Abstract

We experimentally compare the light trapping efficiency of dielectric and metallic backscattering patterns in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We compare devices with randomly patterned Ag back contacts that are covered with either flat or patterned aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) buffer layers and find the nanostructure at the AZO/a-Si:H interface is key to achieve efficient light trapping. Simulations show that purely dielectric scattering patterns with flat Ag and a patterned AZO/a-Si:H interface can outperform geometries in which the Ag is also patterned. The scattering from the dielectric patterns is due to geometrical Mie resonances in the AZO nanostructures. The optimized dielectric geometries avoid parasitic Ohmic losses due to plasmon resonances in the Ag, and open the way to a large number of new light trapping designs based on purely dielectric resonant light scattering.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, and D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells110, 49–57 (2013).

2012

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3, 692 (2012).

M. van Lare, F. Lenzmann, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Efficient Subwavelength Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Plasmonics6(1), 155–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Williamson, É. McClean, D. Leipold, D. Zerulla, and E. Runge, “The design of efficient surface-plasmon-enhanced ultra-thin polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized Spatial Correlations for Broadband Light Trapping Nanopatterns in High Efficiency Ultrathin Film a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, E. Verhagen, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant SPP modes supported by discrete metal nanoparticles on high-index substrates,” Opt. Express19(Suppl 2), A146–A156 (2011).

2010

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, and F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal backreflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic Devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16, 21793 (2008).

2007

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

Akimov, Y. A.

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Efficient Subwavelength Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Plasmonics6(1), 155–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized Spatial Correlations for Broadband Light Trapping Nanopatterns in High Efficiency Ultrathin Film a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic Devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, and F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F. J.

Beckers, T.

Bhattacharya, J.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal backreflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal backreflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bittkau, K.

Borg, H.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Böttler, W.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, and F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K. R.

Chakravarty, N.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal backreflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chanda, D.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charrière, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dalal, V.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal backreflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Despeisse, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Devilee, C.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörenkämper, M.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisele, C.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Escarré, J.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized Spatial Correlations for Broadband Light Trapping Nanopatterns in High Efficiency Ultrathin Film a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franken, R. H.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goris, M.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagemann, V.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F.-J.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, and F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heijna, M. C. R.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C.-M.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jovanov, V.

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, and D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells110, 49–57 (2013).

Knipp, D.

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, and D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells110, 49–57 (2013).

Koh, W. S.

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Efficient Subwavelength Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Plasmonics6(1), 155–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lare, M. C.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized Spatial Correlations for Broadband Light Trapping Nanopatterns in High Efficiency Ultrathin Film a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

Leipold, D.

A. Williamson, É. McClean, D. Leipold, D. Zerulla, and E. Runge, “The design of efficient surface-plasmon-enhanced ultra-thin polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lenzmann, F.

M. van Lare, F. Lenzmann, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, B.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal backreflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B. T.

Löffler, J.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magnus, P.

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, and D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells110, 49–57 (2013).

Mallick, S. B.

McClean, É.

A. Williamson, É. McClean, D. Leipold, D. Zerulla, and E. Runge, “The design of efficient surface-plasmon-enhanced ultra-thin polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, D.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mokkapati, S.

Moulin, E.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nebel, C. E.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paetzold, U. W.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, P.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peumans, P.

Planchoke, U.

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, and D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells110, 49–57 (2013).

Polman, A.

M. van Lare, F. Lenzmann, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3, 692 (2012).

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, E. Verhagen, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant SPP modes supported by discrete metal nanoparticles on high-index substrates,” Opt. Express19(Suppl 2), A146–A156 (2011).

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized Spatial Correlations for Broadband Light Trapping Nanopatterns in High Efficiency Ultrathin Film a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic Devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16, 21793 (2008).

Rath, J. K.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Rogers, J. A.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Runge, E.

A. Williamson, É. McClean, D. Leipold, D. Zerulla, and E. Runge, “The design of efficient surface-plasmon-enhanced ultra-thin polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schropp, R. E. I.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized Spatial Correlations for Broadband Light Trapping Nanopatterns in High Efficiency Ultrathin Film a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shir, D.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Söderström, K.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, T.

Soppe, W. J.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, P.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3, 692 (2012).

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, and D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells110, 49–57 (2013).

Stolk, R. L.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Aken, B. B.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Groep, J.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van der Werf, C. H. M.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Lare, M.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. van Lare, F. Lenzmann, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3, 692 (2012).

M. van Lare, F. Lenzmann, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized Spatial Correlations for Broadband Light Trapping Nanopatterns in High Efficiency Ultrathin Film a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wächter, C.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

Williamson, A.

A. Williamson, É. McClean, D. Leipold, D. Zerulla, and E. Runge, “The design of efficient surface-plasmon-enhanced ultra-thin polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zerulla, D.

A. Williamson, É. McClean, D. Leipold, D. Zerulla, and E. Runge, “The design of efficient surface-plasmon-enhanced ultra-thin polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Williamson, É. McClean, D. Leipold, D. Zerulla, and E. Runge, “The design of efficient surface-plasmon-enhanced ultra-thin polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. van Lare, F. Lenzmann, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Böttler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.

W. J. Soppe, H. Borg, B. B. Van Aken, C. Devilee, M. Dörenkämper, M. Goris, M. C. R. Heijna, J. Löffler, and P. Peeters, “Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.11(12), 10604–10609 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” J. Opt.14(2), 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized Spatial Correlations for Broadband Light Trapping Nanopatterns in High Efficiency Ultrathin Film a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3, 692 (2012).

Nat. Mater.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic Devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Plasmonics

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Efficient Subwavelength Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Plasmonics6(1), 155–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, and D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells110, 49–57 (2013).

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal backreflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

O. Isabella, A. Campa, M. C. R. Heijna, W. Soppe, R. Van Erven, R. H. Franken, H. Borg, and M. Zeman,S. Valencia, ed., “Diffraction Grating for Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells”, in Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar EnergyConference, ed. (Valencia, Spain, 2008), p 2320–2324.

C. f. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FIB cross sections of the different cell types: (a) Reference a-Si:H solar cell, composed of an Asahi U-type substrate covered with 200 nm Ag, 80 nm AZO, 350 nm a-Si:H and ITO. (b-d) Solar cells grown on top of: (b) a flat substrate, (c) Asahi substrate with 500 nm AZO, and (d) Asahi substrate with polished AZO. Scale bars: 500 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I-V curves for a-Si:H cells made on flat substrate (black), Asahi substrate with 500 nm AZO (blue), Asahi substrate with 80 nm AZO (green), and Asahi substrate with polished AZO (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) External quantum efficiency measurements on solar cells on a flat substrate (black), Asahi substrates with 80 nm rough AZO (green), 500 nm rough AZO (blue), and 500 nm polished AZO (red). (b) Simulated absorption in the a-Si:H layer of the same cell types (line colours correspond to those in (a)).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated absorption in the a-Si:H layer of a solar cell without roughness (black dashed, “flat”), with Asahi roughness in the Ag and AZO layer (blue, dashed, “Asahi ref.”), and with Asahi roughness in the Ag and flat AZO (continuous) with a thickness of 0 nm (blue), 100 nm (green), 140 nm (red), 180 nm (light blue), and 500 nm (purple). The insets show cartoons of the different geometries with flat AZO (grey: Ag; orange: AZO; green: a-Si:H); no AZO (top), AZO thinner than Ag roughness (center), AZO thicker than Ag roughness (bottom).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Simulated absorption in the a-Si:H layer of solar cells with only flat layers (black), periodically structured Ag and flat AZO (blue, “flat hemi”), periodically structured Ag and AZO (green, “Ag+AZO hemi”), flat Ag and periodically structured AZO (red, “AZO hemi”). The insets show (from top to bottom): flat cell, cell with Ag hemispheres, cell with Ag and AZO hemispheres, cell with AZO hemispheres and flat Ag.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated normalized scattering cross sections for AZO hemispheres on a non-absorbing AZO, inside non-absorbing a-Si:H, for radii of 150 nm (blue), 180 nm (green), 200 nm (red), 220 nm (light blue). The inside shows a cross section of the field intensity.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrical properties of the four types of solar cells

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