Abstract

Ultra-compact EO polymer modulators based on hybrid plasmonic microring resonators are proposed, simulated and analyzed. Comparing with Si slot microring modulator, hybrid plasmonic microring modulator shows about 6-times enhancement of the figure of merit when the bending radius is around 510 nm, due to its much larger intrinsic quality factor in sub-micron radius range. Influences of the EO polymer height and Si height on the device’s performance are analyzed and optimal design is given. When operating with a bias of 3.6V, the proposed device has optical modulation amplitude of 0.8 and insertion loss of about 1 dB. The estimated power consumption is about 5 fJ/bit at100 GHz.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

D. Costantini, L. Greusard, A. Bousseksou, Y. De Wilde, B. Habert, F. Marquier, J.-J. Greffet, F. Lelarge, J. Decobert, G.-H. Duan, and R. Colombelli, “A hybrid plasmonic semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(10), 101106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Lou, L. Thylen, and L. Wosinski, “Hybrid plasmonic microdisk resonators for optical interconnect applications,” Proc. SPIE8781, 87810X (2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu, F. Li, T. Wang, J. Wu, L. Lu, L. Zhou, and Y. Su, “Design of an Electro-Optic Modulator Based on a Silicon-Plasmonic Hybrid Phase Shifter,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(8), 1170–1177 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

2011 (6)

2010 (8)

Y. Song, J. Wang, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express18(12), 13173–13179 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Y. Song, G. Zhou, Y. Su, and M. Qiu, “Asymmetric plasmonic-dielectric coupler with short coupling length, high extinction ratio, and low insertion loss,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3153–3155 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Holmström, L. Thylén, and A. Bratkovsky, “Composite metal/quantum-dot nanoparticle-array waveguides with compensated loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 073110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE7599, 75990H (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

2008 (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, R. L. Nelson, J. W. Haus, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic electro-optic modulator design using a resonant metal grating,” Opt. Lett.33(6), 551–553 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1186–1188 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Temporal coupled-mode theory and the presence of non orthogonal modes in lossless multimode cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(10), 1511–1518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Akelaitis, A.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alam, M. Z.

Alloatti, L.

Amend, J.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Bale, D.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barklund, A.

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bhatambrekar, N.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharjee, S.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Bousseksou, A.

D. Costantini, L. Greusard, A. Bousseksou, Y. De Wilde, B. Habert, F. Marquier, J.-J. Greffet, F. Lelarge, J. Decobert, G.-H. Duan, and R. Colombelli, “A hybrid plasmonic semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(10), 101106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bratkovsky, A.

P. Holmström, L. Thylén, and A. Bratkovsky, “Composite metal/quantum-dot nanoparticle-array waveguides with compensated loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 073110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buker, N.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakravarty, S.

Chan, E.

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chee, J.

Chen, A.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

Chen, R. T.

Chong, F. T.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emer. Sel. Top. Circuits Systems2(2), 154–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Colombelli, R.

D. Costantini, L. Greusard, A. Bousseksou, Y. De Wilde, B. Habert, F. Marquier, J.-J. Greffet, F. Lelarge, J. Decobert, G.-H. Duan, and R. Colombelli, “A hybrid plasmonic semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(10), 101106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Costantini, D.

D. Costantini, L. Greusard, A. Bousseksou, Y. De Wilde, B. Habert, F. Marquier, J.-J. Greffet, F. Lelarge, J. Decobert, G.-H. Duan, and R. Colombelli, “A hybrid plasmonic semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(10), 101106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emer. Sel. Top. Circuits Systems2(2), 154–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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D. Costantini, L. Greusard, A. Bousseksou, Y. De Wilde, B. Habert, F. Marquier, J.-J. Greffet, F. Lelarge, J. Decobert, G.-H. Duan, and R. Colombelli, “A hybrid plasmonic semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(10), 101106 (2013).
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D. Costantini, L. Greusard, A. Bousseksou, Y. De Wilde, B. Habert, F. Marquier, J.-J. Greffet, F. Lelarge, J. Decobert, G.-H. Duan, and R. Colombelli, “A hybrid plasmonic semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(10), 101106 (2013).
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L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
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Steier, W.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
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Suh, W.

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J. Takayesu, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, E. Chan, G. Wang, P. Sullivan, Y. Liao, J. Davies, L. Dalton, A. Scherer, and W. Krug, “A Hybrid Electrooptic Microring Resonator-Based 1×4×1 ROADM for Wafer Scale Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(4), 440–448 (2009).
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L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE5935, 593502 (2005).
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Sun, X.

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Theogarajan, L.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emer. Sel. Top. Circuits Systems2(2), 154–168 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

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F. Lou, Z. Wang, D. Dai, L. Thylen, and L. Wosinski, “Experimental demonstration of ultra-compact directional couplers based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(24), 241105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(24), 243311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Emer. Sel. Top. Circuits Systems (1)

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emer. Sel. Top. Circuits Systems2(2), 154–168 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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Mater. Today (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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Nature (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microring modulator. Cross-sectional view along the (b) xy and (c) xz planes of the Ez field distributions of a resonant mode at 1550 nm, with an azimuthal number of 6. The bending radius is R = 542 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quality factors of Si slot microrings and HP microrings as functions of bending radius. QSlot and QHP are shown by the left Y axis and the ratio between QHP and QSlot is shown by the right Y axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Tuning efficiencies of Si Slot microring and HP microring. (b) Enhancement of FOM by HP microring as a function of bending radius.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Quality factors and tuning efficiencies of HP microrings as functions of EOP slot height; the silicon height is either 400 nm or 300 nm. (b) Figure of merits of HP microrings as functions of EOP slot height.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Quality factors of HP microrings as functions of radius and silicon height. (b) Enhancement of quality factor and tuning efficiency for different azimuthal numbers. (c) Enhancement of figure of merit. (d) Optimal Si height as a function of azimuthal number.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission spectra of the waveguide-loaded HP microring modulator when EOP index changes by 0 and 0.025. CW light has a wavelength at 1549 nm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FOM = Q λ 0 Γ= Δλ Res Δλ 3dB 1 Δn EOP ,
Ov= EOP Slot n | E | 2 dxdydz Z 0 Re(E×H ) dxdydz ,
E= FOM FOM(200) = Q Q(200) Γ Γ(200) ,
t= j(Δω/ ω 0 )+1/2 Q i 1/2 Q w j(Δω/ ω 0 )+1/2 Q i +1/2 Q w ,

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