, R. Hartmann, G. Hauser, H. Hirsemann, P. Holl, S. Kassemeyer, N. Kimmel, M. Liang, L. Lomb, S. Marchesini, K. Nass, E. Pedersoli, C. Reich, D. Rolles, B. Rudek, A. Rudenko, J. Schulz, R. L. Shoeman, H. Soltau, D. Starodub, J. Steinbrener, F. Stellato, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, G. Weidenspointner, T. A. White, C. B. Wunderer, A. Barty, I. Schlichting, M. J. Bogan, and H. N. Chapman, “Noise-robust coherent diffractive imaging with a single diffraction pattern,” Opt. Express20(15), 16650–16661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Szoke, H. He, M. R. Howells, H. Padmore, R. Rosen, J. C. H. Spence, and U. Weierstall, “Coherent X-ray diffractive imaging: applications and limitations,” Opt. Express11(19), 2344–2353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A15(6), 1662–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express19(23), 22470–22479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipperfield, L.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, N.

Crimmins, T. R.

Cui, C.

Dao, L. V.

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Demmler, S.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dilanian, R. A.

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duesterer, S.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dusterer, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ekeberg, T.

Epp, S. W.

Erk, B.

Fahimian, B. P.

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Fleckenstein, H.

Foucar, L.

Frank, M.

A. V. Martin, F. Wang, N. D. Loh, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Hantke, G. van der Schot, C. Y. Hampton, R. G. Sierra, A. Aquila, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, N. Coppola, S. W. Epp, B. Erk, H. Fleckenstein, L. Foucar, M. Frank, H. Graafsma, L. Gumprecht, A. Hartmann, R. Hartmann, G. Hauser, H. Hirsemann, P. Holl, S. Kassemeyer, N. Kimmel, M. Liang, L. Lomb, S. Marchesini, K. Nass, E. Pedersoli, C. Reich, D. Rolles, B. Rudek, A. Rudenko, J. Schulz, R. L. Shoeman, H. Soltau, D. Starodub, J. Steinbrener, F. Stellato, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, G. Weidenspointner, T. A. White, C. B. Wunderer, A. Barty, I. Schlichting, M. J. Bogan, and H. N. Chapman, “Noise-robust coherent diffractive imaging with a single diffraction pattern,” Opt. Express20(15), 16650–16661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graafsma, H.

Gumprecht, L.

Hädrich, S.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hajdu, J.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hampton, C. Y.

Hannaford, P.

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hantke, M.

Hartmann, A.

Hartmann, R.

Hau-Riege, S. P.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Szoke, H. He, M. R. Howells, H. Padmore, R. Rosen, J. C. H. Spence, and U. Weierstall, “Coherent X-ray diffractive imaging: applications and limitations,” Opt. Express11(19), 2344–2353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauser, G.

He, H.

Henderson, C. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirsemann, H.

Hodgson, K. O.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoener, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holl, P.

Holsztynski, W.

Holzner, C.

Howells, M. R.

Huldt, G.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwan, B.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, C.

Jiang, H.

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

T. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Strzalka, L. Ocola, and J. Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent X-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 588–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. C.

Kapteyn, H. C.

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express19(23), 22470–22479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kassemeyer, S.

Kim, C.

Kim, S. N.

Kim, S. S.

Kimmel, N.

Krebs, M.

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D. J. Vine, D. Pelliccia, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, A. Berry, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Simultaneous X-ray fluorescence and ptychographic microscopy of Cyclotella meneghiniana,” Opt. Express20(16), 18287–18296 (2012).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
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B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
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K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
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J. Miao, R. L. Sandberg, and C. Song, “Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 399–410 (2012).
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K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
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R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayre, D.

Schlichting, I.

Schlotter, W. F.

Schneider, J.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, J.

Seaberg, M. D.

Seibert, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seibert, M. M.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoeman, R. L.

Sierra, R. G.

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soltau, H.

Song, C.

J. Miao, R. L. Sandberg, and C. Song, “Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 399–410 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spence, J. C.

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Szoke, H. He, M. R. Howells, H. Padmore, R. Rosen, J. C. H. Spence, and U. Weierstall, “Coherent X-ray diffractive imaging: applications and limitations,” Opt. Express11(19), 2344–2353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiller, E.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Starodub, D.

Steinbrener, J.

Stellato, F.

Strueder, L.

Strzalka, J.

T. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Strzalka, L. Ocola, and J. Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent X-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 588–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

T. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Strzalka, L. Ocola, and J. Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent X-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 588–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Szoke, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Szoke, H. He, M. R. Howells, H. Padmore, R. Rosen, J. C. H. Spence, and U. Weierstall, “Coherent X-ray diffractive imaging: applications and limitations,” Opt. Express11(19), 2344–2353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamanoi, F.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teichmann, S.

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Timneanu, N.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, E. L.

Treusch, R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Truesch, R.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tschentscher, T.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

Urano, J.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Schot, G.

van der Spoel, D.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vine, D. J.

D. J. Vine, D. Pelliccia, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, A. Berry, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Simultaneous X-ray fluorescence and ptychographic microscopy of Cyclotella meneghiniana,” Opt. Express20(16), 18287–18296 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

Wachulak, P. W.

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Wang, J.

T. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Strzalka, L. Ocola, and J. Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent X-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 588–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weidenspointner, G.

Weierstall, U.

White, T. A.

Whitehead, L. W.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woods, B.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woods, B. W.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wunderer, C. B.

Xu, R.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaïr, A.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Miao, R. L. Sandberg, and C. Song, “Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 399–410 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Strzalka, L. Ocola, and J. Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent X-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 588–590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. London, E. Ploenjes-Palm, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. Seibert, F. Maia, R. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

A. V. Martin, F. Wang, N. D. Loh, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Hantke, G. van der Schot, C. Y. Hampton, R. G. Sierra, A. Aquila, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, N. Coppola, S. W. Epp, B. Erk, H. Fleckenstein, L. Foucar, M. Frank, H. Graafsma, L. Gumprecht, A. Hartmann, R. Hartmann, G. Hauser, H. Hirsemann, P. Holl, S. Kassemeyer, N. Kimmel, M. Liang, L. Lomb, S. Marchesini, K. Nass, E. Pedersoli, C. Reich, D. Rolles, B. Rudek, A. Rudenko, J. Schulz, R. L. Shoeman, H. Soltau, D. Starodub, J. Steinbrener, F. Stellato, L. Strueder, J. Ullrich, G. Weidenspointner, T. A. White, C. B. Wunderer, A. Barty, I. Schlichting, M. J. Bogan, and H. N. Chapman, “Noise-robust coherent diffractive imaging with a single diffraction pattern,” Opt. Express20(15), 16650–16661 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, D. Pelliccia, C. Holzner, S. B. Baines, A. Berry, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Simultaneous X-ray fluorescence and ptychographic microscopy of Cyclotella meneghiniana,” Opt. Express20(16), 18287–18296 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Szoke, H. He, M. R. Howells, H. Padmore, R. Rosen, J. C. H. Spence, and U. Weierstall, “Coherent X-ray diffractive imaging: applications and limitations,” Opt. Express11(19), 2344–2353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express19(23), 22470–22479 (2011).
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S. Marathe, S. S. Kim, S. N. Kim, C. Kim, H. C. Kang, P. V. Nickles, and D. Y. Noh, “Coherent diffraction surface imaging in reflection geometry,” Opt. Express18(7), 7253–7262 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Ch. Spielmann, M. Zürch, “Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Erzeugung einer schmalbandigen, kurzwelligen, kohärenten Laserstrahlung”, patent pending DE102012022961.5 (2012).

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, 1999), Chap. 9.

Ch. Spielmann, M. Zürch, “Verfahren zur Auswertung von durch schmalbandige, kurzwellige, kohärente Laserstrahlung erzeugten Streubildern von Objekten”, patent pending DE102012022966.6 (2012).

M. Zürch, S. Foertsch, M. Matzas, K. Pachmann, R. Kuth, and Ch. Spielmann, “Fast Method for Classification Based on Coherent High Resolution XUV Scatter Images of Biologic Specimen,” presented at the 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry Annual Meeting, Houston, Texas, USA, 28 Jul.-1 Aug. 2013.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of the CDI experiment. The ultrafast infrared laser beam enters the vacuum chamber on the right hand side and is focused into a gas jet for HHG. After blocking the fundamental laser light with thin metal filters the XUV radiation is refocused with a toroidal mirror. With a grating and a pinhole (PH) a single harmonic line can be selected. The light scattered off the sample is detected with an XUV sensitive CCD camera (CAM).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical normalized HHG spectra using argon (blue) or neon (red) as target gas. The number of photons using neon is roughly 5 times lower compared to the yield from argon. The inset shows the signal at the plane of the pinhole using argon. (b) The focal spot size in the pinhole plane is less than 40µm (FWHM). The resolution is limited by the pixel size.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured Airy pattern in the far field 43cm behind the pinhole. Imperfections are induced by aberrations from the toroidal mirror. (b) By fitting (red line) an Airy pattern to a lineout of the measured data (position indicated by the white line in (a), the wavelength can be determined to 42.6nm, which fits well to reference measurements with a calibrated spectrometer. All plots have a logarithmic intensity scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Image of the object taken with an optical microscope. The characters “V 20” are etched from a 30nm thick gold layer on silicon. (b) The measured raw diffraction pattern on a logarithmic scale. To increase the dynamic range, the image is composed of seven different images with different exposure times in the range of 3s to 192s. The axes for q x and q y are explained in detail in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry and definition of axes as used in the experiment. The incident beam k i is scattered from the sample. In the detector plane the intensities are measured in the reciprocal space which is an interception with the Ewald’s sphere (a slice is indicated by the dashed line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The momentum transfer q x mapping on the detector for the presented geometry shows slight non-orthogonal mapping across the detector plane. E.g. q x 0 - indicated by the dotted line - describes a curve on the detector. The momentum transfers q y and q z shown in (b) and (c) respectively are linear, as is necessary for a planar image reconstruction. It is assumed that the specular reflection ( q x 0 , q y 0 ) is centered on the detector.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The support function S as real space constraint (blue and yellow correspond to a 0 and 1, respectively) which was experimentally retrieved from a single reconstruction run with ψ=22° from the measured diffraction pattern alone. The contour of the object, cf. Figure 4(a), is retrieved and then horizontally mirrored. The slightly different axes scaling is due to the weak nonlinear mapping of q x . While the left part shows the computation grid, we provide the interesting area enlarged on the right. The scale bar for both corresponds to 20µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffraction pattern generated out of the measured raw diffraction pattern, see Fig. 4(b), for ψ=22° . The q x and q y momentum transfer scaling is slightly different due to the nonlinear scaling of q x . From this diffraction pattern the support shown in Fig. 7 was reconstructed. Note that the beamstop was not perfectly centered on the specular reflection point, thus the beamstop region is not exactly centered at q x 0 . The diffraction patterns were centered on the computation space by placing symmetric features of the pattern with respect to the center.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reconstruction results for different assumed values of the angle of incidence ψ. For convenience, all retrieved images were rotated by 90° (axis shown at ψ=22° ) and cropped of residual whitespace around the object. The scale bar corresponds to 20µm and is strictly speaking only correct for ψ=22° . Each frame shows |ρ| averaged over ten reconstruction runs with the fixed support shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Amplitude |ρ| obtained by averaging over ten independent reconstruction runs as a function of the position of the diffraction pattern. Between the different images the diffraction pattern has been shifted by Δx and Δy pixels in the computation space, which corresponds to a shift in q x and q y respectively. Perfect centering (i.e. Δx=Δy=0 ) was defined by placing symmetric features of the diffraction pattern on the computation grid with respect to the center. The scale bar corresponds to 20µm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The logarithmic reconstruction error Γ is shown in false colors. For the optimum centering the highest amount of signal is mapped onto the support, whereas Γ continuously increases the further the diffraction pattern is shifted off center. The panels correspond to those in Fig. 10.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Complex real space ρ in an amplitude-phase plot for the best reconstruction assuming ψ=22° and Δx=Δy=0 . The brightness and hue indicate the amplitude and phase respectively. The scale bar is 20µm. For convenience the real space was horizontally mirrored allowing for a better comparison with the microscopic image, cf. Figure 4(a). (b) The diffraction pattern used for this reconstruction is the same as in Fig. 8 but with the same intensity scaling as (c) which is |FT{ρ} | 2 . (d) The phase retrieval function PRTF represents the average over ten reconstructions with ψ=22° and Δx=Δy=0 . A magnitude above 0.5 indicates that the achieved resolution is not limited by noise. Note that the PRTF for q<0.3× 10 3 n m 1 is not defined due to the beamstop.

Equations (5)

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q x = 2π λ [ cos( α f )cos(2 θ f )cos( α i ) ]
q y = 2π λ cos( α f )cos(2 θ f )
q z = 2π λ [ sin( α i )+sin( α f ) ]
Γ= ( xS yS | ρ | 2 xS yS | ρ | 2 ) 1 2
PRTF(q)= |<FT{ρ}>| I(q) | I(q)0 = |<G(q)exp(i ϕ 0 )>| I(q) | I(q)0

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