Abstract

In this paper, a self-supporting polymer pipe is proposed and investigated for THz wave transmission. Utilizing fiber drawing technique for polymer fiber, self-supporting pipes with wall thickness of several tens micrometers can be fabricated using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The guiding mechanism and transmission characteristics of the self-supporting pipes are investigated theoretically, showing that it can support single-mode transmission at THz band. The self-supporting pipe samples with different structure parameters are fabricated and measured experimentally, showing that it can support single HE11 mode transmission. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this self-supporting polymer pipe is a promising candidate for low loss THz fibers.

© 2013 OSA

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2013

M. F. Xiao, J. Liu, W. Zhang, J. L. Shen, and Y. D. Huang, “THz wave transmission in thin-wall PMMA pipes fabricated by fiber drawing technique,” Opt. Commun.298, 101–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE5354, 168–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1995

Allard, J. F.

Argyros, A.

Auguste, J. L.

Bang, O.

Bao, H.

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J. M.

Bowden, B.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

Chang, H.-C.

Chen, H.-W.

Cunningham, P. D.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Désévédavy, F.

Dubois, C.

Dupuis, A.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Férachou, D.

Gallot, G.

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorgutsa, S.

Grischkowsky, D.

Harrington, J. A.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Hidaka, T.

Hsueh, Y.-C.

Hu, B. B.

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. D.

M. F. Xiao, J. Liu, W. Zhang, J. L. Shen, and Y. D. Huang, “THz wave transmission in thin-wall PMMA pipes fabricated by fiber drawing technique,” Opt. Commun.298, 101–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-J.

Humbert, G.

Ichikawa, S.

Ito, H.

Jamison, S. P.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Jepsen, P. U.

Kemp, M. C.

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE5354, 168–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C.-H.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Liu, J.

M. F. Xiao, J. Liu, W. Zhang, J. L. Shen, and Y. D. Huang, “THz wave transmission in thin-wall PMMA pipes fabricated by fiber drawing technique,” Opt. Commun.298, 101–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-A.

Lu, J.-Y.

Luo, J. D.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Markov, A.

Mazhorova, A.

McGowan, R. W.

Minamide, H.

Mitrofanov, O.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morris, D.

Newnham, D. A.

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE5354, 168–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguema, E.

Nielsen, K.

Nishizawa, J.

Nuss, M. C.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, G. J.

Peng, J.-L.

Polishak, B.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Poulton, C. G.

Rasmussen, H. K.

Roze, M.

Rozé, M.

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. L.

M. F. Xiao, J. Liu, W. Zhang, J. L. Shen, and Y. D. Huang, “THz wave transmission in thin-wall PMMA pipes fabricated by fiber drawing technique,” Opt. Commun.298, 101–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

St J Russell, P.

Stoeffler, K.

Sun, C.-K.

Taday, P. F.

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE5354, 168–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE5354, 168–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Ung, B.

Valdes, N. N.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Vallejo, F. A.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Walther, M.

Wiederhecker, G. S.

Williams, J. C.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Wu, D. S.

Xiao, M. F.

M. F. Xiao, J. Liu, W. Zhang, J. L. Shen, and Y. D. Huang, “THz wave transmission in thin-wall PMMA pipes fabricated by fiber drawing technique,” Opt. Commun.298, 101–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

You, B.

Zhang, W.

M. F. Xiao, J. Liu, W. Zhang, J. L. Shen, and Y. D. Huang, “THz wave transmission in thin-wall PMMA pipes fabricated by fiber drawing technique,” Opt. Commun.298, 101–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. H.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.109(4), 043505 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. F. Xiao, J. Liu, W. Zhang, J. L. Shen, and Y. D. Huang, “THz wave transmission in thin-wall PMMA pipes fabricated by fiber drawing technique,” Opt. Commun.298, 101–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St J Russell, “Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express15(20), 12680–12685 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ung, A. Mazhorova, A. Dupuis, M. Rozé, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Polymer microstructured optical fibers for terahertz wave guiding,” Opt. Express19(26), B848–B861 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bao, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, P. U. Jepsen, and O. Bang, “Fabrication and characterization of porous-core honeycomb bandgap THz fibers,” Opt. Express20(28), 29507–29517 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupuis, J. F. Allard, D. Morris, K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication and THz loss measurements of porous subwavelength fibers using a directional coupler method,” Opt. Express17(10), 8012–8028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupuis, A. Mazhorova, F. Désévédavy, M. Rozé, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Spectral characterization of porous dielectric subwavelength THz fibers fabricated using a microstructured molding technique,” Opt. Express18(13), 13813–13828 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rozé, B. Ung, A. Mazhorova, M. Walther, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Suspended core subwavelength fibers: towards practical designs for low-loss terahertz guidance,” Opt. Express19(10), 9127–9138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express18(1), 309–322 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, and M. C. Kemp, “Hidden object detection: security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE5354, 168–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The self-supporting PMMA pipe and its models for theoretical analysis. (a) The photo of the transverse section, (b) Model with hexagonal inner pipe, (c) Model with round inner pipe without supporting

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated attenuation spectra of HE11 mode in self-supporting pipes. The green down-triangles are calculated by model of Fig. 1(b), the black squares are calculated by model of Fig. 1(c), the blue up-triangles and red circles are calculated attenuation spectra of HE11 mode in only the inner pipe and only the outer pipe, respectively

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The impacts of structure parameter variations on the attenuation spectra of the self-supporting pipe calculated by the simplified model shown in Fig. 1(c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Attenuation coefficients of HE11, TE01, TM01, and HE21 modes under different r at 3.1THz in the simplified model and field patterns of HE11 mode under r = 0.5mm, 1mm and 1.5mm, respectively

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Attenuation spectra of HE11, TE01, TM01, and HE21 modes in the simplified model under r = 1mm, which is in the region supporting single mode transmission shown in Fig. 4

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The experimental setup for THz transmission of the self-supporting PMMA pipes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical field patterns at the output end of the pipe samples with the lengths of 0.15m and rh of 0.5mm (a), 1mm (b), 1.5mm (c).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structure parameters used in calculation

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