Abstract

High-speed and tunable integrated optical delay lines are demonstrated based on silicon grating waveguides apodized by the super-Gaussian function. The submicron channel waveguides with inward-apodized gratings are fabricated by deep-ultraviolet optical lithography. Characterization of the compact delay lines shows that they offer true-time delays as long as 132 ps, tuning range of ~86 ps, and a minimum bit rate of ~13 Gb/s. For lower bit rates, delays as high as 220 ps and tuning range of 174 ps are feasible.

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  1. S. Fathpour and N. A. Riza, “Silicon-photonics-based wideband radar beamforming: basic design,” SPIE J. Optical Eng.49(1), 018201 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, X. Chen, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, C. Xu, and A. L. Gaeta, “Large tunable delays using parametric mixing and phase conjugation in Si nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express16(14), 10349–10357 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Choi, J. Na, S. Ryu, G. Mudhana, and B. Lee, “All-fiber variable optical delay line for applications in optical coherence tomography: feasibility study for a novel delay line,” Opt. Express13(4), 1334–1345 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(15), 1276–1278 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. A. Morton, J. Cardenas, J. B. Khurgin, and M. Lipson, “Fast thermal switching of wideband optical delay line with no long-term transient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 512–514 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE5733, 166–175 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Coupling into the slow light mode in slab-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.31(1), 50–52 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  16. I. Giuntoni, D. Stolarek, D. I. Kroushkov, J. Bruns, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Continuously tunable delay line based on SOI tapered Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express20(10), 11241–11246 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(15), 1276–1278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Morton, J. Cardenas, J. B. Khurgin, and M. Lipson, “Fast thermal switching of wideband optical delay line with no long-term transient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Khan and S. Fathpour, “Complementary apodized grating waveguides for tunable optical delay lines,” Opt. Express20(18), 19859–19867 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Giuntoni, D. Stolarek, D. I. Kroushkov, J. Bruns, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Continuously tunable delay line based on SOI tapered Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express20(10), 11241–11246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathpour and N. A. Riza, “Silicon-photonics-based wideband radar beamforming: basic design,” SPIE J. Optical Eng.49(1), 018201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Choi, J. Na, S. Ryu, G. Mudhana, and B. Lee, “All-fiber variable optical delay line for applications in optical coherence tomography: feasibility study for a novel delay line,” Opt. Express13(4), 1334–1345 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, J.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(15), 1276–1278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alipour, P.

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(15), 1276–1278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atabaki, A. H.

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(15), 1276–1278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baghban, M. A.

Bruns, J.

Canciamilla, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

P. A. Morton, J. Cardenas, J. B. Khurgin, and M. Lipson, “Fast thermal switching of wideband optical delay line with no long-term transient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, X. Chen, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, C. Xu, and A. L. Gaeta, “Large tunable delays using parametric mixing and phase conjugation in Si nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express16(14), 10349–10357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E.

Coppinger, F.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eftekhar, A. A.

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(15), 1276–1278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Ferrari, C.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Giuntoni, I.

Gu, L.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howley, B.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikura, N.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S.

Khurgin, J. B.

P. A. Morton, J. Cardenas, J. B. Khurgin, and M. Lipson, “Fast thermal switching of wideband optical delay line with no long-term transient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kroushkov, D. I.

Lee, B.

Li, Q.

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(15), 1276–1278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

P. A. Morton, J. Cardenas, J. B. Khurgin, and M. Lipson, “Fast thermal switching of wideband optical delay line with no long-term transient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, X. Chen, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, C. Xu, and A. L. Gaeta, “Large tunable delays using parametric mixing and phase conjugation in Si nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express16(14), 10349–10357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Coupling into the slow light mode in slab-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.31(1), 50–52 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melloni, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morichetti, F.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morton, P. A.

P. A. Morton, J. Cardenas, J. B. Khurgin, and M. Lipson, “Fast thermal switching of wideband optical delay line with no long-term transient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mudhana, G.

Na, J.

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Petermann, K.

Riza, N. A.

S. Fathpour and N. A. Riza, “Silicon-photonics-based wideband radar beamforming: basic design,” SPIE J. Optical Eng.49(1), 018201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S.

Salem, R.

Samarelli, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stolarek, D.

Tillack, B.

Trinh, P. D.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Coupling into the slow light mode in slab-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.31(1), 50–52 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(15), 1276–1278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yurii, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, L.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(15), 1276–1278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Morton, J. Cardenas, J. B. Khurgin, and M. Lipson, “Fast thermal switching of wideband optical delay line with no long-term transient,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

SPIE J. Optical Eng.

S. Fathpour and N. A. Riza, “Silicon-photonics-based wideband radar beamforming: basic design,” SPIE J. Optical Eng.49(1), 018201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002), p. 26.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) the fabricated inward apodized grating waveguide photonic delay line, (b) the delay spectrum showing the wavelength operating regime.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectra of non-MZI grating waveguides (case A), MZI with grating at two different biases (case B), and MZI device without any gratings (case C); (b) Schematics of the three device cases in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Delay spectrum extracted from wavelength location of the minima and maxima from grating waveguide in MZI configuration (device B in Fig. 2) at 0 V applied bias (blue triangles) and at 15 V applied bias (red circles). Solid line shows the simulation results for the corresponding conditions. RT = Room Temperature

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Loss and reflectivity from grating edges versus delay (b) Bit rate and delay versus applied bias.

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