Abstract

A detailed mathematical model is presented for a submicron-sized cluster formation in a binary gas mixture flowing through a three-staged conical nozzle. By measuring the angular distribution of light scattered from the clusters, the size of CO2 clusters, produced in a supersonic expansion of the mixture gas of CO2(30%)/H2(70%) or CO2(10%)/He(90%), has been evaluated using the Mie scattering method. The mean sizes of CO2 clusters are estimated to be 0.28 ± 0.03 μm for CO2/H2 and 0.26 ± 0.04 μm for CO2/He, respectively. In addition, total gas density profiles in radial direction of the gas jet, measuring the phase shift of the light passing through the target by utilizing an interferometer, are found to be agreed with the numerical modeling within a factor of two. The dryness (= monomer/(monomer + cluster) ratio) in the targets is found to support the numerical modeling. The apparatus developed to evaluate the cluster-gas targets proved that our mathematical model of cluster formation is reliable enough for the binary gas mixture.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Y. Faenov, I. Y. Skebelv, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 164103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

X. Gao, X. Wang, B. Shim, A. V. Arefiev, R. Korzekwa, and M. C. Downer, “Characterization of cluster/monomer ratio in pulsed supersonic gas jets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 064101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, J. Tiggesbäumker, P.-G. Reinhard, P. M. Dinh, and E. Suraud, “Laser-driven nonlinear cluster dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 1793–1842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Y. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: Modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H.-Y. Kim, J. O. Sofo, D. Velegol, M. W. Cole, and G. Mukhopadhyay, “Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. A72, 053201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, and A. Y. Faenov, “On the generation of large clusters in forming gas-jet targets for lasers,” Tech. Phys.49, 388 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Álvarez, A. Rodero, and M. C. Quintero, “An abel inversion method for radially resolved measurements in the axial injection torch,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B52, 1665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E64, 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K. Y. Kim, S. J. McNaught, and H. M. Milchberg, “X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission induced by variable pulse-width irradiation of Ar and Kr clusters and droplets,” Phys. Rev. E62, R5931–R5934 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. Maroulis and A. J. Thakkar, “Polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of carbon dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys.93, 4164–4171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

W. J. Wiscombe, “Mie scattering calculations: Advances in technique and fast, vector-speed computer codes,” Ncar technical note 140+STR1979 (edited/revised 1996).

1912 (1)

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

Akahane, Y.

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K. Y. Kim, S. J. McNaught, and H. M. Milchberg, “X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission induced by variable pulse-width irradiation of Ar and Kr clusters and droplets,” Phys. Rev. E62, R5931–R5934 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Álvarez, R.

R. Álvarez, A. Rodero, and M. C. Quintero, “An abel inversion method for radially resolved measurements in the axial injection torch,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B52, 1665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aoyama, M.

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arefiev, A. V.

X. Gao, X. Wang, B. Shim, A. V. Arefiev, R. Korzekwa, and M. C. Downer, “Characterization of cluster/monomer ratio in pulsed supersonic gas jets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 064101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boldarev, A. S.

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Y. Faenov, I. Y. Skebelv, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 164103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Y. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: Modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, and A. Y. Faenov, “On the generation of large clusters in forming gas-jet targets for lasers,” Tech. Phys.49, 388 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, P. R.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulanov, S.

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bulanov, S. V.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. M.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

Cole, M. W.

H.-Y. Kim, J. O. Sofo, D. Velegol, M. W. Cole, and G. Mukhopadhyay, “Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. A72, 053201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, T. E.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daito, I.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dinh, P. M.

T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, J. Tiggesbäumker, P.-G. Reinhard, P. M. Dinh, and E. Suraud, “Laser-driven nonlinear cluster dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 1793–1842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

X. Gao, X. Wang, B. Shim, A. V. Arefiev, R. Korzekwa, and M. C. Downer, “Characterization of cluster/monomer ratio in pulsed supersonic gas jets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 064101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Esirkepov, T. Z.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faenov, A.

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Faenov, A. Y.

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Y. Faenov, I. Y. Skebelv, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 164103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Y. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: Modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, and A. Y. Faenov, “On the generation of large clusters in forming gas-jet targets for lasers,” Tech. Phys.49, 388 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K. Y. Kim, S. J. McNaught, and H. M. Milchberg, “X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission induced by variable pulse-width irradiation of Ar and Kr clusters and droplets,” Phys. Rev. E62, R5931–R5934 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fennel, T.

T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, J. Tiggesbäumker, P.-G. Reinhard, P. M. Dinh, and E. Suraud, “Laser-driven nonlinear cluster dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 1793–1842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Y. Faenov, I. Y. Skebelv, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 164103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
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[CrossRef]

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Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
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Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
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Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
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Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K. Y. Kim, S. J. McNaught, and H. M. Milchberg, “X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission induced by variable pulse-width irradiation of Ar and Kr clusters and droplets,” Phys. Rev. E62, R5931–R5934 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.

T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, J. Tiggesbäumker, P.-G. Reinhard, P. M. Dinh, and E. Suraud, “Laser-driven nonlinear cluster dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 1793–1842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E64, 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K. Y. Kim, S. J. McNaught, and H. M. Milchberg, “X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission induced by variable pulse-width irradiation of Ar and Kr clusters and droplets,” Phys. Rev. E62, R5931–R5934 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morishita, H.

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mukhopadhyay, G.

H.-Y. Kim, J. O. Sofo, D. Velegol, M. W. Cole, and G. Mukhopadhyay, “Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. A72, 053201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, Y.

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K. G.

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oda, K.

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, K.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parra, E.

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E64, 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K. Y. Kim, S. J. McNaught, and H. M. Milchberg, “X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission induced by variable pulse-width irradiation of Ar and Kr clusters and droplets,” Phys. Rev. E62, R5931–R5934 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T.

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T. A.

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Y. Faenov, I. Y. Skebelv, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 164103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pirozhkov, A.

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pirozhkov, A. S.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Álvarez, A. Rodero, and M. C. Quintero, “An abel inversion method for radially resolved measurements in the axial injection torch,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B52, 1665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, P.-G.

T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, J. Tiggesbäumker, P.-G. Reinhard, P. M. Dinh, and E. Suraud, “Laser-driven nonlinear cluster dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 1793–1842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodero, A.

R. Álvarez, A. Rodero, and M. C. Quintero, “An abel inversion method for radially resolved measurements in the axial injection torch,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B52, 1665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Y. Faenov, I. Y. Skebelv, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 164103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, Z. M.

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

Shim, B.

X. Gao, X. Wang, B. Shim, A. V. Arefiev, R. Korzekwa, and M. C. Downer, “Characterization of cluster/monomer ratio in pulsed supersonic gas jets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 064101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, T.

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Skebelv, I. Y.

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Y. Faenov, I. Y. Skebelv, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 164103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sofo, J. O.

H.-Y. Kim, J. O. Sofo, D. Velegol, M. W. Cole, and G. Mukhopadhyay, “Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. A72, 053201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suraud, E.

T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, J. Tiggesbäumker, P.-G. Reinhard, P. M. Dinh, and E. Suraud, “Laser-driven nonlinear cluster dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 1793–1842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, T.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tampo, M.

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
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G. Maroulis and A. J. Thakkar, “Polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of carbon dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys.93, 4164–4171 (1990).
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Tiggesbäumker, J.

T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, J. Tiggesbäumker, P.-G. Reinhard, P. M. Dinh, and E. Suraud, “Laser-driven nonlinear cluster dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 1793–1842 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, K.

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, H.

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Velegol, D.

H.-Y. Kim, J. O. Sofo, D. Velegol, M. W. Cole, and G. Mukhopadhyay, “Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. A72, 053201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. M.

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

Wang, X.

X. Gao, X. Wang, B. Shim, A. V. Arefiev, R. Korzekwa, and M. C. Downer, “Characterization of cluster/monomer ratio in pulsed supersonic gas jets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 064101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z. Y.

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

Wharton, K. B.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature398, 489–492 (1999).
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W. J. Wiscombe, “Mie scattering calculations: Advances in technique and fast, vector-speed computer codes,” Ncar technical note 140+STR1979 (edited/revised 1996).

Yamakawa, K.

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Y. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: Modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, K.

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, T.

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, W. C.

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

Yanovsky, V. P.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yogo, A.

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Y. Faenov, I. Y. Skebelv, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 164103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yogoa, A.

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

Zhang, L.

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

Zhao, J. R.

L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

Zweiback, J.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Fukuda, Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, K. Yamanaka, Y. Hironaka, H. Kishimura, H. Morishita, K. Kondo, and K. G. Nakamura, “Relativistic laser plasma from micron-sized argon clusters as a debris-free x-ray source for pulse x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5099–5101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jinno, Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, A. Yogo, M. Kanasaki, K. Kondo, A. Y. Faenov, I. Y. Skebelv, T. A. Pikuz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Characterization of submicron-sized CO2clusters formed with a supersonic expansion of a mixed-gas using a three-staged nozzle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 164103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Gao, X. Wang, B. Shim, A. V. Arefiev, R. Korzekwa, and M. C. Downer, “Characterization of cluster/monomer ratio in pulsed supersonic gas jets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 064101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. Maroulis and A. J. Thakkar, “Polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of carbon dioxide,” J. Chem. Phys.93, 4164–4171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ncar technical note 140+STR (1)

W. J. Wiscombe, “Mie scattering calculations: Advances in technique and fast, vector-speed computer codes,” Ncar technical note 140+STR1979 (edited/revised 1996).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H.-Y. Kim, J. O. Sofo, D. Velegol, M. W. Cole, and G. Mukhopadhyay, “Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. A72, 053201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K. Y. Kim, S. J. McNaught, and H. M. Milchberg, “X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission induced by variable pulse-width irradiation of Ar and Kr clusters and droplets,” Phys. Rev. E62, R5931–R5934 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E64, 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, M. Tampo, T. A. Pikuz, T. Nakamura, M. Kando, Y. Hayashi, A. Yogo, H. Sakaki, T. Kameshima, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, M. Mori, T. Z. Esirkepov, J. Koga, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. I. Magunov, T. Yamauchi, R. Kodama, P. R. Bolton, Y. Kato, T. Tajima, H. Daido, and S. V. Bulanov, “Energy increase in multi-MeV ion acceleration in the interaction of a short pulse laser with a cluster-gas target,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 165002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiat. Meas. (1)

Y. Fukuda, H. Sakaki, M. Kanasaki, A. Yogoa, S. Jinno, M. Tampo, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, Y. Hayashi, M. Kando, A. Pirozhkov, T. Shimomura, H. Kiriyama, S. Kurashima, T. Kamiya, K. Oda, T. Yamauchi, K. Kondo, and S. Bulanov, “Identification of high energy ions using backscattered particles in laser-driven ion acceleration with cluster-gas targets,” Radiat. Meas.50, 92–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Y. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: Modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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L. M. Chen, W. C. Yan, D. Z. Li, Z. D. Hu, L. Zhang, W. M. Wang, N. Hafz, J. Y. Mao, K. Huang, Y. Ma, J. R. Zhao, J. L. Ma, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, J. Gao, and J. Zhang, “Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target,” Sci. Rep.3, 1912 (2013).

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A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, and A. Y. Faenov, “On the generation of large clusters in forming gas-jet targets for lasers,” Tech. Phys.49, 388 (2004).
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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of spatial structure of a supersonic jet expanding to vacuum and density profiles at different distances from the nozzle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial structure of the supersonic CO2 jet (numerical results, initial pressure 20 bar).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Molecules and clusters concentration profiles for the mixture of 10% CO2 and 90% He, initial pressure 50 bar (numerical results).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatial distribution of the mean cluster size and the standard deviation for the 20 bar pure CO2 (upper pair of graphs) and for the 50 bar 10% CO2 + 90% He mixture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculation results obtained for mixtures of 30% CO2 with 70% H2 for different distances from the nozzle exit. Initial gas pressure is 60 bar.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculation results obtained for mixtures of 10% CO2 with 90% He for different distances from the nozzle exit. Initial gas pressure is 60 bar.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical design for measurements of particle sizes using Mie scattering and total gas densities using a Michelson-type interferometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic view of Abel inversion.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) The angular distributions of light scattered from the CO2 clusters at the radial position of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mm from the target center at 1 mm distance from the nozzle exit for the 60 bar 30% CO2 + 70% H2 mixture, respectively. (b) The lognormal size distributions are estimated from the angular distributions of the scattered light.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Normalized laser intensity taken with no cluster-gas target present and with the cluster-gas target source on.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

CO2 density of the cluster phase as a function of the radius from the target center axis at the distance z = 1 mm from the nozzle exit.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) The fringe shift image at the nozzle exit obtained by using the interferometer. The CO2/H2 mixture at 60 bar was used. The z axis means the distance from the nozzle orifice. The y axis refers to a direction transverse to the jet. (b) The planar phase shift derived from the fringe shift image. The maximum phase shift is 2.15π rad. (c) The gas density profile obtained as a function of the radius via Abel inversion. The radius means the distance from the center axis of the nozzle. (d),(e),(f),(g) The number densities of CO2 and H2 molecules at z = 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm, defined by interferometry (markers) and by numerical modeling (lines), respectively.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The variation of the dryness β for the radius from the center axis of the nozzle at z = 1 mm. The broken line is the values by the numerical modeling.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) The angular distributions of the light scattered from the CO2 clusters in 10% CO2 + 90% He mixture targets for the stagnation pressure of 60 bar. (b) The lognormal size distribution estimated from the angular distribution.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) CO2 density of the cluster phase as a function of the radius from the target center axis at the distance z = 1 mm from the nozzle orifice. (b) The number densities of CO2 and H2 molecules at z = 1.0 mm, defined by interferometry (markers) and by numerical modeling (lines), respectively. (c) The variation of the dryness β for the radius from the center axis of the nozzle at z = 1 mm. The broken line is the values by the numerical modeling.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dryness for various molar concentrations of the condensing component and initial pressures.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Clusters densities, 109 cm−3, for various molar concentrations of the condensing component and initial pressures.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Cluster radius, μm, for various molar concentrations of the condensing component and initial pressures.

Equations (32)

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ρ c = ϕ ρ , ρ i = ( 1 ϕ ) ρ .
ρ c g = β ρ c = β ϕ ρ , ρ c l = ( 1 β ) ρ c = ( 1 β ) ϕ ρ , ρ i = ( 1 ϕ ) ρ .
ρ t + div ( ρ v ) = 0 ,
ρ v t + div ( ρ v v ) = grad P ,
t ( ρ ε + ρ v 2 2 ) + div ( ρ v ( ε + v 2 2 ) ) = div P v ,
ρ Ω n t + div ( ρ v Ω n ) = I r * n + r ˙ n ρ Ω n 1 , n = 0 , 1 , 2 ,
ρ β t + div ( ρ v β ) = 4 3 π ρ l 0 I r * 3 ϕ 4 π ρ ρ l 0 r ˙ Ω 2 ϕ .
ρ Ω n = 0 r n f ( r , x , t ) d r .
1 β = 4 3 ρ l 0 π Ω 3 ϕ .
r * = 2 σ ( T ) ρ l 0 R T ln ( P c g / P s ( T ) ) .
I = 1 ρ l 0 2 σ ( T ) μ π N A ( P c g k T ) 2 exp ( 4 π σ ( T ) r * 2 3 k T ) .
r ˙ = P c g ρ l 0 2 π R T ( 1 T T s ( P c g ) ) .
P = P ( ρ , ε , β ) = ρ ε + ( 1 β ) L s γ β ( γ 1 ) 1 . T = P β Z ρ R ,
L s = H g H i .
ε = ( 1 ϕ ) ε i + ϕ ε c .
T c l = T s ( P c g ) ,
P i = P i ( ( 1 φ ) ρ , T ) ,
P c g = P c g ( φ β ρ , T ) ,
P i + P c g = P c l ( ρ l 0 , T c l ) ,
ε = ( 1 φ ) ε i ( ( 1 φ ) ρ , T ) + φ β ε c g ( φ β ρ , T ) + φ ( 1 β ) ε c l ( ρ l 0 , T c l )
< r > = Ω 1 / Ω 0 , S . D . < r > = ( Ω 2 / Ω 0 Ω 1 2 / Ω 0 2 ) 1 / 2 .
I ( θ ) I 0 = α x F ( x , θ ) N ( x ) ,
I t I 0 = exp ( α 1 x C ext ( x ) α N ( x ) ) ,
ε ( θ , r j ) = 1 π Δ y i = j N 1 I ( θ , y i + 1 ) I ( θ , y i ) ( i + 1 2 ) 2 + j 2 ,
α c l = N # α c g .
3 4 π n 2 1 n 2 + 2 = α c l n clus + α c g ρ c g + α i ρ i
= N # α c g ρ c l N # + α c g ρ c g + α i ρ i
= α c g ρ c l + α c g ρ c g + α i ρ i
= ( 1 β ) α c g ρ c + β α c g ρ c + α i ρ i
= α c g ρ c + α i ρ i ,
ρ c / ρ c 0 : ρ i / ρ i 0 = p c : p i ,
β = 1 ρ c l / ρ c .

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