Abstract

An optically tunable and detectable magnetoeletric (ME) effect has been discovered in the composite consisting of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and magnetostrictive ferromagnetic Ni or FeCo thin films at room temperature. Due to the interactively optical and piezoelectric properties of nitride semiconductors, this composite provides an intriguing optically accessible system, in which the magnetoelectric effect can be both easily tuned and detected. The underlying mechanism can be well accounted for by the interplay among magnetostrictive, piezoelectric and optical transition. It thus offers a new paradigm to generate artificial material systems with magnetic/electric/optical inter-related/controllable properties.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Fiebig, “Revival of the magnetoelectric effect,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.38, R123–R152 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Zhang, C. Deng, J. Ma, Y. Lin, and C.-W. Nan, “Enhancement in magnetoelectric response in CoFe2O4− BaTiO3 heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 062911 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Morita, M. K. Kurosawa, and T. Higuchi, “Cylindrical micro ultrasonic motor utilizing bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 3347–3350 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W.-G. Wang, M. Li, S. Hageman, and C. L. Chien, “Electric-field-assisted switching in magnetic tunnel junctions,” Nat. Mater.11, 64–68 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. ichi Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34, L797–L799 (1995).
  9. S. P. Shuji Nakamura and G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode. the complete story,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12, 755 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Palacios, A. Chakraborty, S. Heikman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, and U. Mishra, “AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ingan back-barriers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.27, 13–15 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III − V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b)216, 391–398 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Y. Lin, “Converse piezoelectric effect and photoelastic effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 880–882 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Hong, K. Bi, and Y. Wang, “Magnetoelectric performance in Ni/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/FeCo trilayered cylindrical composites,” J. Alloys Comp.545, 182–185 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Vernier, D. A. Allwood, D. Atkinson, M. D. Cooke, and R. P. Cowburn, “Domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires by spin-polarized current injection,” EPL65, 526–532 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B72, 155336 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C.-T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express15, 9357–9365 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Suzuki, H. Baba, and E. Matsumoto, “Stress effect on hysteretic magnetization curve of nickel,” Int. J. Appl. Electromag. and Mech.13, 307–310 (2002).
  22. C. M. Wei, H. Y. Shih, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Optical detection of magnetoelectric effect in the composite consisting of ingan/gan multiple quantum wells and FeCo thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131913 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

W.-G. Wang, M. Li, S. Hageman, and C. L. Chien, “Electric-field-assisted switching in magnetic tunnel junctions,” Nat. Mater.11, 64–68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hong, K. Bi, and Y. Wang, “Magnetoelectric performance in Ni/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/FeCo trilayered cylindrical composites,” J. Alloys Comp.545, 182–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

C. M. Wei, H. Y. Shih, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Optical detection of magnetoelectric effect in the composite consisting of ingan/gan multiple quantum wells and FeCo thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Zhang, C. Deng, J. Ma, Y. Lin, and C.-W. Nan, “Enhancement in magnetoelectric response in CoFe2O4− BaTiO3 heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 062911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Palacios, A. Chakraborty, S. Heikman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, and U. Mishra, “AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ingan back-barriers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.27, 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. Fiebig, “Revival of the magnetoelectric effect,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.38, R123–R152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vernier, D. A. Allwood, D. Atkinson, M. D. Cooke, and R. P. Cowburn, “Domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires by spin-polarized current injection,” EPL65, 526–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. Y. Lin, “Converse piezoelectric effect and photoelastic effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 880–882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Suzuki, H. Baba, and E. Matsumoto, “Stress effect on hysteretic magnetization curve of nickel,” Int. J. Appl. Electromag. and Mech.13, 307–310 (2002).

2001 (1)

S. P. Shuji Nakamura and G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode. the complete story,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12, 755 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Morita, M. K. Kurosawa, and T. Higuchi, “Cylindrical micro ultrasonic motor utilizing bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 3347–3350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III − V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b)216, 391–398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. ichi Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34, L797–L799 (1995).

Abare, A. C.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abe, E.

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allwood, D. A.

N. Vernier, D. A. Allwood, D. Atkinson, M. D. Cooke, and R. P. Cowburn, “Domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires by spin-polarized current injection,” EPL65, 526–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, D.

N. Vernier, D. A. Allwood, D. Atkinson, M. D. Cooke, and R. P. Cowburn, “Domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires by spin-polarized current injection,” EPL65, 526–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baba, H.

T. Suzuki, H. Baba, and E. Matsumoto, “Stress effect on hysteretic magnetization curve of nickel,” Int. J. Appl. Electromag. and Mech.13, 307–310 (2002).

Bai, F.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III − V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b)216, 391–398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bi, K.

H. Hong, K. Bi, and Y. Wang, “Magnetoelectric performance in Ni/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/FeCo trilayered cylindrical composites,” J. Alloys Comp.545, 182–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

T. Palacios, A. Chakraborty, S. Heikman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, and U. Mishra, “AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ingan back-barriers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.27, 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. J.

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

Chen, T. T.

Chen, W. H.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

C. M. Wei, H. Y. Shih, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Optical detection of magnetoelectric effect in the composite consisting of ingan/gan multiple quantum wells and FeCo thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C.-T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express15, 9357–9365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, D.

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. L.

W.-G. Wang, M. Li, S. Hageman, and C. L. Chien, “Electric-field-assisted switching in magnetic tunnel junctions,” Nat. Mater.11, 64–68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chopdekar, R.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coldren, L. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, M. D.

N. Vernier, D. A. Allwood, D. Atkinson, M. D. Cooke, and R. P. Cowburn, “Domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires by spin-polarized current injection,” EPL65, 526–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cowburn, R. P.

N. Vernier, D. A. Allwood, D. Atkinson, M. D. Cooke, and R. P. Cowburn, “Domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires by spin-polarized current injection,” EPL65, 526–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

T. Palacios, A. Chakraborty, S. Heikman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, and U. Mishra, “AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ingan back-barriers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.27, 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deng, C.

Y. Zhang, C. Deng, J. Ma, Y. Lin, and C.-W. Nan, “Enhancement in magnetoelectric response in CoFe2O4− BaTiO3 heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 062911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dietl, T.

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fasol, G.

S. P. Shuji Nakamura and G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode. the complete story,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12, 755 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fiebig, M.

M. Fiebig, “Revival of the magnetoelectric effect,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.38, R123–R152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III − V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b)216, 391–398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, S. B.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Georgakilas, A.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hageman, S.

W.-G. Wang, M. Li, S. Hageman, and C. L. Chien, “Electric-field-assisted switching in magnetic tunnel junctions,” Nat. Mater.11, 64–68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heikman, S.

T. Palacios, A. Chakraborty, S. Heikman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, and U. Mishra, “AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ingan back-barriers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.27, 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, T.

T. Morita, M. K. Kurosawa, and T. Higuchi, “Cylindrical micro ultrasonic motor utilizing bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 3347–3350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H.

H. Hong, K. Bi, and Y. Wang, “Magnetoelectric performance in Ni/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/FeCo trilayered cylindrical composites,” J. Alloys Comp.545, 182–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, Y. P.

Hu, E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

ichi Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. ichi Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34, L797–L799 (1995).

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. ichi Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34, L797–L799 (1995).

Jalabert, D.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, S.

T. Palacios, A. Chakraborty, S. Heikman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, and U. Mishra, “AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ingan back-barriers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.27, 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kontos, A. G.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, M. K.

T. Morita, M. K. Kurosawa, and T. Higuchi, “Cylindrical micro ultrasonic motor utilizing bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 3347–3350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

W.-G. Wang, M. Li, S. Hageman, and C. L. Chien, “Electric-field-assisted switching in magnetic tunnel junctions,” Nat. Mater.11, 64–68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C.-T.

Lin, T. Y.

C. M. Wei, H. Y. Shih, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Optical detection of magnetoelectric effect in the composite consisting of ingan/gan multiple quantum wells and FeCo thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C.-T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express15, 9357–9365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Lin, “Converse piezoelectric effect and photoelastic effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 880–882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Y. Zhang, C. Deng, J. Ma, Y. Lin, and C.-W. Nan, “Enhancement in magnetoelectric response in CoFe2O4− BaTiO3 heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 062911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lofland, S. E.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

Y. Zhang, C. Deng, J. Ma, Y. Lin, and C.-W. Nan, “Enhancement in magnetoelectric response in CoFe2O4− BaTiO3 heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 062911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsukura, F.

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, E.

T. Suzuki, H. Baba, and E. Matsumoto, “Stress effect on hysteretic magnetization curve of nickel,” Int. J. Appl. Electromag. and Mech.13, 307–310 (2002).

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minsky, M. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U.

T. Palacios, A. Chakraborty, S. Heikman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, and U. Mishra, “AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ingan back-barriers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.27, 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mohaddes-Ardabili, L.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morita, T.

T. Morita, M. K. Kurosawa, and T. Higuchi, “Cylindrical micro ultrasonic motor utilizing bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 3347–3350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. ichi Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34, L797–L799 (1995).

Nan, C.-W.

Y. Zhang, C. Deng, J. Ma, Y. Lin, and C.-W. Nan, “Enhancement in magnetoelectric response in CoFe2O4− BaTiO3 heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 062911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ogale, S. B.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohno, H.

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohtani, K.

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Omiya, T.

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, T.

T. Palacios, A. Chakraborty, S. Heikman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, and U. Mishra, “AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ingan back-barriers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.27, 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelekanos, N. T.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramesh, R.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raptis, Y. S.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, E.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roytburd, A.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamanca-Riba, L.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlom, D. G.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. ichi Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34, L797–L799 (1995).

Shafer, P.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, H. Y.

C. M. Wei, H. Y. Shih, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Optical detection of magnetoelectric effect in the composite consisting of ingan/gan multiple quantum wells and FeCo thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shinde, S. R.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuji Nakamura, S. P.

S. P. Shuji Nakamura and G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode. the complete story,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12, 755 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, H. Baba, and E. Matsumoto, “Stress effect on hysteretic magnetization curve of nickel,” Int. J. Appl. Electromag. and Mech.13, 307–310 (2002).

Suzuki, Y.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. C.

Vernier, N.

N. Vernier, D. A. Allwood, D. Atkinson, M. D. Cooke, and R. P. Cowburn, “Domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires by spin-polarized current injection,” EPL65, 526–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Viehland, D.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.-G.

W.-G. Wang, M. Li, S. Hageman, and C. L. Chien, “Electric-field-assisted switching in magnetic tunnel junctions,” Nat. Mater.11, 64–68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

H. Hong, K. Bi, and Y. Wang, “Magnetoelectric performance in Ni/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/FeCo trilayered cylindrical composites,” J. Alloys Comp.545, 182–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C. M.

C. M. Wei, H. Y. Shih, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Optical detection of magnetoelectric effect in the composite consisting of ingan/gan multiple quantum wells and FeCo thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wright, P.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuttig, M.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavaliche, F.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, C. Deng, J. Ma, Y. Lin, and C.-W. Nan, “Enhancement in magnetoelectric response in CoFe2O4− BaTiO3 heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 062911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, H.

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. Zhang, C. Deng, J. Ma, Y. Lin, and C.-W. Nan, “Enhancement in magnetoelectric response in CoFe2O4− BaTiO3 heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 062911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Lin, “Converse piezoelectric effect and photoelastic effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 880–882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InxGa1−x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wei, H. Y. Shih, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Optical detection of magnetoelectric effect in the composite consisting of ingan/gan multiple quantum wells and FeCo thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

EPL (1)

N. Vernier, D. A. Allwood, D. Atkinson, M. D. Cooke, and R. P. Cowburn, “Domain wall propagation in magnetic nanowires by spin-polarized current injection,” EPL65, 526–532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

T. Palacios, A. Chakraborty, S. Heikman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, and U. Mishra, “AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ingan back-barriers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.27, 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Appl. Electromag. and Mech. (1)

T. Suzuki, H. Baba, and E. Matsumoto, “Stress effect on hysteretic magnetization curve of nickel,” Int. J. Appl. Electromag. and Mech.13, 307–310 (2002).

J. Alloys Comp. (1)

H. Hong, K. Bi, and Y. Wang, “Magnetoelectric performance in Ni/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/FeCo trilayered cylindrical composites,” J. Alloys Comp.545, 182–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. ichi Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34, L797–L799 (1995).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Fiebig, “Revival of the magnetoelectric effect,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.38, R123–R152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Morita, M. K. Kurosawa, and T. Higuchi, “Cylindrical micro ultrasonic motor utilizing bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 3347–3350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with cleaved mirror cavity facets,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.35, L217–L220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. P. Shuji Nakamura and G. Fasol, “The blue laser diode. the complete story,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12, 755 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Zavaliche, H. Zheng, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, S. Y. Yang, Q. Zhan, P. Shafer, E. Reilly, R. Chopdekar, Y. Jia, P. Wright, D. G. Schlom, Y. Suzuki, and R. Ramesh, “Electric field-induced magnetization switching in epitaxial columnar structures,” Nano Lett.5, 1793–1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

W.-G. Wang, M. Li, S. Hageman, and C. L. Chien, “Electric-field-assisted switching in magnetic tunnel junctions,” Nat. Mater.11, 64–68 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Ohno, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, T. Omiya, E. Abe, T. Dietl, Y. Ohno, and K. Ohtani, “Electric-field control of ferromagnetism,” Nature408, 944–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) (1)

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III − V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b)216, 391–398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, Y. Jia, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, A. Roytburd, and R. Ramesh, “Multiferroic BaTiO3− CoFe2O4nanostructures,” Science303, 661–663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (8)

» Media 1: PDF (322 KB)     
» Media 2: PDF (71 KB)     
» Media 3: PDF (62 KB)     
» Media 4: PDF (60 KB)     
» Media 5: PDF (59 KB)     
» Media 6: PDF (92 KB)     
» Media 7: PDF (70 KB)     
» Media 8: PDF (72 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic structure of InGaN/GaN MQWs and Ni thin film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photoluminescence spectra of InGaN/GaN MQWs under different excitation power density with an excitation wavelength of 325 nm, (b) and (c) Raman scattering spectra of InGaN/GaN MQWs with an excitation wavelength of 325 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b). Hysteresis curves of Ni-coated and FeCo-coated InGaN/GaN MQWs by means of MOKE measurement of the sample under different external electric potentials.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) Hysteresis curves of Ni-coated and FeCo-coated InGaN/GaN MQWs with and without an excitation source of 266 nm wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Raman scattering spectra of the InGaN/GaN MQWs under different external electric potentials. (b) The Kerr Signal of Ni-coated and FeCo-coated InGaN/GaN MQWs as a function of calculated strain.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoluminescence spectra of (a) FeCo-coated and (b) uncoated InGaN/GaN MQWs under different applied magnetic field. [22]

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raman scattering spectra of (a) FeCo-coated and (b) uncoated InGaN/GaN MQWs under different applied magnetic field. (c) Frequencies of InGaN A1(LO) phonon mode in FeCo-coated InGaN/GaN MQWs and the calculated strain as a function of applied magnetic field. The inset shows the hysteresis curve of FeCo-coated InGaN/GaN MQWs with the applied magnetic field parallel to the sample plane. [22]

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε = Δ ω 2 ( a b C 13 C 33 ) ,

Metrics