Abstract

We have investigated two novel concepts for the design of transmission lines in travelling wave Mach-Zehnder interferometer based Silicon Photonics depletion modulators overcoming the analog bandwidth limitations arising from cross-talk between signal lines in push-pull modulators and reducing the linear losses of the transmission lines. We experimentally validate the concepts and demonstrate an E/O −3 dBe bandwidth of 16 GHz with a 4V drive voltage (in dual drive configuration) and 8.8 dB on-chip insertion losses. Significant bandwidth improvements result from suppression of cross-talk. An additional bandwidth enhancement of ~11% results from a reduction of resistive transmission line losses. Frequency dependent loss models for loaded transmission lines and E/O bandwidth modeling are fully verified.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature4, 518–526 (2010).

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

Alic, N.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Alloatti, L.

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

Ang, K.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arcioni, P.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ.44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benight, S.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Bojko, R.

Bolten, J.

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brosi, J. M.

Cassan, E.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chmielak, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Dalton, L.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Ding, R.

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Eyssa, W.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ.44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fournier, M.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

Gan, F.

Gardens, F. Y.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature4, 518–526 (2010).

Geis, M. W.

Gondarenko, A.

Green, W. M. J.

Grein, M. E.

Gwilliam, R. M.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, N. C.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hochberg, M.

Hu, Y.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Huang, S.

Ippen, E. P.

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, A.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käertner, F. X.

Knights, A. P.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Komorowska, K.

Koos, C.

Korn, D.

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, B. P. P.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Kurz, H.

Kwong, D.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, P.

Lennon, D. M.

Leuthold, J.

Li, Y. L.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, A. E.

Liow, T. Y.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Luff, B. J.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature4, 518–526 (2010).

Mashanovich, G. Z.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Matheisen, C.

Merget, F.

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myslivets, E.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Nagel, M.

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orcutt, J. S.

Osmond, J.

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pantouvaki, M.

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinguet, T.

Poitras, C. B.

Preston, K.

Radic, S.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Reed, G.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature4, 518–526 (2010).

Repossi, M.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ.44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ripperda, C.

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulein, R. T.

Sekaric, L.

Shafiiha, R.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

Streshinsky, M.

Sullivan, P.

Svelto, F.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ.44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teo, S. H. G.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature4, 518–526 (2010).

Thomson, J.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Van Campenhout, J.

Vecchi, F.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ.44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wahlbrink, T.

Waldow, M.

Witzens, J.

Xiong, Y.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J. U.

Yu, H.

Yu, M.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, G.-R.

Zlatanovic, S.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).

J. Solid-State Circ. (1)

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ.44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature4, 518–526 (2010).

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
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J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-R. Zhou, M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, F. Gan, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. S. Orcutt, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Käertner, “Effect of carrier lifetime on forward-biased silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express16(8), 5218–5226 (2008).
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K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(7), 5118–5124 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. L. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. G. Cunningham, “Traveling wave optical modulator,” U.S. Patent 5 091 981 (1992).

D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberg, G. Masini, S. Abdalla, J. Witzens, and S. Sahni, “10Gb/s 15mW Optical Receiver with Integrated Germanium Photodetector and Hybrid Inductor Peaking in 0.13μm SOI CMOS Technology,” Proc. 2010 IEEE Intern. Sol.-State Circ. Conf. (ISSCC), 360–361 (2010).

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed, monolithic CMOS receivers at 1550 nm with Ge on Si waveguide photodetectors,” Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc. (LEOS), 848–849 (2007).

D. Kucharski, B. Analui, L. C. Gunn, R. Koumans, T. Pinguet, and T. Sadagopan, “Distributed amplifier optical modulator,” U.S. Patent 7 899 276 (2011).

J. Witzens, B. Analui, S. Mirsaidi, T. Sadagopan, B. Welch, and A. Narasimha, “Integrated control system for laser and Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” U.S. Patent 7 916 377 (2011).

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