Abstract

We investigate the polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) effect of zero padding OFDM (ZP-OFDM) in direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) systems. We first study the conventional equalization method for ZP-OFDM. Then an equalization method based on sorted QR decomposition is proposed to further improve the performance. It is found that the performance improvement of ZP-OFDM is due to the frequency domain oversampling (FDO) induced inter-carrier interference (ICI). Numerical simulation results show that compared with cyclic prefix OFDM (CP-OFDM), ZP-OFDM has a significantly higher tolerance to PMD in DDO-OFDM systems when the channel spectral nulls occur at certain differential group delay (DGD) values.

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References

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  1. W. Shieh and I. B. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. New York: Academic, 2010.
  2. W. Shieh, Q. Yang, and Y. Ma, “107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express16(9), 6378–6386 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. W.-R. Peng, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “Transmission of a 214-Gb/s single-polarization direct-detection optical OFDM superchannel over 720-km standard single mode fiber with EDFA-only amplification,” European Conference on Optical Communications, Paper PDP 2.5.Turin, Italy (2010).
  5. W.-R. Peng, I. Morita, H. Takahashi, and T. Tsuritani, “Transmission of High-Speed (>100 Gb/s) Direct-Detection Optical OFDM Superchannel,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(12), 2025–2034 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
  7. N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, and D. Qian, “System Outage Probability Due to PMD in High-Speed Optical OFDM Transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(14), 2118–2127 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, “Impact of PMD in single-receiver and polarization-diverse direct-detection optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(14), 2792–2799 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Mayrock and H. Haunstein, “PMD tolerant direct-detection optical OFDM System”, European Conference on Optical Communications, Paper Tu.5.2.5, Berlin, Germany (2007).
  10. B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G. B. Giannakis, M. de Courville, and O. Duhaamel, “Cyclic prefixing or zero padding for wireless multicarrier transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun.50(12), 2136–2148 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. OptiSystem Version 10.0 Available: http://www.optiwave.com/ .

2012 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Tang, “Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(12), 919–921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G. B. Giannakis, M. de Courville, and O. Duhaamel, “Cyclic prefixing or zero padding for wireless multicarrier transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun.50(12), 2136–2148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J.

Chi, S.

Cvijetic, N.

de Courville, M.

B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G. B. Giannakis, M. de Courville, and O. Duhaamel, “Cyclic prefixing or zero padding for wireless multicarrier transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun.50(12), 2136–2148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duhaamel, O.

B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G. B. Giannakis, M. de Courville, and O. Duhaamel, “Cyclic prefixing or zero padding for wireless multicarrier transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun.50(12), 2136–2148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giannakis, G. B.

B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G. B. Giannakis, M. de Courville, and O. Duhaamel, “Cyclic prefixing or zero padding for wireless multicarrier transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun.50(12), 2136–2148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-T.

Lowery, A. J.

Ma, Y.

Morita, I.

Muquet, B.

B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G. B. Giannakis, M. de Courville, and O. Duhaamel, “Cyclic prefixing or zero padding for wireless multicarrier transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun.50(12), 2136–2148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.-R.

Qian, D.

Schmidt, B. J. C.

Shieh, W.

Takahashi, H.

Tang, Y.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Tang, “Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(12), 919–921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuritani, T.

Wang, C.-Y.

Wang, Z.

B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G. B. Giannakis, M. de Courville, and O. Duhaamel, “Cyclic prefixing or zero padding for wireless multicarrier transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun.50(12), 2136–2148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C.-C.

Wilson, S. G.

Yang, Q.

Yi, X.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Tang, “Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(12), 919–921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Tang, “Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(12), 919–921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G. B. Giannakis, M. de Courville, and O. Duhaamel, “Cyclic prefixing or zero padding for wireless multicarrier transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun.50(12), 2136–2148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

M. Mayrock and H. Haunstein, “PMD tolerant direct-detection optical OFDM System”, European Conference on Optical Communications, Paper Tu.5.2.5, Berlin, Germany (2007).

W. Shieh and I. B. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. New York: Academic, 2010.

W.-R. Peng, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “Transmission of a 214-Gb/s single-polarization direct-detection optical OFDM superchannel over 720-km standard single mode fiber with EDFA-only amplification,” European Conference on Optical Communications, Paper PDP 2.5.Turin, Italy (2010).

G. Golub and C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ, Press, 1996.

OptiSystem Version 10.0 Available: http://www.optiwave.com/ .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OFDM symbol frames for ZP-OFDM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of CP-(or ZP-)OFDM system subject to first-order PMD. S-to-P: serial-to-parallel, P-to-S: parallel-to-serial, PD: photodetector, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, DAC: digital-to-analog converter, ADC: analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) BER performance of CP-OFDM, ZP-OFDM and ZP-OFDM-sQR for several DGD values; (b)-(e) OFDM QPSK RF spectra at DGD values of (b) 0, (c) 15ps, (d) 20 ps, (e) 100ps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER performance at several DGD values versus Eb/N0 for ZP-OFDM with U = 68, 72 and 128.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BER performance of CP- OFDM, ZP-OFDM-sQR and ZP-OFDM with U = 68, 72 and 128 versus DGD when Eb/N0 is 30 dB.

Equations (10)

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x ˜ zp ( i )=H F zp S N ( i )+ H ISI F zp S N ( i1 )+ n ˜ p ( i )
x ˜ zp ( i )=H F zp S N ( i )+ n ˜ p ( i )
x ˜ U ( i )= x ˜ u ( i )+[ x ˜ l ( i ) 0 (2U-P)×1 ]=( H u +[ H l 0 (2U-P)×U ] ) s ˜ u ( i ) = H U s ˜ u ( i )= H U [ F N , 0 N×(U-N) ] H S N ( i )
X U ( i )= F U x ˜ U ( i )=Diag( h ˜ U ) F U [ F N , 0 N×(UN) ] H S N ( i )
S N ZP ( i )= [ Diag( h ˜ U ) F U [ F N , 0 N×(UN) ] H ] X U ( i )= [ M U ] X U ( i )
S N CP ( i )= [ Diag( h ˜ N ) ] 1 X N ( i )
X U ( i )= M U S N ( i )=QR S N ( i )
X ˜ U ( i )= Q H X U ( i )=R S N ( i )
X ˜ U k ( i )= r k,k S N k ( i )+ m=k+1 N r k,m S N m ( i )
S N k = X ˜ U k ( i ) m=k+1 N r k,m S N m ( i ) r k,k

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