Abstract

Long-term stable, sub-femtosecond timing distribution over a 1.2-km polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-optic link using balanced optical cross-correlators for link stabilization is demonstrated. Novel dispersion-compensating PM fiber was developed to construct a dispersion-slope-compensated PM link, which eliminated slow timing drifts and jumps previously induced by polarization mode dispersion in standard single-mode fiber. Numerical simulations of nonlinear pulse propagation in the fiber link confirmed potential sub-100-as timing stability for pulse energies below 70 pJ. Link operation for 16 days showed ~0.6 fs RMS timing drift and during a 3-day interval only ~0.13 fs drift, which corresponds to a stability level of 10−21.

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  1. P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-precision ultrafast photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(3), 432–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

1993 (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, K.

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Akre, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, G. Huang, J. W. Staples, R. B. Wilcox, J. Arthur, J. C. Frisch, and W. E. White, “Femtosecond synchronization of laser systems for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of International Particle Accelerator Conference (2010), 58–60.

Battle, P.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, F. N. C. Wong, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Guided wave optics in periodically poled KTP: quadratic nonlinearity and prospects for attosecond jitter characterization,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2522–2524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Bionta, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Borga, A.

M. Ferianis, A. Borga, A. Bucconi, L. Pavlovic, M. Predonzani, and F. Rossi, “All-Optical Femtosecond Timing System for the Fermi@ Elettra FEL,” in Proceedings of Free Electron Laser Conference (2011), 641–647.

Bostedt, C.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bozek, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brachmann, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bucconi, A.

M. Ferianis, A. Borga, A. Bucconi, L. Pavlovic, M. Predonzani, and F. Rossi, “All-Optical Femtosecond Timing System for the Fermi@ Elettra FEL,” in Proceedings of Free Electron Laser Conference (2011), 641–647.

Bucksbaum, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Byrd, J. M.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, G. Huang, J. W. Staples, R. B. Wilcox, J. Arthur, J. C. Frisch, and W. E. White, “Femtosecond synchronization of laser systems for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of International Particle Accelerator Conference (2010), 58–60.

Callahan, P. T.

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Chen, J.

Coffee, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J.

Cox, J. A.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Decker, F.-J.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doolittle, L.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, G. Huang, J. W. Staples, R. B. Wilcox, J. Arthur, J. C. Frisch, and W. E. White, “Femtosecond synchronization of laser systems for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of International Particle Accelerator Conference (2010), 58–60.

Dowell, D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Edstrom, S.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emma, P.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, C.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferianis, M.

M. Ferianis, “State of the art in high-stability timing, phase reference distribution and synchronization systems,” in Proceedings of Particle Accelerator Conference (2009), 1915–1919.

M. Ferianis, A. Borga, A. Bucconi, L. Pavlovic, M. Predonzani, and F. Rossi, “All-Optical Femtosecond Timing System for the Fermi@ Elettra FEL,” in Proceedings of Free Electron Laser Conference (2011), 641–647.

Field, C.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fini, J. M.

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Fisher, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, J.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, J. C.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, G. Huang, J. W. Staples, R. B. Wilcox, J. Arthur, J. C. Frisch, and W. E. White, “Femtosecond synchronization of laser systems for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of International Particle Accelerator Conference (2010), 58–60.

Galayda, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilevich, S.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Hastings, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hays, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hering, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, G. Huang, J. W. Staples, R. B. Wilcox, J. Arthur, J. C. Frisch, and W. E. White, “Femtosecond synchronization of laser systems for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of International Particle Accelerator Conference (2010), 58–60.

Huang, Z.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iverson, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Kärtner, F. X.

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-precision ultrafast photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(3), 432–456 (2010).
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A. H. Nejadmalayeri, F. N. C. Wong, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Guided wave optics in periodically poled KTP: quadratic nonlinearity and prospects for attosecond jitter characterization,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2522–2524 (2009).
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J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. N. C. Wong, F. X. Kärtner, F. Loehl, and H. Schlarb, “Long-term femtosecond timing link stabilization using a single-crystal balanced cross correlator,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1044–1046 (2007).
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J. Kim, J. Chen, J. Cox, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-resolution timing jitter characterization of free-running mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(24), 3519–3521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Kim, J.

Krzywinski, J.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loehl, F.

Loos, H.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Messerschmidt, M.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miahnahri, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, S.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E.

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, F. N. C. Wong, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Guided wave optics in periodically poled KTP: quadratic nonlinearity and prospects for attosecond jitter characterization,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2522–2524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Nuhn, H.-D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pavlovic, L.

M. Ferianis, A. Borga, A. Bucconi, L. Pavlovic, M. Predonzani, and F. Rossi, “All-Optical Femtosecond Timing System for the Fermi@ Elettra FEL,” in Proceedings of Free Electron Laser Conference (2011), 641–647.

Peng, M. Y.

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Pile, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Predonzani, M.

M. Ferianis, A. Borga, A. Bucconi, L. Pavlovic, M. Predonzani, and F. Rossi, “All-Optical Femtosecond Timing System for the Fermi@ Elettra FEL,” in Proceedings of Free Electron Laser Conference (2011), 641–647.

Ratner, D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, T. D.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, F. N. C. Wong, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Guided wave optics in periodically poled KTP: quadratic nonlinearity and prospects for attosecond jitter characterization,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2522–2524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Rossi, F.

M. Ferianis, A. Borga, A. Bucconi, L. Pavlovic, M. Predonzani, and F. Rossi, “All-Optical Femtosecond Timing System for the Fermi@ Elettra FEL,” in Proceedings of Free Electron Laser Conference (2011), 641–647.

Rzepiela, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, H.

Schultz, D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Staples, J. W.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, G. Huang, J. W. Staples, R. B. Wilcox, J. Arthur, J. C. Frisch, and W. E. White, “Femtosecond synchronization of laser systems for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of International Particle Accelerator Conference (2010), 58–60.

Stefan, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tompkins, H.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valente, S.

M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

Welch, J.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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White, W.

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J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, G. Huang, J. W. Staples, R. B. Wilcox, J. Arthur, J. C. Frisch, and W. E. White, “Femtosecond synchronization of laser systems for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of International Particle Accelerator Conference (2010), 58–60.

Wilcox, R. B.

J. M. Byrd, L. Doolittle, G. Huang, J. W. Staples, R. B. Wilcox, J. Arthur, J. C. Frisch, and W. E. White, “Femtosecond synchronization of laser systems for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of International Particle Accelerator Conference (2010), 58–60.

Wong, F. N. C.

Wu, J.

Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
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M. Y. Peng, P. T. Callahan, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, S. Valente, K. Ahmed, M. Xin, E. Monberg, M. Yan, L. Grüner-Nielsen, J. M. Fini, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and F. X. Kärtner, “Towards a large-scale, optical timing distribution system with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2013).

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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Y. Ding, F.-J. Decker, P. Emma, C. Feng, C. Field, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, J. Krzywinski, H. Loos, J. Welch, J. Wu, and F. Zhou, “Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Characterization in Free-Electron Lasers Using a Cross-Correlation Technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(25), 254802 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General schematic of the timing-stabilized PM fiber link. Pulse timing error, Δt, acquired during round-trip propagation in the fiber link is measured with a balanced optical cross-correlator (BOC) and corrected for by a variable delay operated under negative feedback.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental set-up for the timing-stabilized 1.2-km PM fiber link; EDFL, Erbium-doped fiber laser; L1, collimator; ISO, isolator; λ/2, half-wave plate; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam-splitter; FR, 45° Faraday rotator; FC, fiber collimator; PMF, standard PM fiber; PM-DCF, dispersion-compensating PM fiber; OC, output coupler; BOC, balanced optical cross-correlator; DBS, dichroic beam-splitter; L2, focusing lens; PPKTP, periodically-poled KTiOPO4; DM, dichroic mirror; BPD, balanced photodetector; PI, proportional-integral controller; AMP, high voltage amplifier; LPF, low-pass filter; A/D, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Long-term measurements for the timing-stabilized 1.2-km PM fiber link over 16 days of continuous operation; (a) link drift, as measured by the out-of-loop BOC, and time delay, as controlled by the in-loop motor stage; (b) relative changes in the internal temperatures for the PM link and free-space enclosures and ambient temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results for nonlinear pulse propagation in the 1.2-km PM link and its effects on link timing drift as a function of input pulse energy; (a-b) Normalized output voltage curves for the out-of-loop and in-loop BOC for select pulse energies; (c) single-pass and half round-trip timing error, as extracted from the zero-crossings in the out-of-loop and in-loop BOC output curves, respectively, and link timing error, as defined by the difference in half round-trip and single-pass timing errors, i.e. |ΔtLINK| = |½tRT - tSP| (d) Link timing drift, as extracted from the link timing error curve, corresponding to 0.1%, 1%, and 10% pulse energy fluctuations.

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