Abstract

The intense luminescence of SiOC layers is studied and its dependence on the parameters of the thermal annealing process elucidated. Although the emission of SiOC is bright enough to be interesting for practical applications, this material is even more promising as a host matrix for optically active Eu ions. Indeed, when incorporated in a SiOC matrix, Eu3+ ions are efficiently reduced to Eu2+, producing a very strong visible luminescence peaked at 440 nm. Eu2+ ions benefit also of the occurrence of an energy transfer mechanism involving the matrix, which increases the efficiency of photon absorption for exciting wavelengths shorter than 300 nm. We evaluate that Eu doping of SiOC produces an enhancement of the luminescence intensity at 440 nm accounting for about a factor of 15. These properties open the way to new promising perspectives for the application of Eu-doped materials in photonic and lighting technologies.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. C. M. Brewer, D. R. Bujalski, V. E. Parent, K. Su, and G. A. Zank, “Insights into the oxidation chemistry of SiOC ceramics derived from silsesquioxanes,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.14(1), 49–68 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 5252–5260 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Y. Kim, M. S. Hwang, Y.-H. Kim, H. J. Kim, and Y. Lee, “Origin of low dielectric constant of carbon-incorporated silicon oxide film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.90(5), 2469–2473 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Qiao, D. Chen, J. Ren, B. Wu, J. Qiu, and T. Akai, “Blue emission from Eu2+-doped high silica glass by near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, “Analysis of the stretched exponential photoluminescence decay from nanometer-sized silicon crystals in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6128–6134 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2013

S. Boninelli, G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, and F. Iacona, “New strategies to improve the luminescence efficiency of Eu ions embedded in Si-based matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.113(14), 143503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2010

D. Li, X. Zhang, L. Jin, and D. Yang, “Structure and luminescence evolution of annealed europium-doped silicon oxides films,” Opt. Express18(26), 27191–27196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gallis, V. Nikas, H. Suhag, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “White light emission from amorphous silicon oxycarbide (a-SiCxOy) thin films: Role of composition and postdeposition annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. Kishimoto, X. Zhang, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Blue light emission from Eu2+ ions in sol-gel-derived Al2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Lumin.129(9), 1055–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Song, R. Fu, S. Agathopoulos, H. He, X. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Photoluminescence properties of Eu2+-activated CaSi2O2N2: Redshift and concentration quenching,” J. Appl. Phys.106(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding and H. Shirai, “White light emission from silicon oxycarbide films prepared by using atmospheric pressure microplasma jet,” J. Appl. Phys.105(4), 043515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Afify and G. Mountjoy, “Molecular-dynamics modeling of Eu3+-ion clustering in SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B79(2), 024202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiao, D. Chen, J. Ren, B. Wu, J. Qiu, and T. Akai, “Blue emission from Eu2+-doped high silica glass by near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. V. Vasin, Y. Ishikawa, N. Shibata, J. Salonen, and V.-P. Lehto, “Strong white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide fabricated by preferential oxidation of silicon in nano-structured Si:C layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(19), L465–L467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallis, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “Efficient energy transfer from silicon oxycarbide matrix to Er ions via indirect excitation mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kong, W. C. Choi, and T. G. Kim, “Formation of europium-silicate thin films and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.48, 1246–1249 (2006).

2004

S.-Y. Seo, K.-S. Cho, and J. H. Shin, “Intense blue-white luminescence from carbon-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 717–719 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, A. Quaranta, and G. D. Soraru, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of novel Eu2+-doped silicon oxycarbide glasses,” Opt. Mater.24(4), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 5252–5260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Laegsgaard, “Theory of Al2O3 incorporation in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B65(17), 174104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Y. Kim, M. S. Hwang, Y.-H. Kim, H. J. Kim, and Y. Lee, “Origin of low dielectric constant of carbon-incorporated silicon oxide film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.90(5), 2469–2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. Franzò, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, “The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(1), 3–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Electroluminescence of europium silicate thin film on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(21), 3203–3205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Brewer, D. R. Bujalski, V. E. Parent, K. Su, and G. A. Zank, “Insights into the oxidation chemistry of SiOC ceramics derived from silsesquioxanes,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.14(1), 49–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, “Analysis of the stretched exponential photoluminescence decay from nanometer-sized silicon crystals in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6128–6134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Afify, N. D.

N. D. Afify and G. Mountjoy, “Molecular-dynamics modeling of Eu3+-ion clustering in SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B79(2), 024202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agathopoulos, S.

X. Song, R. Fu, S. Agathopoulos, H. He, X. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Photoluminescence properties of Eu2+-activated CaSi2O2N2: Redshift and concentration quenching,” J. Appl. Phys.106(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akai, T.

Y. Qiao, D. Chen, J. Ren, B. Wu, J. Qiu, and T. Akai, “Blue emission from Eu2+-doped high silica glass by near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bellocchi, G.

S. Boninelli, G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, and F. Iacona, “New strategies to improve the luminescence efficiency of Eu ions embedded in Si-based matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.113(14), 143503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, F. Iacona, S. Boninelli, M. Miritello, T. Cesca, and F. Priolo, “Eu3+ reduction and efficient light emission in Eu2O3 films deposited on Si substrates,” Opt. Express20(5), 5501–5507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonafos, C.

A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boninelli, S.

S. Boninelli, G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, and F. Iacona, “New strategies to improve the luminescence efficiency of Eu ions embedded in Si-based matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.113(14), 143503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, F. Iacona, S. Boninelli, M. Miritello, T. Cesca, and F. Priolo, “Eu3+ reduction and efficient light emission in Eu2O3 films deposited on Si substrates,” Opt. Express20(5), 5501–5507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, C. M.

C. M. Brewer, D. R. Bujalski, V. E. Parent, K. Su, and G. A. Zank, “Insights into the oxidation chemistry of SiOC ceramics derived from silsesquioxanes,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.14(1), 49–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bujalski, D. R.

C. M. Brewer, D. R. Bujalski, V. E. Parent, K. Su, and G. A. Zank, “Insights into the oxidation chemistry of SiOC ceramics derived from silsesquioxanes,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.14(1), 49–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carrada, M.

A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cesca, T.

Chang, J. S.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiao, D. Chen, J. Ren, B. Wu, J. Qiu, and T. Akai, “Blue emission from Eu2+-doped high silica glass by near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K.-S.

S.-Y. Seo, K.-S. Cho, and J. H. Shin, “Intense blue-white luminescence from carbon-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 717–719 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. C.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kong, W. C. Choi, and T. G. Kim, “Formation of europium-silicate thin films and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.48, 1246–1249 (2006).

Chua, S. J.

Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Claverie, A.

A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, G.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding and H. Shirai, “White light emission from silicon oxycarbide films prepared by using atmospheric pressure microplasma jet,” J. Appl. Phys.105(4), 043515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G.

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, P.

T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 5252–5260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. C.

Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

S. Boninelli, G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, and F. Iacona, “New strategies to improve the luminescence efficiency of Eu ions embedded in Si-based matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.113(14), 143503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, F. Iacona, S. Boninelli, M. Miritello, T. Cesca, and F. Priolo, “Eu3+ reduction and efficient light emission in Eu2O3 films deposited on Si substrates,” Opt. Express20(5), 5501–5507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Franzò, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, “The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(1), 3–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fu, R.

X. Song, R. Fu, S. Agathopoulos, H. He, X. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Photoluminescence properties of Eu2+-activated CaSi2O2N2: Redshift and concentration quenching,” J. Appl. Phys.106(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Galeckas, A.

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, “Analysis of the stretched exponential photoluminescence decay from nanometer-sized silicon crystals in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6128–6134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallis, S.

S. Gallis, V. Nikas, H. Suhag, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “White light emission from amorphous silicon oxycarbide (a-SiCxOy) thin films: Role of composition and postdeposition annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallis, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “Efficient energy transfer from silicon oxycarbide matrix to Er ions via indirect excitation mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyaya, S.

T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 5252–5260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, B.

A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Varona, O.

A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grambole, D.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grivickas, V.

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, “Analysis of the stretched exponential photoluminescence decay from nanometer-sized silicon crystals in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6128–6134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y. P.

Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, C. K.

Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.-S.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, T.

Y. Kishimoto, X. Zhang, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Blue light emission from Eu2+ ions in sol-gel-derived Al2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Lumin.129(9), 1055–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

X. Song, R. Fu, S. Agathopoulos, H. He, X. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Photoluminescence properties of Eu2+-activated CaSi2O2N2: Redshift and concentration quenching,” J. Appl. Phys.106(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, T.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huan, C. H. A.

Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

S. Gallis, V. Nikas, H. Suhag, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “White light emission from amorphous silicon oxycarbide (a-SiCxOy) thin films: Role of composition and postdeposition annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallis, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “Efficient energy transfer from silicon oxycarbide matrix to Er ions via indirect excitation mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, M. S.

J. Y. Kim, M. S. Hwang, Y.-H. Kim, H. J. Kim, and Y. Lee, “Origin of low dielectric constant of carbon-incorporated silicon oxide film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.90(5), 2469–2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iacona, F.

S. Boninelli, G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, and F. Iacona, “New strategies to improve the luminescence efficiency of Eu ions embedded in Si-based matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.113(14), 143503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, F. Iacona, S. Boninelli, M. Miritello, T. Cesca, and F. Priolo, “Eu3+ reduction and efficient light emission in Eu2O3 films deposited on Si substrates,” Opt. Express20(5), 5501–5507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, Y.

Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vasin, Y. Ishikawa, N. Shibata, J. Salonen, and V.-P. Lehto, “Strong white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide fabricated by preferential oxidation of silicon in nano-structured Si:C layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(19), L465–L467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, J.-H.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

Kaloyeros, A. E.

S. Gallis, V. Nikas, H. Suhag, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “White light emission from amorphous silicon oxycarbide (a-SiCxOy) thin films: Role of composition and postdeposition annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallis, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “Efficient energy transfer from silicon oxycarbide matrix to Er ions via indirect excitation mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanjilal, A.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanzawa, Y.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. M.

Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

J. Y. Kim, M. S. Hwang, Y.-H. Kim, H. J. Kim, and Y. Lee, “Origin of low dielectric constant of carbon-incorporated silicon oxide film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.90(5), 2469–2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, M. S. Hwang, Y.-H. Kim, H. J. Kim, and Y. Lee, “Origin of low dielectric constant of carbon-incorporated silicon oxide film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.90(5), 2469–2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kong, W. C. Choi, and T. G. Kim, “Formation of europium-silicate thin films and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.48, 1246–1249 (2006).

Kim, Y.-H.

J. Y. Kim, M. S. Hwang, Y.-H. Kim, H. J. Kim, and Y. Lee, “Origin of low dielectric constant of carbon-incorporated silicon oxide film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.90(5), 2469–2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, Y.

Y. Kishimoto, X. Zhang, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Blue light emission from Eu2+ ions in sol-gel-derived Al2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Lumin.129(9), 1055–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, D. H.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kong, W. C. Choi, and T. G. Kim, “Formation of europium-silicate thin films and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.48, 1246–1249 (2006).

Laegsgaard, J.

J. Laegsgaard, “Theory of Al2O3 incorporation in SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B65(17), 174104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lahlouh, B.

T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 5252–5260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lalic, N.

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, “Analysis of the stretched exponential photoluminescence decay from nanometer-sized silicon crystals in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6128–6134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

J. Y. Kim, M. S. Hwang, Y.-H. Kim, H. J. Kim, and Y. Lee, “Origin of low dielectric constant of carbon-incorporated silicon oxide film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.90(5), 2469–2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leem, S. J.

Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, J.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lehto, V.-P.

Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vasin, Y. Ishikawa, N. Shibata, J. Salonen, and V.-P. Lehto, “Strong white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide fabricated by preferential oxidation of silicon in nano-structured Si:C layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(19), L465–L467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Li, K.

Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linnros, J.

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, “Analysis of the stretched exponential photoluminescence decay from nanometer-sized silicon crystals in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys.86(11), 6128–6134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lysenko, V. S.

Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, Y.

J. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Electroluminescence of europium silicate thin film on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(21), 3203–3205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

J. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Electroluminescence of europium silicate thin film on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(21), 3203–3205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miritello, M.

S. Boninelli, G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, and F. Iacona, “New strategies to improve the luminescence efficiency of Eu ions embedded in Si-based matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.113(14), 143503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, F. Iacona, S. Boninelli, M. Miritello, T. Cesca, and F. Priolo, “Eu3+ reduction and efficient light emission in Eu2O3 films deposited on Si substrates,” Opt. Express20(5), 5501–5507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morante, J. R.

A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mountjoy, G.

N. D. Afify and G. Mountjoy, “Molecular-dynamics modeling of Eu3+-ion clustering in SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B79(2), 024202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muto, S.

Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nazarov, A.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nazarov, A. N.

Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nie, H.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikas, V.

S. Gallis, V. Nikas, H. Suhag, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “White light emission from amorphous silicon oxycarbide (a-SiCxOy) thin films: Role of composition and postdeposition annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

Y. Kishimoto, X. Zhang, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Blue light emission from Eu2+ ions in sol-gel-derived Al2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Lumin.129(9), 1055–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. S.

Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Parent, V. E.

C. M. Brewer, D. R. Bujalski, V. E. Parent, K. Su, and G. A. Zank, “Insights into the oxidation chemistry of SiOC ceramics derived from silsesquioxanes,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.14(1), 49–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellegrino, P.

A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Rodriguez, A.

A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

G. Bellocchi, G. Franzò, F. Iacona, S. Boninelli, M. Miritello, T. Cesca, and F. Priolo, “Eu3+ reduction and efficient light emission in Eu2O3 films deposited on Si substrates,” Opt. Express20(5), 5501–5507 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Franzò, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, “The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(1), 3–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, S.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qi, J.

J. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Electroluminescence of europium silicate thin film on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(21), 3203–3205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qian, B.

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, Y.

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiao, D. Chen, J. Ren, B. Wu, J. Qiu, and T. Akai, “Blue emission from Eu2+-doped high silica glass by near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiao, D. Chen, J. Ren, B. Wu, J. Qiu, and T. Akai, “Blue emission from Eu2+-doped high silica glass by near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quaranta, A.

Y. Zhang, A. Quaranta, and G. D. Soraru, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of novel Eu2+-doped silicon oxycarbide glasses,” Opt. Mater.24(4), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rajagopalan, T.

T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 5252–5260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramkumar, C.

T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 5252–5260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rebohle, L.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

Y. Qiao, D. Chen, J. Ren, B. Wu, J. Qiu, and T. Akai, “Blue emission from Eu2+-doped high silica glass by near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, J.

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salonen, J.

Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vasin, Y. Ishikawa, N. Shibata, J. Salonen, and V.-P. Lehto, “Strong white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide fabricated by preferential oxidation of silicon in nano-structured Si:C layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(19), L465–L467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.-Y.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Seo, K.-S. Cho, and J. H. Shin, “Intense blue-white luminescence from carbon-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 717–719 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vasin, Y. Ishikawa, N. Shibata, J. Salonen, and V.-P. Lehto, “Strong white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide fabricated by preferential oxidation of silicon in nano-structured Si:C layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(19), L465–L467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Seo, K.-S. Cho, and J. H. Shin, “Intense blue-white luminescence from carbon-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 717–719 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. C.

Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kong, W. C. Choi, and T. G. Kim, “Formation of europium-silicate thin films and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.48, 1246–1249 (2006).

Shirai, H.

Y. Ding and H. Shirai, “White light emission from silicon oxycarbide films prepared by using atmospheric pressure microplasma jet,” J. Appl. Phys.105(4), 043515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skorupa, W.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, X.

X. Song, R. Fu, S. Agathopoulos, H. He, X. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Photoluminescence properties of Eu2+-activated CaSi2O2N2: Redshift and concentration quenching,” J. Appl. Phys.106(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soraru, G. D.

Y. Zhang, A. Quaranta, and G. D. Soraru, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of novel Eu2+-doped silicon oxycarbide glasses,” Opt. Mater.24(4), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, K.

C. M. Brewer, D. R. Bujalski, V. E. Parent, K. Su, and G. A. Zank, “Insights into the oxidation chemistry of SiOC ceramics derived from silsesquioxanes,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.14(1), 49–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suhag, H.

S. Gallis, V. Nikas, H. Suhag, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “White light emission from amorphous silicon oxycarbide (a-SiCxOy) thin films: Role of composition and postdeposition annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. M.

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y. M.

Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

J. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Electroluminescence of europium silicate thin film on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(21), 3203–3205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tyagulskii, I.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tyagulskii, S.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vasin, A. V.

Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vasin, Y. Ishikawa, N. Shibata, J. Salonen, and V.-P. Lehto, “Strong white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide fabricated by preferential oxidation of silicon in nano-structured Si:C layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(19), L465–L467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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G. Franzò, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, “The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(1), 3–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 5252–5260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Y. Qiao, D. Chen, J. Ren, B. Wu, J. Qiu, and T. Akai, “Blue emission from Eu2+-doped high silica glass by near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

Ye, X.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zank, G. A.

C. M. Brewer, D. R. Bujalski, V. E. Parent, K. Su, and G. A. Zank, “Insights into the oxidation chemistry of SiOC ceramics derived from silsesquioxanes,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.14(1), 49–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

X. Song, R. Fu, S. Agathopoulos, H. He, X. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Photoluminescence properties of Eu2+-activated CaSi2O2N2: Redshift and concentration quenching,” J. Appl. Phys.106(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

D. Li, X. Zhang, L. Jin, and D. Yang, “Structure and luminescence evolution of annealed europium-doped silicon oxides films,” Opt. Express18(26), 27191–27196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kishimoto, X. Zhang, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Blue light emission from Eu2+ ions in sol-gel-derived Al2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Lumin.129(9), 1055–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, A. Quaranta, and G. D. Soraru, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of novel Eu2+-doped silicon oxycarbide glasses,” Opt. Mater.24(4), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

X. Song, R. Fu, S. Agathopoulos, H. He, X. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Photoluminescence properties of Eu2+-activated CaSi2O2N2: Redshift and concentration quenching,” J. Appl. Phys.106(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. C.

Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, S.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, W.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Electroluminescence of europium silicate thin film on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(21), 3203–3205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Seo, K.-S. Cho, and J. H. Shin, “Intense blue-white luminescence from carbon-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 717–719 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallis, V. Nikas, H. Suhag, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “White light emission from amorphous silicon oxycarbide (a-SiCxOy) thin films: Role of composition and postdeposition annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gallis, M. Huang, and A. E. Kaloyeros, “Efficient energy transfer from silicon oxycarbide matrix to Er ions via indirect excitation mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

G. Franzò, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, “The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(1), 3–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

Y. P. Guo, J. C. Zheng, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, K. Li, J. S. Pan, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies of SiC nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.339(5-6), 319–322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

X. Ye, W. Zhuang, Y. Hu, T. He, X. Huang, C. Liao, S. Zhong, Z. Xu, H. Nie, and G. Deng, “Preparation, characterization, and optical properties of nano- and submicron-sized Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(6), 064302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys.106(12), 123103 (2009).
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A. Perez-Rodriguez, O. Gonzalez-Varona, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, and A. Claverie, “White luminescence from Si+ and C+ ion-implanted SiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 254–262 (2003).
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Y. Ishikawa, A. V. Vasin, J. Salonen, S. Muto, V. S. Lysenko, A. N. Nazarov, N. Shibata, and V.-P. Lehto, “Color control of white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding and H. Shirai, “White light emission from silicon oxycarbide films prepared by using atmospheric pressure microplasma jet,” J. Appl. Phys.105(4), 043515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Song, R. Fu, S. Agathopoulos, H. He, X. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Photoluminescence properties of Eu2+-activated CaSi2O2N2: Redshift and concentration quenching,” J. Appl. Phys.106(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 5252–5260 (2003).
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Y. Qiao, D. Chen, J. Ren, B. Wu, J. Qiu, and T. Akai, “Blue emission from Eu2+-doped high silica glass by near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys.103(2), 023108 (2008).
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Y. C. Shin, S. J. Leem, C. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. M. Sung, C. K. Hahn, J. H. Baek, and T. G. Kim, “Deposition of europium oxide on Si and its optical properties depending on thermal annealing conditions,” J. Electroceram.23(2-4), 326–330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kong, W. C. Choi, and T. G. Kim, “Formation of europium-silicate thin films and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.48, 1246–1249 (2006).

J. Lumin.

Y. Kishimoto, X. Zhang, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Blue light emission from Eu2+ ions in sol-gel-derived Al2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Lumin.129(9), 1055–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.

C. M. Brewer, D. R. Bujalski, V. E. Parent, K. Su, and G. A. Zank, “Insights into the oxidation chemistry of SiOC ceramics derived from silsesquioxanes,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.14(1), 49–68 (1999).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. V. Vasin, Y. Ishikawa, N. Shibata, J. Salonen, and V.-P. Lehto, “Strong white photoluminescence from carbon-incorporated silicon oxide fabricated by preferential oxidation of silicon in nano-structured Si:C layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(19), L465–L467 (2007).
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Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in Eu-doped high silica glass prepared in air atmosphere,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 427–431 (2010).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room temperature PL spectra for SiOC films as deposited and annealed in the temperature range 600 – 900 °C (a) for 1h in N2 ambient, and (b) in O2 ambient.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between the normalized PL spectra of SiOC films as deposited and annealed at 900 °C in N2 and in O2 ambient.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated intensity as a function of the annealing temperature for the two components of the PL signal of SiOC films annealed (a) in N2 ambient, and (b) in O2 ambient. The red circles refer to the component at 510 nm, the blue ones to the component at 400 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Room temperature PLE intensity obtained by integrating the PL spectra recorded as a function of the excitation wavelength in the range 250-370 nm for SiOC films annealed at 900 °C in N2 (red circles and line), and O2 (blue squares and line, multiplied by a factor of 2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refractive index, measured at 632.8 nm, as a function of the annealing temperature for SiOC films annealed in N2 (red circles and line), and O2 (blue squares and line). The refractive index of pure SiO2 is indicated by a blue dash-dotted line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Room temperature PL spectra for Eu-doped SiOC films annealed at 900 °C in N2 (blue line), and in O2 ambient (magenta line, multiplied by a factor of 10 in the region 370-550 nm and by a factor of 400 in the region 550-750 nm). Eu concentration is 1.5 × 1020 cm−3. The inset compares the integrated PL intensity as a function of the annealing temperature of undoped and Eu-doped SiOC (for both processes in N2 and O2); the data referring to undoped SiOC annealed in N2 are multiplied by a factor of 4 to allow an easier comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the room temperature PLE spectra of Eu-doped SiOC annealed at 900 °C in N2 (obtained by integrating the PL spectra measured by exciting with wavelengths in the range 260-370 nm) and of an Eu2+ silicate (obtained by integrating the PL spectra measured by exciting with wavelengths in the range 260-475 nm). The two spectra are normalized.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Room temperature PL time-decay curves of Eu-doped SiOC treated in N2 at 900 °C, measured at different emission wavelengths.

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