Abstract

Chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy has recently been extended to millimeter wave spectroscopy as a technique for the characterization of room-temperature gas samples. Here we present a variation of this technique that significantly reduces the technical requirements on high-speed digital electronics and the data throughput, with no reduction in the broadband spectral coverage and no increase in the time required to reach a given sensitivity level. This method takes advantage of the frequency agility of arbitrary waveform generators by utilizing a series of low-bandwidth chirped excitation pulses paired in time with a series of offset single frequency local oscillators, which are used to detect the molecular free induction decay signals in a heterodyne receiver. A demonstration of this technique is presented in which a 67 GHz bandwidth spectrum of methanol (spanning from 792 to 859 GHz) is acquired in 58 μs.

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  5. C. Neese, I. Medvedev, G. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J.12(8), 2565–2574 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. T. Crowe, W. Bishop, D. Porterfield, J. Hesler, and R. Weikle, “Opening the terahertz window with integrated diode circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits40(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.60(5), 883–890 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. McGurk, T. Schmalz, and W. Flygare, “Fast passage in rotational spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys.60(11), 4181 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “How complete are astrophysical catalogs for the millimeter and submillimeter spectral region?” Astrophys. J.725(1), L11–L14 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

C. Neese, I. Medvedev, G. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J.12(8), 2565–2574 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

D. Zaleski, J. Neill, M. Muckle, N. Seifert, P. Carroll, S. Widicus Weaver, and B. Pate, “A Ka-band chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 68–76 (2012).

A. Steber, B. Harris, J. Neill, and B. Pate, “An arbitrary waveform generator based chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer operating from 260 to 295 GHz,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 3–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

G. B. Park, A. H. Steeves, K. Kuyanov-Prozument, J. L. Neill, and R. W. Field, “Design and evaluation of a pulsed-jet chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer for the 70-102 GHz region,” J. Chem. Phys.135(2), 024202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gerecht, K. O. Douglass, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Chirped-pulse terahertz spectroscopy for broadband trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express19(9), 8973–8984 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

R. A. Motiyenko, L. Margules, E. A. Alekseev, J.-C. Guillemin, and J. Demaison, “Centrifugal distortion analysis of the rotational spectrum of aziridine: Comparison of different Hamiltonians,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 94–99 (2010).

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1533–1535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “How complete are astrophysical catalogs for the millimeter and submillimeter spectral region?” Astrophys. J.725(1), L11–L14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(5), 053103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

B. Drouin, F. Maiwald, and J. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(9), 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Crowe, W. Bishop, D. Porterfield, J. Hesler, and R. Weikle, “Opening the terahertz window with integrated diode circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits40(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz Laser Study of Self-Pressure and Temperature Broadening and Shifts of Water Lines for Pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.87(3-4), 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.60(5), 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Krupnov, M. Tretyakov, Y. Dryagin, and S. Volokhov, “Extension of the range of microwave spectroscopy to 1.3 THz,” J. Mol170(Spec.), 279–284 (1995).

1974 (1)

J. McGurk, T. Schmalz, and W. Flygare, “Fast passage in rotational spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys.60(11), 4181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

1942 (1)

Albert, S.

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alekseev, E. A.

R. A. Motiyenko, L. Margules, E. A. Alekseev, J.-C. Guillemin, and J. Demaison, “Centrifugal distortion analysis of the rotational spectrum of aziridine: Comparison of different Hamiltonians,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 94–99 (2010).

Ball, C.

C. Neese, I. Medvedev, G. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J.12(8), 2565–2574 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Belloche, A.

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

Belov, S.

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bettens, R.

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, W.

T. Crowe, W. Bishop, D. Porterfield, J. Hesler, and R. Weikle, “Opening the terahertz window with integrated diode circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits40(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. G.

G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(5), 053103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, P.

D. Zaleski, J. Neill, M. Muckle, N. Seifert, P. Carroll, S. Widicus Weaver, and B. Pate, “A Ka-band chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 68–76 (2012).

Cohen, E. A.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.60(5), 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, T.

T. Crowe, W. Bishop, D. Porterfield, J. Hesler, and R. Weikle, “Opening the terahertz window with integrated diode circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits40(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F.

C. Neese, I. Medvedev, G. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J.12(8), 2565–2574 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “How complete are astrophysical catalogs for the millimeter and submillimeter spectral region?” Astrophys. J.725(1), L11–L14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1533–1535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delitsky, M. L.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.60(5), 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demaison, J.

R. A. Motiyenko, L. Margules, E. A. Alekseev, J.-C. Guillemin, and J. Demaison, “Centrifugal distortion analysis of the rotational spectrum of aziridine: Comparison of different Hamiltonians,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 94–99 (2010).

Dian, B. C.

G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(5), 053103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglass, K. O.

E. Gerecht, K. O. Douglass, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Chirped-pulse terahertz spectroscopy for broadband trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express19(9), 8973–8984 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(5), 053103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drouin, B.

B. Drouin, F. Maiwald, and J. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(9), 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dryagin, Y.

A. Krupnov, M. Tretyakov, Y. Dryagin, and S. Volokhov, “Extension of the range of microwave spectroscopy to 1.3 THz,” J. Mol170(Spec.), 279–284 (1995).

Endres, C. P.

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Field, R. W.

G. B. Park, A. H. Steeves, K. Kuyanov-Prozument, J. L. Neill, and R. W. Field, “Design and evaluation of a pulsed-jet chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer for the 70-102 GHz region,” J. Chem. Phys.135(2), 024202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flygare, W.

J. McGurk, T. Schmalz, and W. Flygare, “Fast passage in rotational spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys.60(11), 4181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fortman, S. M.

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “How complete are astrophysical catalogs for the millimeter and submillimeter spectral region?” Astrophys. J.725(1), L11–L14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frank, A.

C. Neese, I. Medvedev, G. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J.12(8), 2565–2574 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. T.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz Laser Study of Self-Pressure and Temperature Broadening and Shifts of Water Lines for Pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.87(3-4), 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerecht, E.

Geyer, S. M.

G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(5), 053103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giesen, T. F.

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goyette, T.

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guillemin, J.-C.

R. A. Motiyenko, L. Margules, E. A. Alekseev, J.-C. Guillemin, and J. Demaison, “Centrifugal distortion analysis of the rotational spectrum of aziridine: Comparison of different Hamiltonians,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 94–99 (2010).

Harris, B.

A. Steber, B. Harris, J. Neill, and B. Pate, “An arbitrary waveform generator based chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer operating from 260 to 295 GHz,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 3–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Helminger, P.

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J.

T. Crowe, W. Bishop, D. Porterfield, J. Hesler, and R. Weikle, “Opening the terahertz window with integrated diode circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits40(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koschurinov, Y. I.

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupnov, A.

A. Krupnov, M. Tretyakov, Y. Dryagin, and S. Volokhov, “Extension of the range of microwave spectroscopy to 1.3 THz,” J. Mol170(Spec.), 279–284 (1995).

Kuyanov-Prozument, K.

G. B. Park, A. H. Steeves, K. Kuyanov-Prozument, J. L. Neill, and R. W. Field, “Design and evaluation of a pulsed-jet chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer for the 70-102 GHz region,” J. Chem. Phys.135(2), 024202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewen, F.

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maiwald, F.

B. Drouin, F. Maiwald, and J. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(9), 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Margules, L.

R. A. Motiyenko, L. Margules, E. A. Alekseev, J.-C. Guillemin, and J. Demaison, “Centrifugal distortion analysis of the rotational spectrum of aziridine: Comparison of different Hamiltonians,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 94–99 (2010).

McGurk, J.

J. McGurk, T. Schmalz, and W. Flygare, “Fast passage in rotational spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys.60(11), 4181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Medvedev, I.

C. Neese, I. Medvedev, G. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J.12(8), 2565–2574 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Medvedev, I. R.

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “How complete are astrophysical catalogs for the millimeter and submillimeter spectral region?” Astrophys. J.725(1), L11–L14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1533–1535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menten, K. M.

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

Motiyenko, R. A.

R. A. Motiyenko, L. Margules, E. A. Alekseev, J.-C. Guillemin, and J. Demaison, “Centrifugal distortion analysis of the rotational spectrum of aziridine: Comparison of different Hamiltonians,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 94–99 (2010).

Muckle, M.

D. Zaleski, J. Neill, M. Muckle, N. Seifert, P. Carroll, S. Widicus Weaver, and B. Pate, “A Ka-band chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 68–76 (2012).

Muller, H. S. P.

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.60(5), 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neese, C.

C. Neese, I. Medvedev, G. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J.12(8), 2565–2574 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neese, C. F.

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “How complete are astrophysical catalogs for the millimeter and submillimeter spectral region?” Astrophys. J.725(1), L11–L14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1533–1535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neill, J.

D. Zaleski, J. Neill, M. Muckle, N. Seifert, P. Carroll, S. Widicus Weaver, and B. Pate, “A Ka-band chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 68–76 (2012).

A. Steber, B. Harris, J. Neill, and B. Pate, “An arbitrary waveform generator based chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer operating from 260 to 295 GHz,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 3–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neill, J. L.

G. B. Park, A. H. Steeves, K. Kuyanov-Prozument, J. L. Neill, and R. W. Field, “Design and evaluation of a pulsed-jet chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer for the 70-102 GHz region,” J. Chem. Phys.135(2), 024202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nunez, M.

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

Ordu, M. H.

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

Park, G. B.

G. B. Park, A. H. Steeves, K. Kuyanov-Prozument, J. L. Neill, and R. W. Field, “Design and evaluation of a pulsed-jet chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer for the 70-102 GHz region,” J. Chem. Phys.135(2), 024202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pate, B.

D. Zaleski, J. Neill, M. Muckle, N. Seifert, P. Carroll, S. Widicus Weaver, and B. Pate, “A Ka-band chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 68–76 (2012).

A. Steber, B. Harris, J. Neill, and B. Pate, “An arbitrary waveform generator based chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer operating from 260 to 295 GHz,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 3–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pate, B. H.

G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(5), 053103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paveliev, D. G.

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

B. Drouin, F. Maiwald, and J. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(9), 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. C.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.60(5), 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petkie, D.

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, H. M.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.60(5), 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pilston, R. G.

Plummer, G.

C. Neese, I. Medvedev, G. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J.12(8), 2565–2574 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, G. M.

Plusquellic, D. F.

E. Gerecht, K. O. Douglass, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Chirped-pulse terahertz spectroscopy for broadband trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express19(9), 8973–8984 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz Laser Study of Self-Pressure and Temperature Broadening and Shifts of Water Lines for Pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.87(3-4), 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Podobedov, V. B.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz Laser Study of Self-Pressure and Temperature Broadening and Shifts of Water Lines for Pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.87(3-4), 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Porterfield, D.

T. Crowe, W. Bishop, D. Porterfield, J. Hesler, and R. Weikle, “Opening the terahertz window with integrated diode circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits40(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poynter, R. L.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.60(5), 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schlemmer, S.

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmalz, T.

J. McGurk, T. Schmalz, and W. Flygare, “Fast passage in rotational spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys.60(11), 4181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, N.

D. Zaleski, J. Neill, M. Muckle, N. Seifert, P. Carroll, S. Widicus Weaver, and B. Pate, “A Ka-band chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 68–76 (2012).

Shipman, S. T.

G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(5), 053103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steber, A.

A. Steber, B. Harris, J. Neill, and B. Pate, “An arbitrary waveform generator based chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer operating from 260 to 295 GHz,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 3–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steeves, A. H.

G. B. Park, A. H. Steeves, K. Kuyanov-Prozument, J. L. Neill, and R. W. Field, “Design and evaluation of a pulsed-jet chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer for the 70-102 GHz region,” J. Chem. Phys.135(2), 024202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, M.

A. Krupnov, M. Tretyakov, Y. Dryagin, and S. Volokhov, “Extension of the range of microwave spectroscopy to 1.3 THz,” J. Mol170(Spec.), 279–284 (1995).

Ustinov, V. M.

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volokhov, S.

A. Krupnov, M. Tretyakov, Y. Dryagin, and S. Volokhov, “Extension of the range of microwave spectroscopy to 1.3 THz,” J. Mol170(Spec.), 279–284 (1995).

Walters, A.

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

Weikle, R.

T. Crowe, W. Bishop, D. Porterfield, J. Hesler, and R. Weikle, “Opening the terahertz window with integrated diode circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits40(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, J. U.

Widicus Weaver, S.

D. Zaleski, J. Neill, M. Muckle, N. Seifert, P. Carroll, S. Widicus Weaver, and B. Pate, “A Ka-band chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 68–76 (2012).

Zaleski, D.

D. Zaleski, J. Neill, M. Muckle, N. Seifert, P. Carroll, S. Widicus Weaver, and B. Pate, “A Ka-band chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 68–76 (2012).

Zhucov, A. E.

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrophys. J. (1)

S. M. Fortman, I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, “How complete are astrophysical catalogs for the millimeter and submillimeter spectral region?” Astrophys. J.725(1), L11–L14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Centrifugal distortion analysis of the rotational spectrum of aziridine: Comparison of different Hamiltonians (1)

R. A. Motiyenko, L. Margules, E. A. Alekseev, J.-C. Guillemin, and J. Demaison, “Centrifugal distortion analysis of the rotational spectrum of aziridine: Comparison of different Hamiltonians,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 94–99 (2010).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

T. Crowe, W. Bishop, D. Porterfield, J. Hesler, and R. Weikle, “Opening the terahertz window with integrated diode circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits40(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

C. Neese, I. Medvedev, G. Plummer, A. Frank, C. Ball, and F. De Lucia, “Compact submillimeter/terahertz gas sensor with efficient gas collection, preconcentration, and ppt sensitivity,” IEEE Sens. J.12(8), 2565–2574 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

G. B. Park, A. H. Steeves, K. Kuyanov-Prozument, J. L. Neill, and R. W. Field, “Design and evaluation of a pulsed-jet chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer for the 70-102 GHz region,” J. Chem. Phys.135(2), 024202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. McGurk, T. Schmalz, and W. Flygare, “Fast passage in rotational spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys.60(11), 4181 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol (1)

A. Krupnov, M. Tretyakov, Y. Dryagin, and S. Volokhov, “Extension of the range of microwave spectroscopy to 1.3 THz,” J. Mol170(Spec.), 279–284 (1995).

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2)

D. Zaleski, J. Neill, M. Muckle, N. Seifert, P. Carroll, S. Widicus Weaver, and B. Pate, “A Ka-band chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 68–76 (2012).

A. Steber, B. Harris, J. Neill, and B. Pate, “An arbitrary waveform generator based chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer operating from 260 to 295 GHz,” J. Mol. Spectrosc.280, 3–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (3)

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.60(5), 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz Laser Study of Self-Pressure and Temperature Broadening and Shifts of Water Lines for Pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.87(3-4), 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

D. Petkie, T. Goyette, R. Bettens, S. Belov, S. Belov, S. Albert, P. Helminger, and F. De Lucia, “A fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(4), 1675–1683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Drouin, F. Maiwald, and J. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76(9), 093113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Endres, F. Lewen, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, D. G. Paveliev, Y. I. Koschurinov, V. M. Ustinov, and A. E. Zhucov, “Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(4), 043106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, and B. H. Pate, “A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(5), 053103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N) (1)

M. H. Ordu, H. S. P. Muller, A. Walters, M. Nunez, F. Lewen, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, and S. Schlemmer, “The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N),” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A121 (2012).

Other (3)

W. Gordy and R. L. Cook, Microwave Molecular Spectra (John Wiley and Sons, 1984).

C. Townes and A. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, 1975).

Certain equipment or materials are identified in this paper in order to specify the experimental procedure adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply endorsement or that the equipment identified is the best available.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the segmented CP-FT submillimeter-wave spectrometer used for this study. For more information, see the text and [15].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conceptual segmented CP-FT spectrogram of the two AWG waveforms upconverted and multiplied to submillimeter frequencies. The black trace is the sequence of 288 MHz bandwidth chirped pulses, which are used to excite molecular transitions, 25 ns in duration, followed by a period where the second AWG channel (blue trace) is used as the local oscillator to detect the FID signals. Because the two AWG channels step by the same amount from segment to segment, all molecular transitions are detected in the same narrow (in this case, 288 MHz) spectral bandwidth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single acquisition cycle (58 μs data collection) of methanol (black) with 67 GHz bandwidth, compared to a simulation at 300 K generated using the JPL spectral catalog [22] (red).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Expanded view of the 67 GHz 58 μ sec single shot segmented CP-FT spectrum of methanol (black) compared to the JPL simulation.

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