Abstract

We present a three-color mid-IR setup for vibrational pump-repump-probe experiments with a temporal resolution well below 100 fs and a freely selectable spectral resolution of 20 to 360 cm−1 for the pump and repump. The usable probe range without optical realignment is 900 cm−1. The experimental design employed is greatly simplified compared to the widely used setups, highly robust and includes a novel means for generation of tunable few-cycle pulses with stable carrier-envelope phase. A Ti:sapphire pump system operating with 1 kHz and a modest 150 fs pulse duration supplies the total pump energy of just 0.6 mJ. The good signal-to-noise ratio of the setup allows the determination of spectrally resolved transient probe changes smaller than 6·10−5 OD at 130 time delays in just 45 minutes. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated with transient IR spectra and decay curves of HDO molecules in lithium nitrate trihydrate and ice and a first all MIR pump-repump-probe measurement.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “New spectroscopy of water using tunable picosecond pulses in the infrared,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66(16), 2092–2095 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, “Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: evidence for a two-component structure,” Science278(5338), 658–660 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. T. Zanni and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: a promising new method for the time resolution of structures,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.11(5), 516–522 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Khalil, N. Demirdöven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A107(27), 5258–5279 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. T. J. Nibbering and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics of hydrogen bonds in the condensed phase,” Chem. Rev.104(4), 1887–1914 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. J. Bakker and J. L. Skinner, “Vibrational spectroscopy as a probe of structure and dynamics in liquid water,” Chem. Rev.110(3), 1498–1517 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. C. Werhahn, S. Pandelov, S. S. Xantheas, and H. Iglev, “Dynamics of weak, bifurcated, and strong hydrogen bonds in lithium nitrate trihydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(13), 1633–1638 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Hamm, S. Wiemann, M. Zurek, and W. Zinth, “Highly sensitive multichannel spectrometer for subpicosecond spectroscopy in the midinfrared,” Opt. Lett.19(20), 1642–1644 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. M. Donaldson, H. Strzalka, and P. Hamm, “High sensitivity transient infrared spectroscopy: a UV/visible transient grating spectrometer with a heterodyne detected infrared probe,” Opt. Express20(12), 12761–12770 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Kaindl, M. Wurm, K. Reimann, P. Hamm, A. W. Weiner, and M. Woerner, “Generation, shaping, and characterization of intense femtosecond pulses tunable from 3 to 20 µm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(12), 2086–2094 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Demirdöven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, “Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 433–435 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy probes of hydrogen bond dynamics in water and methanol,” J. Lumin.107(1-4), 271–286 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. S. Chung, M. Khalil, A. W. Smith, and A. Tokmakoff, “Transient two-dimensional IR spectrometer for probing nanosecond temperature-jump kinetics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(6), 063101 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Park, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo spectroscopy: a probe of molecular dynamics,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 704–718 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. H. Shim and M. T. Zanni, “How to turn your pump-probe instrument into a multidimensional spectrometer: 2D IR and Vis spectroscopies via pulse shaping,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(5), 748–761 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. C. Jones, Z. Ganim, C. S. Peng, and A. Tokmakoff, “Transient two-dimensional spectroscopy with linear absorption corrections applied to temperature-jump two-dimensional infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(1), 118–129 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. R. Skoff, J. E. Laaser, S. S. Mukherjee, C. T. Middleton, and M. T. Zanni, “Simplified and economical 2D IR spectrometer design using a dual acousto-optic modulator,” Chem. Phys.in press., doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Eisenberg and W. Kauzmann, The Structure and Properties of Water (Oxford University, 1969).
  21. F. Franks, Water: A Comprehensive Treatise (Plenum Press, 1972).
  22. Y. Tanimura and S. Mukamel, “2-dimensional femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy of liquids,” J. Chem. Phys.99(12), 9496–9511 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Bradler, C. Homann, and E. Riedle, “Mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation on the microjoule level up to 5 μm at high repetition rates,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4212–4214 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 561–574 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Piel, M. Beutter, and E. Riedle, “20-50-fs pulses tunable across the near infrared from a blue-pumped noncollinear parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett.25(3), 180–182 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. I. Hartl and W. Zinth, “A novel spectrometer system for the investigation of vibrational energy relaxation with sub-picosecond time resolution,” Opt. Commun.160(1–3), 184–190 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, and F. Noack, “Generation of high-power femtosecond light pulses at 1 kHz in the mid-infrared spectral range between 3 and 12 µm by second-order nonlinear processes in optical crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.3(3), R1–R19 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express15(23), 15035–15040 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. W. E. White, F. G. Patterson, R. L. Combs, D. F. Price, and R. L. Shepherd, “Compensation of higher-order frequency-dependent phase terms in chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett.18(16), 1343–1345 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).
  32. G. Cerullo, A. Baltuska, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(3), 323–351 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. Pandelov, B. M. Pilles, J. C. Werhahn, and H. Iglev, “Time-resolved dynamics of the OH stretching vibration in aqueous NaCl hydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(38), 10184–10188 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “Vibrational and reorientational dynamics of water molecules in liquid matrices,” Chem. Phys.175(1), 193–204 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. J. Bakker, J. J. Gilijamse, and A. J. Lock, “Energy transfer in single hydrogen-bonded water molecules,” ChemPhysChem6(6), 1146–1156 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, H. K. Nienhuys, and H. J. Bakker, “Anomalous temperature dependence of vibrational lifetimes in water and ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(5), 1106–1109 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  37. H. Iglev, M. Schmeisser, K. Simeonidis, A. Thaller, and A. Laubereau, “Ultrafast superheating and melting of bulk ice,” Nature439(7073), 183–186 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(1), 013107 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: Putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. S. Lynch, K. M. Slenkamp, M. Cheng, and M. Khalil, “Coherent fifth-order visible-infrared spectroscopies: ultrafast nonequilibrium vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(26), 7023–7032 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. M. L. Groot, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, and M. Di Donato, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 5. Femtosecond time-resolved and dispersed infrared spectroscopy on proteins,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.6(5), 501–507 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. P. Hamm, R. A. Kaindl, and J. Stenger, “Noise suppression in femtosecond mid-infrared light sources,” Opt. Lett.25(24), 1798–1800 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. Y. Deng, A. Schwarz, H. Fattahi, M. Ueffing, X. Gu, M. Ossiander, T. Metzger, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, G. Marcus, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and N. Karpowicz, “Carrier-envelope-phase-stable, 1.2 mJ, 1.5 cycle laser pulses at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett.37(23), 4973–4975 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

M. Bradler, C. Homann, and E. Riedle, “Mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation on the microjoule level up to 5 μm at high repetition rates,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4212–4214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuska, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Werhahn, S. Pandelov, S. S. Xantheas, and H. Iglev, “Dynamics of weak, bifurcated, and strong hydrogen bonds in lithium nitrate trihydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(13), 1633–1638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. J. Bakker and J. L. Skinner, “Vibrational spectroscopy as a probe of structure and dynamics in liquid water,” Chem. Rev.110(3), 1498–1517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. H. Shim and M. T. Zanni, “How to turn your pump-probe instrument into a multidimensional spectrometer: 2D IR and Vis spectroscopies via pulse shaping,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(5), 748–761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pandelov, B. M. Pilles, J. C. Werhahn, and H. Iglev, “Time-resolved dynamics of the OH stretching vibration in aqueous NaCl hydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(38), 10184–10188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: Putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(1), 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H. S. Chung, M. Khalil, A. W. Smith, and A. Tokmakoff, “Transient two-dimensional IR spectrometer for probing nanosecond temperature-jump kinetics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(6), 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo spectroscopy: a probe of molecular dynamics,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 704–718 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express15(23), 15035–15040 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Groot, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, and M. Di Donato, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 5. Femtosecond time-resolved and dispersed infrared spectroscopy on proteins,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.6(5), 501–507 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. Iglev, M. Schmeisser, K. Simeonidis, A. Thaller, and A. Laubereau, “Ultrafast superheating and melting of bulk ice,” Nature439(7073), 183–186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. J. Bakker, J. J. Gilijamse, and A. J. Lock, “Energy transfer in single hydrogen-bonded water molecules,” ChemPhysChem6(6), 1146–1156 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy probes of hydrogen bond dynamics in water and methanol,” J. Lumin.107(1-4), 271–286 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics of hydrogen bonds in the condensed phase,” Chem. Rev.104(4), 1887–1914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Khalil, N. Demirdöven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A107(27), 5258–5279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

2002

2001

M. T. Zanni and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: a promising new method for the time resolution of structures,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.11(5), 516–522 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, and F. Noack, “Generation of high-power femtosecond light pulses at 1 kHz in the mid-infrared spectral range between 3 and 12 µm by second-order nonlinear processes in optical crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.3(3), R1–R19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

I. Hartl and W. Zinth, “A novel spectrometer system for the investigation of vibrational energy relaxation with sub-picosecond time resolution,” Opt. Commun.160(1–3), 184–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, H. K. Nienhuys, and H. J. Bakker, “Anomalous temperature dependence of vibrational lifetimes in water and ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(5), 1106–1109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, “Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: evidence for a two-component structure,” Science278(5338), 658–660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “Vibrational and reorientational dynamics of water molecules in liquid matrices,” Chem. Phys.175(1), 193–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. E. White, F. G. Patterson, R. L. Combs, D. F. Price, and R. L. Shepherd, “Compensation of higher-order frequency-dependent phase terms in chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett.18(16), 1343–1345 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tanimura and S. Mukamel, “2-dimensional femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy of liquids,” J. Chem. Phys.99(12), 9496–9511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “New spectroscopy of water using tunable picosecond pulses in the infrared,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66(16), 2092–2095 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asbury, J. B.

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy probes of hydrogen bond dynamics in water and methanol,” J. Lumin.107(1-4), 271–286 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker, H. J.

H. J. Bakker and J. L. Skinner, “Vibrational spectroscopy as a probe of structure and dynamics in liquid water,” Chem. Rev.110(3), 1498–1517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Bakker, J. J. Gilijamse, and A. J. Lock, “Energy transfer in single hydrogen-bonded water molecules,” ChemPhysChem6(6), 1146–1156 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, H. K. Nienhuys, and H. J. Bakker, “Anomalous temperature dependence of vibrational lifetimes in water and ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(5), 1106–1109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, “Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: evidence for a two-component structure,” Science278(5338), 658–660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuska, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

Baum, P.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beutter, M.

Bingaman, J. L.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradler, M.

M. Bradler, C. Homann, and E. Riedle, “Mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation on the microjoule level up to 5 μm at high repetition rates,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4212–4214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brida, D.

Caplins, B. W.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuska, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express15(23), 15035–15040 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

M. S. Lynch, K. M. Slenkamp, M. Cheng, and M. Khalil, “Coherent fifth-order visible-infrared spectroscopies: ultrafast nonequilibrium vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(26), 7023–7032 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, H. S.

H. S. Chung, M. Khalil, A. W. Smith, and A. Tokmakoff, “Transient two-dimensional IR spectrometer for probing nanosecond temperature-jump kinetics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(6), 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirmi, G.

Combs, R. L.

Cowan, M. L.

D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Long, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Demirdöven, N.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdöven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A107(27), 5258–5279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Demirdöven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, “Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 433–435 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Di Donato, M.

M. L. Groot, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, and M. Di Donato, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 5. Femtosecond time-resolved and dispersed infrared spectroscopy on proteins,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.6(5), 501–507 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donaldson, P. M.

Elsaesser, T.

D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics of hydrogen bonds in the condensed phase,” Chem. Rev.104(4), 1887–1914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emmerichs, U.

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, H. K. Nienhuys, and H. J. Bakker, “Anomalous temperature dependence of vibrational lifetimes in water and ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(5), 1106–1109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, “Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: evidence for a two-component structure,” Science278(5338), 658–660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fattahi, H.

Fayer, M. D.

S. Park, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo spectroscopy: a probe of molecular dynamics,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 704–718 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy probes of hydrogen bond dynamics in water and methanol,” J. Lumin.107(1-4), 271–286 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ganim, Z.

Gilijamse, J. J.

H. J. Bakker, J. J. Gilijamse, and A. J. Lock, “Energy transfer in single hydrogen-bonded water molecules,” ChemPhysChem6(6), 1146–1156 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golonzka, O.

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

Graener, H.

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “Vibrational and reorientational dynamics of water molecules in liquid matrices,” Chem. Phys.175(1), 193–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “New spectroscopy of water using tunable picosecond pulses in the infrared,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66(16), 2092–2095 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groot, M. L.

M. L. Groot, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, and M. Di Donato, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 5. Femtosecond time-resolved and dispersed infrared spectroscopy on proteins,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.6(5), 501–507 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

Gutowski, T. A.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamm, P.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

Hartl, I.

I. Hartl and W. Zinth, “A novel spectrometer system for the investigation of vibrational energy relaxation with sub-picosecond time resolution,” Opt. Commun.160(1–3), 184–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heilweil, E. J.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

M. T. Zanni and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: a promising new method for the time resolution of structures,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.11(5), 516–522 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homann, C.

Huse, N.

D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iglev, H.

J. C. Werhahn, S. Pandelov, S. S. Xantheas, and H. Iglev, “Dynamics of weak, bifurcated, and strong hydrogen bonds in lithium nitrate trihydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(13), 1633–1638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pandelov, B. M. Pilles, J. C. Werhahn, and H. Iglev, “Time-resolved dynamics of the OH stretching vibration in aqueous NaCl hydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(38), 10184–10188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Iglev, M. Schmeisser, K. Simeonidis, A. Thaller, and A. Laubereau, “Ultrafast superheating and melting of bulk ice,” Nature439(7073), 183–186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishizuki, H.

Jones, K. C.

Kaindl, R. A.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

Khalil, M.

M. S. Lynch, K. M. Slenkamp, M. Cheng, and M. Khalil, “Coherent fifth-order visible-infrared spectroscopies: ultrafast nonequilibrium vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(26), 7023–7032 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chung, M. Khalil, A. W. Smith, and A. Tokmakoff, “Transient two-dimensional IR spectrometer for probing nanosecond temperature-jump kinetics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(6), 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdöven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A107(27), 5258–5279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Demirdöven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, “Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 433–435 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

Y. Deng, A. Schwarz, H. Fattahi, M. Ueffing, X. Gu, M. Ossiander, T. Metzger, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, G. Marcus, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and N. Karpowicz, “Carrier-envelope-phase-stable, 1.2 mJ, 1.5 cycle laser pulses at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett.37(23), 4973–4975 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

Kobayashi, T.

Kohnhorst, C. L.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraemer, D.

D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

Y. Deng, A. Schwarz, H. Fattahi, M. Ueffing, X. Gu, M. Ossiander, T. Metzger, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, G. Marcus, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and N. Karpowicz, “Carrier-envelope-phase-stable, 1.2 mJ, 1.5 cycle laser pulses at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett.37(23), 4973–4975 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, K.

S. Park, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo spectroscopy: a probe of molecular dynamics,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 704–718 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laaser, J. E.

D. R. Skoff, J. E. Laaser, S. S. Mukherjee, C. T. Middleton, and M. T. Zanni, “Simplified and economical 2D IR spectrometer design using a dual acousto-optic modulator,” Chem. Phys.in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Laubereau, A.

H. Iglev, M. Schmeisser, K. Simeonidis, A. Thaller, and A. Laubereau, “Ultrafast superheating and melting of bulk ice,” Nature439(7073), 183–186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “Vibrational and reorientational dynamics of water molecules in liquid matrices,” Chem. Phys.175(1), 193–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “New spectroscopy of water using tunable picosecond pulses in the infrared,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66(16), 2092–2095 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lochbrunner, S.

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(1), 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lock, A. J.

H. J. Bakker, J. J. Gilijamse, and A. J. Lock, “Energy transfer in single hydrogen-bonded water molecules,” ChemPhysChem6(6), 1146–1156 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynch, M. S.

M. S. Lynch, K. M. Slenkamp, M. Cheng, and M. Khalil, “Coherent fifth-order visible-infrared spectroscopies: ultrafast nonequilibrium vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(26), 7023–7032 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzoni, C.

Marangoni, M.

Marcus, G.

McElroy, B. A.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Megerle, U.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: Putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, T.

Middleton, C. T.

D. R. Skoff, J. E. Laaser, S. S. Mukherjee, C. T. Middleton, and M. T. Zanni, “Simplified and economical 2D IR spectrometer design using a dual acousto-optic modulator,” Chem. Phys.in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mücke, O. D.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuska, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mukamel, S.

Y. Tanimura and S. Mukamel, “2-dimensional femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy of liquids,” J. Chem. Phys.99(12), 9496–9511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, S. S.

D. R. Skoff, J. E. Laaser, S. S. Mukherjee, C. T. Middleton, and M. T. Zanni, “Simplified and economical 2D IR spectrometer design using a dual acousto-optic modulator,” Chem. Phys.in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Nesbitt, D. J.

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(1), 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics of hydrogen bonds in the condensed phase,” Chem. Rev.104(4), 1887–1914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nienhuys, H. K.

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, H. K. Nienhuys, and H. J. Bakker, “Anomalous temperature dependence of vibrational lifetimes in water and ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(5), 1106–1109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, and F. Noack, “Generation of high-power femtosecond light pulses at 1 kHz in the mid-infrared spectral range between 3 and 12 µm by second-order nonlinear processes in optical crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.3(3), R1–R19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ossiander, M.

Paarmann, A.

D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandelov, S.

J. C. Werhahn, S. Pandelov, S. S. Xantheas, and H. Iglev, “Dynamics of weak, bifurcated, and strong hydrogen bonds in lithium nitrate trihydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(13), 1633–1638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pandelov, B. M. Pilles, J. C. Werhahn, and H. Iglev, “Time-resolved dynamics of the OH stretching vibration in aqueous NaCl hydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(38), 10184–10188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.

S. Park, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo spectroscopy: a probe of molecular dynamics,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 704–718 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, F. G.

Peng, C. S.

Pervak, V.

Petrov, V.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, and F. Noack, “Generation of high-power femtosecond light pulses at 1 kHz in the mid-infrared spectral range between 3 and 12 µm by second-order nonlinear processes in optical crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.3(3), R1–R19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piel, J.

Pilles, B. M.

S. Pandelov, B. M. Pilles, J. C. Werhahn, and H. Iglev, “Time-resolved dynamics of the OH stretching vibration in aqueous NaCl hydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(38), 10184–10188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, D. F.

Pugliesi, I.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: Putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rakowski, E. A.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimann, K.

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

M. Bradler, C. Homann, and E. Riedle, “Mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation on the microjoule level up to 5 μm at high repetition rates,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4212–4214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: Putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(1), 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piel, M. Beutter, and E. Riedle, “20-50-fs pulses tunable across the near infrared from a blue-pumped noncollinear parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett.25(3), 180–182 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, and F. Noack, “Generation of high-power femtosecond light pulses at 1 kHz in the mid-infrared spectral range between 3 and 12 µm by second-order nonlinear processes in optical crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.3(3), R1–R19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sailer, C. F.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: Putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmeisser, M.

H. Iglev, M. Schmeisser, K. Simeonidis, A. Thaller, and A. Laubereau, “Ultrafast superheating and melting of bulk ice,” Nature439(7073), 183–186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schriever, C.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: Putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(1), 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, A.

Seifert, G.

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “Vibrational and reorientational dynamics of water molecules in liquid matrices,” Chem. Phys.175(1), 193–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “New spectroscopy of water using tunable picosecond pulses in the infrared,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66(16), 2092–2095 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, R. L.

Shim, S. H.

S. H. Shim and M. T. Zanni, “How to turn your pump-probe instrument into a multidimensional spectrometer: 2D IR and Vis spectroscopies via pulse shaping,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(5), 748–761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simeonidis, K.

H. Iglev, M. Schmeisser, K. Simeonidis, A. Thaller, and A. Laubereau, “Ultrafast superheating and melting of bulk ice,” Nature439(7073), 183–186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skinner, J. L.

H. J. Bakker and J. L. Skinner, “Vibrational spectroscopy as a probe of structure and dynamics in liquid water,” Chem. Rev.110(3), 1498–1517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skoff, D. R.

D. R. Skoff, J. E. Laaser, S. S. Mukherjee, C. T. Middleton, and M. T. Zanni, “Simplified and economical 2D IR spectrometer design using a dual acousto-optic modulator,” Chem. Phys.in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Slenkamp, K. M.

M. S. Lynch, K. M. Slenkamp, M. Cheng, and M. Khalil, “Coherent fifth-order visible-infrared spectroscopies: ultrafast nonequilibrium vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(26), 7023–7032 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. W.

H. S. Chung, M. Khalil, A. W. Smith, and A. Tokmakoff, “Transient two-dimensional IR spectrometer for probing nanosecond temperature-jump kinetics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(6), 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinel, T.

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy probes of hydrogen bond dynamics in water and methanol,” J. Lumin.107(1-4), 271–286 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenger, J.

Stromberg, C. J.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strzalka, H.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Tanimura, Y.

Y. Tanimura and S. Mukamel, “2-dimensional femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy of liquids,” J. Chem. Phys.99(12), 9496–9511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thaller, A.

H. Iglev, M. Schmeisser, K. Simeonidis, A. Thaller, and A. Laubereau, “Ultrafast superheating and melting of bulk ice,” Nature439(7073), 183–186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokmakoff, A.

K. C. Jones, Z. Ganim, C. S. Peng, and A. Tokmakoff, “Transient two-dimensional spectroscopy with linear absorption corrections applied to temperature-jump two-dimensional infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(1), 118–129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chung, M. Khalil, A. W. Smith, and A. Tokmakoff, “Transient two-dimensional IR spectrometer for probing nanosecond temperature-jump kinetics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(6), 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdöven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A107(27), 5258–5279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Demirdöven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, “Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 433–435 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Überacker, M.

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

Udem, T.

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

Ueffing, M.

Van Meter, G. A.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Wilderen, L. J. G. W.

M. L. Groot, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, and M. Di Donato, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 5. Femtosecond time-resolved and dispersed infrared spectroscopy on proteins,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.6(5), 501–507 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuska, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. E.

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. W.

Werhahn, J. C.

J. C. Werhahn, S. Pandelov, S. S. Xantheas, and H. Iglev, “Dynamics of weak, bifurcated, and strong hydrogen bonds in lithium nitrate trihydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(13), 1633–1638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pandelov, B. M. Pilles, J. C. Werhahn, and H. Iglev, “Time-resolved dynamics of the OH stretching vibration in aqueous NaCl hydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(38), 10184–10188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W. E.

Wiemann, S.

Woerner, M.

Woutersen, S.

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, H. K. Nienhuys, and H. J. Bakker, “Anomalous temperature dependence of vibrational lifetimes in water and ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(5), 1106–1109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, “Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: evidence for a two-component structure,” Science278(5338), 658–660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, M.

Xantheas, S. S.

J. C. Werhahn, S. Pandelov, S. S. Xantheas, and H. Iglev, “Dynamics of weak, bifurcated, and strong hydrogen bonds in lithium nitrate trihydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(13), 1633–1638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

Zanni, M. T.

S. H. Shim and M. T. Zanni, “How to turn your pump-probe instrument into a multidimensional spectrometer: 2D IR and Vis spectroscopies via pulse shaping,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(5), 748–761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Zanni and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: a promising new method for the time resolution of structures,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.11(5), 516–522 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Skoff, J. E. Laaser, S. S. Mukherjee, C. T. Middleton, and M. T. Zanni, “Simplified and economical 2D IR spectrometer design using a dual acousto-optic modulator,” Chem. Phys.in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

I. Hartl and W. Zinth, “A novel spectrometer system for the investigation of vibrational energy relaxation with sub-picosecond time resolution,” Opt. Commun.160(1–3), 184–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Hamm, S. Wiemann, M. Zurek, and W. Zinth, “Highly sensitive multichannel spectrometer for subpicosecond spectroscopy in the midinfrared,” Opt. Lett.19(20), 1642–1644 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zurek, M.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: Putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B96(2-3), 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

D. R. Skoff, J. E. Laaser, S. S. Mukherjee, C. T. Middleton, and M. T. Zanni, “Simplified and economical 2D IR spectrometer design using a dual acousto-optic modulator,” Chem. Phys.in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “Vibrational and reorientational dynamics of water molecules in liquid matrices,” Chem. Phys.175(1), 193–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

E. T. J. Nibbering and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast vibrational dynamics of hydrogen bonds in the condensed phase,” Chem. Rev.104(4), 1887–1914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Bakker and J. L. Skinner, “Vibrational spectroscopy as a probe of structure and dynamics in liquid water,” Chem. Rev.110(3), 1498–1517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ChemPhysChem

H. J. Bakker, J. J. Gilijamse, and A. J. Lock, “Energy transfer in single hydrogen-bonded water molecules,” ChemPhysChem6(6), 1146–1156 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.

M. T. Zanni and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: a promising new method for the time resolution of structures,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.11(5), 516–522 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Baltuska, M. Überacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 972–989 (2003).

J. Chem. Phys.

Y. Tanimura and S. Mukamel, “2-dimensional femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy of liquids,” J. Chem. Phys.99(12), 9496–9511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy probes of hydrogen bond dynamics in water and methanol,” J. Lumin.107(1-4), 271–286 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, and F. Noack, “Generation of high-power femtosecond light pulses at 1 kHz in the mid-infrared spectral range between 3 and 12 µm by second-order nonlinear processes in optical crystals,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.3(3), R1–R19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. A

J. L. Bingaman, C. L. Kohnhorst, G. A. Van Meter, B. A. McElroy, E. A. Rakowski, B. W. Caplins, T. A. Gutowski, C. J. Stromberg, C. E. Webster, and E. J. Heilweil, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of [FeFe]-hydrogenase model compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(27), 7261–7271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdöven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A107(27), 5258–5279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Lynch, K. M. Slenkamp, M. Cheng, and M. Khalil, “Coherent fifth-order visible-infrared spectroscopies: ultrafast nonequilibrium vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A116(26), 7023–7032 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pandelov, B. M. Pilles, J. C. Werhahn, and H. Iglev, “Time-resolved dynamics of the OH stretching vibration in aqueous NaCl hydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(38), 10184–10188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett.

J. C. Werhahn, S. Pandelov, S. S. Xantheas, and H. Iglev, “Dynamics of weak, bifurcated, and strong hydrogen bonds in lithium nitrate trihydrate,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(13), 1633–1638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuska, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev.5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

S. Park, K. Kwak, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo spectroscopy: a probe of molecular dynamics,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 704–718 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. Iglev, M. Schmeisser, K. Simeonidis, A. Thaller, and A. Laubereau, “Ultrafast superheating and melting of bulk ice,” Nature439(7073), 183–186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

I. Hartl and W. Zinth, “A novel spectrometer system for the investigation of vibrational energy relaxation with sub-picosecond time resolution,” Opt. Commun.160(1–3), 184–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

N. Demirdöven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, “Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 433–435 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hamm, S. Wiemann, M. Zurek, and W. Zinth, “Highly sensitive multichannel spectrometer for subpicosecond spectroscopy in the midinfrared,” Opt. Lett.19(20), 1642–1644 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. White, F. G. Patterson, R. L. Combs, D. F. Price, and R. L. Shepherd, “Compensation of higher-order frequency-dependent phase terms in chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett.18(16), 1343–1345 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piel, M. Beutter, and E. Riedle, “20-50-fs pulses tunable across the near infrared from a blue-pumped noncollinear parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett.25(3), 180–182 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bradler, C. Homann, and E. Riedle, “Mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation on the microjoule level up to 5 μm at high repetition rates,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4212–4214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hamm, R. A. Kaindl, and J. Stenger, “Noise suppression in femtosecond mid-infrared light sources,” Opt. Lett.25(24), 1798–1800 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Deng, A. Schwarz, H. Fattahi, M. Ueffing, X. Gu, M. Ossiander, T. Metzger, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, G. Marcus, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and N. Karpowicz, “Carrier-envelope-phase-stable, 1.2 mJ, 1.5 cycle laser pulses at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett.37(23), 4973–4975 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.

M. L. Groot, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, and M. Di Donato, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 5. Femtosecond time-resolved and dispersed infrared spectroscopy on proteins,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.6(5), 501–507 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

S. H. Shim and M. T. Zanni, “How to turn your pump-probe instrument into a multidimensional spectrometer: 2D IR and Vis spectroscopies via pulse shaping,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(5), 748–761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Graener, G. Seifert, and A. Laubereau, “New spectroscopy of water using tunable picosecond pulses in the infrared,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66(16), 2092–2095 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, H. K. Nienhuys, and H. J. Bakker, “Anomalous temperature dependence of vibrational lifetimes in water and ice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(5), 1106–1109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, A. Paarmann, N. Huse, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, and R. J. D. Miller, “Temperature dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid H2O,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(2), 437–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

H. S. Chung, M. Khalil, A. W. Smith, and A. Tokmakoff, “Transient two-dimensional IR spectrometer for probing nanosecond temperature-jump kinetics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(6), 063101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. De Long, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(1), 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

S. Woutersen, U. Emmerichs, and H. J. Bakker, “Femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: evidence for a two-component structure,” Science278(5338), 658–660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Eisenberg and W. Kauzmann, The Structure and Properties of Water (Oxford University, 1969).

F. Franks, Water: A Comprehensive Treatise (Plenum Press, 1972).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic representation of the mid-IR pump-repump-probe setup. CH1 and CH2 denote chopper wheels, VD1 and VD2 are variable delay lines, L are lenses, and S represents the sample. (b) Setup of the hybrid NOPA used to generate the pump and repump pulses including the order of the phase fluctuations (nΔΦ). (c) Setup of the probe OPA for the generation of the broadband probe pulses including phase fluctuations. (d) Layout of the 4f grating spectral selector. To avoid any spatial chirp all infrared OPAs are operated collinearly. The different pulses are shown with a slight angular separation in the figure for a better visualization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of pump pulses with different spectral widths (black and blue). A typical probe pulse spectrum is shown for comparison (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral intensity with corresponding spectral phase for typical probe (a) and pump (c) pulses. Temporal intensity profile and respective phase of the probe (b) and the pump (d) pulses obtained from SHG-FROG measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum of the long time stable interference pattern from the f-2f interferometer obtained with the pump (a) and probe (c) pulses. (b) Setup of the continuum generation and second harmonic based f-2f interferometer. (d) Temporal evolution of the CEP of the pump (blue) and probe (red) pulses over 90 min. To demonstrate the CEP control we inserted, removed, and reinserted a 4 mm ZnSe plate after 10, 20, and 30 min (light blue).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) FTIR spectra of the OH stretching region of the sample. It can be seen how the three resonances are polarization separated due to the orthorhombic structure of the crystal. The corresponding H bonds are depicted in the insets above the spectrum. (b) Transient spectra after excitation of the OH group engaged in the weak H bond. The delay times between pump and probe are 0.1 ps (black), 2.5 ps (brown), and 15 ps (orange). (c) Transient measurement of the weak OH stretching resonance for one detector position. (d) Transient signal of the maximum of the excited state absorption of the weak (blue), bifurcated (green), and strong (red) OH stretching resonances in LiNO3 × (HDO + 2D2O) including fits. (e) Transient signal over the first few hundred femtoseconds of an ice sample to demonstrate the ultrafast instrumental response function of 61 fs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transient 2-pulse (black), 3-pulse (blue) and difference signal (red) measured at 2440 cm−1 (OD stretching mode) in a 5M HDO in H2O sample at 230 K. The solid lines are fits according to a simple exponential model as guide to the eye. The symbols represent the raw data. The delay between pump and repump pulse is set to 4.5 ps. At this time the pump-repump-probe curve shows an additional signal due to further heating induced by the repump pulse absorbed by the OH stretching modes. The inset shows the absorption spectrum of the sample (black, note differing scaling factors) and the difference spectrum obtained by heating the sample by 20 K (blue dotted). The spectral position of pump, repump and probe pulse at the OD and OH stretch band are shown as black and red arrows.

Metrics