Abstract

The 19th harmonic beam divergences from a Ti:sapphire laser generated using a gas jet and 10-mm-long hollow fibers with bore diameters of 300 and 200 μm were investigated. The beam quality factor M2 of the harmonic beam generated in a 300-μm hollow fiber was found to be better than the gas jet using the phase match including the atomic dipole phase induced by the short trajectory. On the other hand, a 200-μm hollow fiber was found to generate a more divergent beam with a larger M2 because of the long trajectory. The electron trajectory contributing to high harmonic generation was selected using the phase-matching process inside a short hollow fiber.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. F. Rogers, S. L. Stebbings, A. M. Paula, C. A. Froud, M. Praeger, B. Mills, J. Grant-Jacob, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “Spatiotemporal phase-matching in capillary high-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 806–812 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Igarashi, A. Makida, M. Ito, and T. Sekikawa, “Pulse compression of phase-matched high harmonic pulses from a time-delay compensated monochromator,” Opt. Express20(4), 3725–3732 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-4-3725 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft X-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B78(3-4), 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Quantum path distributions for high-order harmonics in rare gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A65(3), 031406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-hramonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A59(5), 4041–4044 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, “Compensation of optical path lengths in extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray monochromators for ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt.38(28), 6040–6049 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics:The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics:The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

Bierbaum, V. M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brocklesby, W. S.

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, C. G.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, F.

Frey, J. G.

Froud, C. A.

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Quantum path distributions for high-order harmonics in rare gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A65(3), 031406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant-Jacob, J.

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernández-García, C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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Igarashi, H.

Itatani, J.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-hramonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
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Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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Jaron-Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
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D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft X-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B78(3-4), 275–280 (2004).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
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Kataoka, Y.

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosuge, A.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
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M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
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L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leone, S. R.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics:The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L'Huillier, A.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics:The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Makida, A.

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-hramonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A59(5), 4041–4044 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mills, B.

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyamoto, N.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft X-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B78(3-4), 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft X-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B78(3-4), 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mücke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A59(5), 4041–4044 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-hramonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft X-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B78(3-4), 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-hramonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A59(5), 4041–4044 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Paula, A. M.

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Praeger, M.

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, E. T. F.

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salieres, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics:The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Samuels, D. A.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
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Sansone, G.

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Quantum path distributions for high-order harmonics in rare gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A65(3), 031406 (2002).
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M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scheer, M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

Seres, E.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seres, J.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

Stebbings, S. L.

Streli, C.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamaki, Y.

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A59(5), 4041–4044 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-hramonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(7), 1422–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A. J.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

Watanabe, S.

D. Yoshitomi, J. Nees, N. Miyamoto, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Phase-matched enhancements of high-harmonic soft X-rays by adaptive wave-front control with a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Phys. B78(3-4), 275–280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wobrauschek, P.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Souce of coherent kiloelectronvolt x-rays,” Nature433, 596 (2005).
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Yakovlev, V. S.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Beam profile at the 0th-order reflection from the 200-μm fiber at focus. Diffracted beam profiles of H19 generated in the 200-μm fiber measured at b) 0, c) 4.2, d) 6.5, and e) 12 cm from the focus point of the toroidal grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The beam radii of a) the fundamental and H19 beams b) from the gas jet, c) 300-μm fiber, and d) 200-μm fiber as a function of the distance from the focus. The solid lines show the fitting result of Eq. (1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

H19 coherence-length maps on the horizontal plane including the optical axis in the focal area at a pressure of a) 10, b) 25, c) 50, and d) 100 Torr, taking into account the short trajectory. The laser beam propagates from left to right with the fundamental beam waist located at the origin. The superimposed arrow indicates the H19 wave-vector direction at each position. The peak intensity of the laser beam is 2.0 × 1014 W/cm2 and the solid line is the contour peak intensity at 1.0 × 1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

H19 Coherence-length maps on the horizontal plane including the optical axis in the focal area at a pressure of a) 10, b) 25, c) 50, and d) 100 Torr, taking into account the long trajectory. The laser beam propagates from left to right with fundamental beam waist located at the origin. The superimposed arrow indicates the H19 wave-vector direction at each position. The peak intensity of the laser beam is 2.0 × 1014 W/cm2 and the solid line is the contour peak intensity 1.0 × 1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

H19 coherence-length maps on the horizontal plane including the optical axis in the focal area at a pressure of a) 10, b) 25, c) 50, and d) 100 Torr, taking into account the short trajectory. The laser beam propagates from left to right and the fundamental beam waist is located at the origin. The superimposed arrow indicates the H19 wave-vector direction at each position. The peak intensity of the laser beam is 1.2 × 1014 W/cm2 and the solid line is the contour peak intensity at 1.0 × 1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

H19 coherence-length maps on the horizontal plane including the optical axis in the focal area at a pressure of a) 10, b) 25, c) 50, and d) 100 Torr, taking into account the long trajectory. The laser beam propagates from left to right and the fundamental beam waist is located at the origin. The superimposed arrow indicates the H19 wave-vector direction at each position. The peak intensity of the laser beam is 1.2 × 1014 W/cm2 and the solid line is the contour peak intensity at 1.0 × 1014 W/cm2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Half-angle divergence and the M 2 factor of the fundamental and the H19 beams

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω( z )= ω 0 1+ ( zλ M 2 π ω 0 2 ) 2 ,
Θ= λ π ω 0 M 2 .
K( r,z )=αI( r,z ).
k q ( r,z )=q k 1 ( r,z )+K( r,z ),
δk( r,z )=| k q ( r,z )( q k 1 ( r,z )+K( r,z ) ) |.

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