Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the performance of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in simulcast radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems (RoF-DASs) where multiple remote antenna units (RAUs) are connected to one wireless local-area network (WLAN) access point (AP) with different-length fiber links. We also present an analytical model to evaluate the throughput of the systems in the presence of both the inter-RAU hidden-node problem and fiber-length difference effect. In the model, the unequal delay induced by different fiber length is involved both in the backoff stage and in the calculation of Ts and Tc, which are the period of time when the channel is sensed busy due to a successful transmission or a collision. The throughput performances of WLAN-RoF-DAS in both basic access and request to send/clear to send (RTS/CTS) exchange modes are evaluated with the help of the derived model.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Liu, N. Cvijetic, K. Sundaresan, M. Jiang, S. Rangarajan, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel in-building small-cell backhaul architecture for cost-efficient multi-operator multi-service coexistence,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2013, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2013, paper OTh4A.4.
  2. M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Proceedings of OFC2007, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2007, paper JThA81.
  3. N. Wei and I. B. Collings, “Indoor wireless networks of the future: adaptive network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(3), 130–137 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-Z. Wang, H.-L. Zhu, and N. J. Gomes, “Distributed antenna systems for mobile communications in high speed trains,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.30(4), 675–683 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Kalantarisabet and J. E. Mitchell, “MAC constraints on the distribution of 802.11 using optical fibre,” in Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wireless Technology, Manchester, United Kingdom, Sep.2006, 238–240.
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Das, M. Mjeku, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Effects on IEEE 802.11 MAC throughput in wireless LAN over fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(11), 3321–3328 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Kalantari-Sabet, M. Mjeku, N. J. Gomes, and J. E. Mitchell, “Performance impairments in single-mode radio-over-fiber systems due to MAC constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(15), 2540–2548 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Deronne, V. Moeyaert, and S. Bette, “Analysis of the MAC performances in 802.11g radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Ghent, Belgium, Nov. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Deronne, V. Moeyaert, and S. Bette, “Impact of the slottime parameter value on the MAC performances in IEEE 802.11 wireless systems using radio-over-fiber technology,” in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Enschede, Netherlands, Nov. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Bianchi, “Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.18(3), 535–547 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Tinnirello, S. Choi, and Y. Kim, “Revisit of RTS/CTS exchange in high speed IEEE 802.11 networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 2005 Int. Conf. World of Wireless, Mobile, Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Taormina, Italy, Jun. 2005, 240–248.
    [CrossRef]
  12. C.-G. Wang, B. Li, and L. Li, “A new collision resolution mechanism to enhance the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.53(4), 1235–1246 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Wang, P. H. J. Chong, and L. W. Yie, “Evaluation of performance on random back-off interval and multi-channel CSMA/CA protocols,” in Proceedings of TENCON 2009 -IEEE Region 10 Conference, 2009, pp. 1–5.
  14. N. Wattanamongkhol, W. Srichavengsup, S. Nakpeerayuth, and L. Wuttisiittikulkij, “Performance analysis of modified backoff algorithm in IEEE 802.11 networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE/IFIP International Conference in Central Asia on Internet, Tashkent, Sep.2007.
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Yu, S.-Y. Choi, and K.-H. Jang, “A novel hidden station detection mechanism in IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” IEEE Commun. Lett.10(8), 608–610 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F.-Y. Hung and I. Marsic, “Access delay analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF in the presence of hidden stations,” in Proceedings of GLOBECOM 2007, Washington, DC, United State, Nov. 2007.
  17. A. Pal and A. Nasipuri, “Performance analysis of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in presence of hidden stations under non-saturated conditions with infinite buffer in radio-over-fiber wireless LANs,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Workshop on Local & Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN), Chapel Hill, NC, Oct. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Mjeku and N. J. Gomes, “Analysis of the request to send/clear to send exchange in WLAN over fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(15), 2531–2539 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Kim and J. T. Lim, “Throughput analysis considering coupling effect in IEEE 802.11 networks with hidden stations,” IEEE Commun. Lett.13(3), 175–177 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

N. Wei and I. B. Collings, “Indoor wireless networks of the future: adaptive network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(3), 130–137 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-Z. Wang, H.-L. Zhu, and N. J. Gomes, “Distributed antenna systems for mobile communications in high speed trains,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.30(4), 675–683 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

T. Kim and J. T. Lim, “Throughput analysis considering coupling effect in IEEE 802.11 networks with hidden stations,” IEEE Commun. Lett.13(3), 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

Y.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Yu, S.-Y. Choi, and K.-H. Jang, “A novel hidden station detection mechanism in IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” IEEE Commun. Lett.10(8), 608–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C.-G. Wang, B. Li, and L. Li, “A new collision resolution mechanism to enhance the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.53(4), 1235–1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Bianchi, “Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.18(3), 535–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bianchi, G.

G. Bianchi, “Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.18(3), 535–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-Y.

Y.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Yu, S.-Y. Choi, and K.-H. Jang, “A novel hidden station detection mechanism in IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” IEEE Commun. Lett.10(8), 608–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Collings, I. B.

N. Wei and I. B. Collings, “Indoor wireless networks of the future: adaptive network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(3), 130–137 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Das, A.

Gomes, N. J.

Jang, K.-H.

Y.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Yu, S.-Y. Choi, and K.-H. Jang, “A novel hidden station detection mechanism in IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” IEEE Commun. Lett.10(8), 608–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalantari-Sabet, B.

Kim, T.

T. Kim and J. T. Lim, “Throughput analysis considering coupling effect in IEEE 802.11 networks with hidden stations,” IEEE Commun. Lett.13(3), 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Yu, S.-Y. Choi, and K.-H. Jang, “A novel hidden station detection mechanism in IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” IEEE Commun. Lett.10(8), 608–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

C.-G. Wang, B. Li, and L. Li, “A new collision resolution mechanism to enhance the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.53(4), 1235–1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

C.-G. Wang, B. Li, and L. Li, “A new collision resolution mechanism to enhance the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.53(4), 1235–1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. T.

T. Kim and J. T. Lim, “Throughput analysis considering coupling effect in IEEE 802.11 networks with hidden stations,” IEEE Commun. Lett.13(3), 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J. E.

Mjeku, M.

Nkansah, A.

Wang, C.-G.

C.-G. Wang, B. Li, and L. Li, “A new collision resolution mechanism to enhance the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.53(4), 1235–1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-Z.

J.-Z. Wang, H.-L. Zhu, and N. J. Gomes, “Distributed antenna systems for mobile communications in high speed trains,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.30(4), 675–683 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, N.

N. Wei and I. B. Collings, “Indoor wireless networks of the future: adaptive network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(3), 130–137 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.-Y.

Y.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Yu, S.-Y. Choi, and K.-H. Jang, “A novel hidden station detection mechanism in IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” IEEE Commun. Lett.10(8), 608–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.-L.

J.-Z. Wang, H.-L. Zhu, and N. J. Gomes, “Distributed antenna systems for mobile communications in high speed trains,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.30(4), 675–683 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (2)

Y.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Yu, S.-Y. Choi, and K.-H. Jang, “A novel hidden station detection mechanism in IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” IEEE Commun. Lett.10(8), 608–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim and J. T. Lim, “Throughput analysis considering coupling effect in IEEE 802.11 networks with hidden stations,” IEEE Commun. Lett.13(3), 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

N. Wei and I. B. Collings, “Indoor wireless networks of the future: adaptive network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(3), 130–137 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (2)

J.-Z. Wang, H.-L. Zhu, and N. J. Gomes, “Distributed antenna systems for mobile communications in high speed trains,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.30(4), 675–683 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Bianchi, “Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.18(3), 535–547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. (1)

C.-G. Wang, B. Li, and L. Li, “A new collision resolution mechanism to enhance the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.53(4), 1235–1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Other (10)

X. Wang, P. H. J. Chong, and L. W. Yie, “Evaluation of performance on random back-off interval and multi-channel CSMA/CA protocols,” in Proceedings of TENCON 2009 -IEEE Region 10 Conference, 2009, pp. 1–5.

N. Wattanamongkhol, W. Srichavengsup, S. Nakpeerayuth, and L. Wuttisiittikulkij, “Performance analysis of modified backoff algorithm in IEEE 802.11 networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE/IFIP International Conference in Central Asia on Internet, Tashkent, Sep.2007.
[CrossRef]

B. Kalantarisabet and J. E. Mitchell, “MAC constraints on the distribution of 802.11 using optical fibre,” in Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wireless Technology, Manchester, United Kingdom, Sep.2006, 238–240.
[CrossRef]

I. Tinnirello, S. Choi, and Y. Kim, “Revisit of RTS/CTS exchange in high speed IEEE 802.11 networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 2005 Int. Conf. World of Wireless, Mobile, Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Taormina, Italy, Jun. 2005, 240–248.
[CrossRef]

S. Deronne, V. Moeyaert, and S. Bette, “Analysis of the MAC performances in 802.11g radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Ghent, Belgium, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Deronne, V. Moeyaert, and S. Bette, “Impact of the slottime parameter value on the MAC performances in IEEE 802.11 wireless systems using radio-over-fiber technology,” in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Enschede, Netherlands, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

F.-Y. Hung and I. Marsic, “Access delay analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF in the presence of hidden stations,” in Proceedings of GLOBECOM 2007, Washington, DC, United State, Nov. 2007.

A. Pal and A. Nasipuri, “Performance analysis of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in presence of hidden stations under non-saturated conditions with infinite buffer in radio-over-fiber wireless LANs,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Workshop on Local & Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN), Chapel Hill, NC, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, N. Cvijetic, K. Sundaresan, M. Jiang, S. Rangarajan, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel in-building small-cell backhaul architecture for cost-efficient multi-operator multi-service coexistence,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2013, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2013, paper OTh4A.4.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Proceedings of OFC2007, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2007, paper JThA81.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The typical simulcast WLAN-RoF-DAS architectures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Backoff stage of two stations in different RAU with differential fiber delay.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The vulerable period in basic access and RTS/CTS exchange modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Markov Chain Model considering fiber delays.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized throughput via fiber delay when n = 1. Dashed lines indicate traditional methods considering fiber effect only in Ts and Tc. Solid lines represent our model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fiber effect via different number of stations: the solid lines represent the model calculations, the asterisks which have the same color with the line express the simulation results of it.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized throughput in different RAU versus Fiber delay when n = 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of fiber effect via different number of stations. Solid lines represent basic access mode and dashed lines represent RTS/CTS exchange mode.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental setup for a RoF-based dual-RAU DAS

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Basic access mode and RTS/CTS exchange mode system throughput in RoF-Based Dual-RAU DAS. The solid lines indicate experimental results with the same-length (100m) fiber links connected to each RAU. And the dotted lines indicate experimental results with 100m-fiber connected to RAU-A and 2-km fiber links connected to RAU-B.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Basic access access mode and RTS/CTS exchange mode solitary-RAU throughput in RoF-Based Dual-RAU DAS. The solid lines indicate theory results. The dotted lines indicate experimental results with the same fiber length. The dashed lines indicate experimental results with different fiber length.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 System Parameters

Equations (23)

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T vbasic =DATA+ACK+SIFS+F
T vRTS =RTS+CTS+SIFS+F
τ R = i=0 m b i, 0 R = 2(12 p R ) p R W 0 (1 (2 p R ) m )+(1+ W 0 )(12 p R )
p R =1 (1 τ R ) ( n R 1) g Ro
δ dR = k=h W i +F1 b m, k R = b 0,0 R 2 { W 0 [ (2 p R ) l (2 p R ) m 12 p R + (2 p R ) m 1 p R ]+ (2F2h+1) p l 1 p R + ( F 2 + h 2 +2Fh+F+h) W 0 [ ( p R 2 ) l ( p R 2 ) m 1 p R 2 + ( p R 2 ) m 1 p R ]}
b 0, 0 R = 2(12 p R )(1 p R ) p R W 0 (1 (2 p R ) m )+(1+ W 0 )(12 p R )
q R = σ (1 P trR )σ+ P trR P SR T S + P trR (1 P SR ) T C
P trR =1 (1 τ R ) ( n R 1)
P sR = n R τ R (1 τ Ro ) ( n R o 1) g R o P trR
τ fR = i=0 m1 p fR i b i,0 c R = b 0, 0 cR 1 p fR m 1 p fR
τ rR = p rR m b m,0 c R = b 0, 0 cR p rR m 1 p rR m
With b 0,0 cR = 2 W 0 ( 1 (2 p fR ) m 12 p fR + (2 p fR ) m 1 p rR )+ 1 p fR m 1 p fR + p fR m 1 p rR
p fR =1 (1 τ cR ) n R 1 ( δ c R O ) n R o q R O
p rR =1 (1 τ cR ) n R 1 ( δ d R O ) n R o q R O
δ cR = δ dR 1 b 0, 0 R W+1+2F 2 p R b 0, 0 R 2W+1+2F 2
P trR =1 (1 τ cR ) n R
P sR = n R (1 τ cR ) ( n R 1) ( τ f R O ( δ c R O ) ( n R o 1) q R o + τ r R O ( δ d R O ) ( n R o 1) q R o ) P trR
S R = 2 P sR P trR E R [packet] (1 P trR )σ+ P trR P sR T s + P trR (1 P sR ) T c
S= S A + S B
T sbasic =DIFS+PLCP+H+Ceiling( E R [packet]+Trail) +SIFS+PLCP+H+Ceiling(ACK+Trail) +2×2(ν+F)
T cbasic =DIFS+PLCP+H+Ceiling( E R [packet]+Trail) +2(ν+F)+ACKtimeout
T sRTS =DIFS+4×PLCP+4×H+4×2(ν+F)+3×SIFS +Ceiling(RTS+Trail)+Ceiling(CTS+Trail) +Ceiling( E R [packet]+Trail)+Ceiling(ACK+Trail)
T cRTS =DIFS+PLCP+2(ν+F)+Ceiling(RTS+Trail) +CTStimeout

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