Abstract

Temperature dependent measurements with a compact fiber coupled sensor for trace gas detection in the near-infrared based on tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy are presented. The temperature effects on the sensor have been investigated in a range from T = −41°C to T = 107°C, in particular the influence on the resonance frequency and the Q-factor of the micro tuning fork. The refined sensor head contains a combination of a silicon tuning fork and an acoustic off-beam resonator and permits methane detection with a detection limit of S = (3.85 ± 0.01) ppm. The functional capability of a numerical model for the optimization of acoustic off-beam resonators in COMSOL Multiphysics® is presented.

© 2013 OSA

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  26. H. Yi, W. Chen, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, and X. Gao, “T-shape microresonator-based high sensitivity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Opt. Express20(8), 9187–9196 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Effective Utilization of Quantum-Cascade Distributed-Feedback Lasers in Absorption Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.39(24), 4425–4430 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

M. Köhring, U. Willer, S. Böttger, A. Pohlkötter, and W. Schade, “Fiber Coupled Ozone Sensor Based on Tuning Fork Enhanced Interferometric Photoacoustic Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1566–1572 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yi, W. Chen, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, and X. Gao, “T-shape microresonator-based high sensitivity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Opt. Express20(8), 9187–9196 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. Köhring, A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, M. Angelmahr, and W. Schade, “Tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy: a new method for trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 133–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: Optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hopcroft, W. D. Nix, and T. W. Kenny, “What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 229–238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. Qin and R. Reifenberger, “Calibrating a tuning fork for use as a scanning probe microscope force sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(6), 063704 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Grossel, V. Zeninari, L. Joly, B. Parvitte, D. Courtois, and G. Durry, “New improvements in methane detection using a Helmholtz resonant photoacoustic laser sensor: A comparison between near-IR diode lasers and mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.63(5), 1021–1028 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

U. Gysin, S. Rast, P. Ruff, E. Meyer, D. Lee, P. Vettiger, and C. Gerber, “Temperature dependence of the force sensitivity of silicon cantilevers,” Phys. Rev. B69(4), 045403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. França and A. Blouin, “All-optical measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio in silicon wafers by means of vibration modes,” Meas. Sci. Technol.15(5), 859–868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

N. Ono, K. Kitamura, K. Nakajima, and Y. Shimanuki, “Measurement of Young's Modulus of Silicon Single Crystal at High Temperature and Its Dependency on Boron Concentration Using the Flexural Vibration Method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 2A), 368–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Effective Utilization of Quantum-Cascade Distributed-Feedback Lasers in Absorption Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.39(24), 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G. Stemme, “Resonant silicon sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng.1(2), 113–125 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. L. Nandanpawar and S. Rajagopalan, “Wachtman’s equation and temperature dependence of bulk moduli in solids,” J. Appl. Phys.49(7), 3976 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature Dependence of the Elastic Constants,” Phys. Rev. B2(10), 3952–3958 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. E. Newell, “Miniaturization of Tuning Forks,” Science161(3848), 1320–1326 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

J. J. Wortman and R. A. Evans, “Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson's Ratio in Silicon and Germanium,” J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 153–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

J. B. Wachtman, W. E. Tefft, D. G. Lam, and C. S. Apstein, “Exponential Temperature Dependence of Young's Modulus for Several Oxides,” Phys. Rev.122(6), 1754–1759 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Angelmahr, M.

M. Köhring, A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, M. Angelmahr, and W. Schade, “Tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy: a new method for trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 133–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Apstein, C. S.

J. B. Wachtman, W. E. Tefft, D. G. Lam, and C. S. Apstein, “Exponential Temperature Dependence of Young's Modulus for Several Oxides,” Phys. Rev.122(6), 1754–1759 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blouin, A.

D. R. França and A. Blouin, “All-optical measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio in silicon wafers by means of vibration modes,” Meas. Sci. Technol.15(5), 859–868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Böttger, S.

M. Köhring, U. Willer, S. Böttger, A. Pohlkötter, and W. Schade, “Fiber Coupled Ozone Sensor Based on Tuning Fork Enhanced Interferometric Photoacoustic Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1566–1572 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Böttger, M. Köhring, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Off-Beam Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with LEDs,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

H. Yi, W. Chen, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, and X. Gao, “T-shape microresonator-based high sensitivity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Opt. Express20(8), 9187–9196 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: Optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, D.

A. Grossel, V. Zeninari, L. Joly, B. Parvitte, D. Courtois, and G. Durry, “New improvements in methane detection using a Helmholtz resonant photoacoustic laser sensor: A comparison between near-IR diode lasers and mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.63(5), 1021–1028 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: Optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durry, G.

A. Grossel, V. Zeninari, L. Joly, B. Parvitte, D. Courtois, and G. Durry, “New improvements in methane detection using a Helmholtz resonant photoacoustic laser sensor: A comparison between near-IR diode lasers and mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.63(5), 1021–1028 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

H. Yi, W. Chen, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, and X. Gao, “T-shape microresonator-based high sensitivity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Opt. Express20(8), 9187–9196 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: Optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
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Gerber, C.

U. Gysin, S. Rast, P. Ruff, E. Meyer, D. Lee, P. Vettiger, and C. Gerber, “Temperature dependence of the force sensitivity of silicon cantilevers,” Phys. Rev. B69(4), 045403 (2004).
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Gmachl, C.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Grossel, A.

A. Grossel, V. Zeninari, L. Joly, B. Parvitte, D. Courtois, and G. Durry, “New improvements in methane detection using a Helmholtz resonant photoacoustic laser sensor: A comparison between near-IR diode lasers and mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.63(5), 1021–1028 (2006).
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Guo, X.

Gysin, U.

U. Gysin, S. Rast, P. Ruff, E. Meyer, D. Lee, P. Vettiger, and C. Gerber, “Temperature dependence of the force sensitivity of silicon cantilevers,” Phys. Rev. B69(4), 045403 (2004).
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M. A. Hopcroft, W. D. Nix, and T. W. Kenny, “What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 229–238 (2010).
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Hutchinson, A. L.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Joly, L.

A. Grossel, V. Zeninari, L. Joly, B. Parvitte, D. Courtois, and G. Durry, “New improvements in methane detection using a Helmholtz resonant photoacoustic laser sensor: A comparison between near-IR diode lasers and mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.63(5), 1021–1028 (2006).
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M. A. Hopcroft, W. D. Nix, and T. W. Kenny, “What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 229–238 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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M. Köhring, A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, M. Angelmahr, and W. Schade, “Tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy: a new method for trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 133–139 (2011).
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S. Böttger, M. Köhring, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Off-Beam Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with LEDs,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

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K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: Optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(4), 043105 (2005).
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A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Lee, D.

U. Gysin, S. Rast, P. Ruff, E. Meyer, D. Lee, P. Vettiger, and C. Gerber, “Temperature dependence of the force sensitivity of silicon cantilevers,” Phys. Rev. B69(4), 045403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

H. Yi, W. Chen, S. Sun, K. Liu, T. Tan, and X. Gao, “T-shape microresonator-based high sensitivity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Opt. Express20(8), 9187–9196 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: Optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinovsky, A. L.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, E.

U. Gysin, S. Rast, P. Ruff, E. Meyer, D. Lee, P. Vettiger, and C. Gerber, “Temperature dependence of the force sensitivity of silicon cantilevers,” Phys. Rev. B69(4), 045403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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U. Gysin, S. Rast, P. Ruff, E. Meyer, D. Lee, P. Vettiger, and C. Gerber, “Temperature dependence of the force sensitivity of silicon cantilevers,” Phys. Rev. B69(4), 045403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: Optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103103 (2010).
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M. Köhring, U. Willer, S. Böttger, A. Pohlkötter, and W. Schade, “Fiber Coupled Ozone Sensor Based on Tuning Fork Enhanced Interferometric Photoacoustic Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1566–1572 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Köhring, A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, M. Angelmahr, and W. Schade, “Tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy: a new method for trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 133–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Böttger, M. Köhring, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Off-Beam Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with LEDs,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

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[CrossRef]

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A. Grossel, V. Zeninari, L. Joly, B. Parvitte, D. Courtois, and G. Durry, “New improvements in methane detection using a Helmholtz resonant photoacoustic laser sensor: A comparison between near-IR diode lasers and mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.63(5), 1021–1028 (2006).
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K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: Optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103103 (2010).
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K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

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[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Köhring, A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, M. Angelmahr, and W. Schade, “Tuning fork enhanced interferometric photoacoustic spectroscopy: a new method for trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 133–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Böttger, M. Köhring, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Off-Beam Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with LEDs,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Köhring, U. Willer, S. Böttger, A. Pohlkötter, and W. Schade, “Fiber Coupled Ozone Sensor Based on Tuning Fork Enhanced Interferometric Photoacoustic Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1566–1572 (2012).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature Dependence of the Elastic Constants,” Phys. Rev. B2(10), 3952–3958 (1970).
[CrossRef]

U. Gysin, S. Rast, P. Ruff, E. Meyer, D. Lee, P. Vettiger, and C. Gerber, “Temperature dependence of the force sensitivity of silicon cantilevers,” Phys. Rev. B69(4), 045403 (2004).
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K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, “Trace gas detection based on off-beam quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: Optimization and performance evaluation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(10), 103103 (2010).
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L. Dong, K. Liu, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Effect of Speed of Sound on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Trace Gas Sensor Performance,” CLEO:2011 - Laser Applications to Photonic Applications: OSA, paper CThCC5 (2011).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

3D-sketch of the sensing elements. A cube beam splitter with two prisms serves as interferometer for the silicon TF (grey). Three optical fibers with attached GRIN lenses enter the sensor from the lower left (light blue). For constructional reasons, the AR below the TF is rotated by 22.5° from the TF axis (ocher).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resonance curve of the free TF without AR. The inlet shows a sketch of the TF with the parameters: l = 6.8 mm, w = 710 µm, t = 400 µm, g = 380 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pressure field distribution for the 2D off-beam AR from the COMSOL Multiphysics® simulation. The pressure is depicted in false colors, reaching from high pressures (red) to low pressures (blue). The left part a) shows the overview, b) shows an enlarged image of the region around the sonic output.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The Q-factor of the silicon TF, measured in dependency of the sensor temperature is drawn as dots. The solid line represents the graph of a numerically adapted square root of a Lorentzian.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The resonance frequency of the silicon TF, measured in dependency of the sensor temperature is drawn as dots. The solid line represents the graph of a numerically adapted function described by Eq. (8).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calibration curve for methane in nitrogen. The inlet shows the related calibration graph (dots) with a linear fit as solid line.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of the temperature dependent calibration of the sensor.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c s = κ k B T m ,
L opt λ s 2 = c s 2f .
E= E 0 BT e ( T 0 /T ) ,
f r = 1 2π k m eff =1.015 w 2πl² E ρ ,
f r silicon = 1.015w 2πl² E 0 BT e ( T 0 /T ) ρ =A E 0 BT e ( T 0 /T ) ,
A= A drive / ( ω 0 2 ω 2 ) 2 + (2γω) 2 ,
ϕ=arctan( 2γω ω 0 2 ω 0 ).
f r TF =k[ d+carctan( b( T+F ) ) ]+( 1k )A E 0 BT e ( T 0 /T ) .

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