Abstract

In this paper we study the optimization of interleaved Mach-Zehnder silicon carrier depletion electro-optic modulator. Following the simulation results we demonstrate a phase shifter with the lowest figure of merit (modulation efficiency multiplied by the loss per unit length) 6.7V-dB. This result was achieved by reducing the junction width to 200 nm along the phase-shifter and optimizing the doping levels of the PN junction for operation in nearly fully depleted mode. The demonstrated low FOM is the result of both low VπL of ~0.78 Vcm (at reverse bias of 1V), and low free carrier loss (~6.6 dB/cm for zero bias). Our simulation results indicate that additional improvement in performance may be achieved by further reducing the junction width followed by increasing the doping levels.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (5)

2011 (7)

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

Alloatti, L.

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. C. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, H. Pan, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A figure of merit based transmitter link penalty calculation for CMOS-compatible Plasma-Dispersion Electro-Optic Mach-Zehnder modulators,” (2012). http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.2419 .

Baba, T.

Baets, R.

Barklund, A.

Barwicz, T.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. C. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, H. Pan, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A figure of merit based transmitter link penalty calculation for CMOS-compatible Plasma-Dispersion Electro-Optic Mach-Zehnder modulators,” (2012). http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.2419 .

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Cassan, E.

Cheben, P.

Chen, H.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, T.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

Cunningham, J. E.

de Boor, J.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

Dinu, R.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Fedeli, J.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Feng, N.-N.

Fong, J.

Fournier, M.

Freude, W.

Gardes, F. Y.

Geyer, N.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, D. M.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. C. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, H. Pan, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A figure of merit based transmitter link penalty calculation for CMOS-compatible Plasma-Dispersion Electro-Optic Mach-Zehnder modulators,” (2012). http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.2419 .

Gösele, U.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. M.

Green, W. M. J.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. C. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, H. Pan, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A figure of merit based transmitter link penalty calculation for CMOS-compatible Plasma-Dispersion Electro-Optic Mach-Zehnder modulators,” (2012). http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.2419 .

Grosse, P.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hu, Y.

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikura, N.

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janz, S.

Ji, R.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Komorowska, K.

Koos, C.

Korn, D.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Kung, C.-C.

Leuthold, J.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Li, Z.-Y.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Lu, Y.

Luo, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

McKinnon, W. R.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Min, R.

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H. C.

Palmer, R.

Pan, H.

D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. C. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, H. Pan, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A figure of merit based transmitter link penalty calculation for CMOS-compatible Plasma-Dispersion Electro-Optic Mach-Zehnder modulators,” (2012). http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.2419 .

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pantouvaki, M.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

Rooks, M. J.

Rosenberg, J. C.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. C. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, H. Pan, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A figure of merit based transmitter link penalty calculation for CMOS-compatible Plasma-Dispersion Electro-Optic Mach-Zehnder modulators,” (2012). http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.2419 .

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, Y.

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekaric, L.

Shafiiha, R.

Shank, S. M.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. C. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, H. Pan, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A figure of merit based transmitter link penalty calculation for CMOS-compatible Plasma-Dispersion Electro-Optic Mach-Zehnder modulators,” (2012). http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.2419 .

Shinkawa, M.

Song, J.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (16)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-Y. Li, D.-X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J.-Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
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N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, “Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration,” Opt. Express20(3), 3209–3218 (2012).
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J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, and M. Yu, “Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express20(7), 7081–7087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

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D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. C. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, H. Pan, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A figure of merit based transmitter link penalty calculation for CMOS-compatible Plasma-Dispersion Electro-Optic Mach-Zehnder modulators,” (2012). http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.2419 .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the phase shifter design with periodically (W = 200nm) interleaved PN junctions. A rib like silicon waveguide is positioned on top of 2μm thick buried oxide layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Modulation efficiency calculated for reverse bias of 1V, (b,d) free carrier loss at 0V and 1V reverse bias respectively, and (c) efficiency-loss FOM of the phase shifter as a function of doping concentration. For FOM calculation we assumed a worst-case scenario of the maximal free-carrier loss corresponded to zero bias and additional 2dB/cm propagation loss due to the waveguide surface roughness. The red star corresponds to full-depletion operation condition (FDOC) for junction width of 200nm. The calculated results assumed mode confinement of 0.84, in agreement with the waveguide cross section dimensions of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Intrinsic 3dB bandwidth of a single diode segment at reverse bias of 1V for different junction widths as a function of doping concentration. b) Intrinsic 3dB bandwidth of a single diode segment at fully-depleted operation condition for different reverse biases as a function of the junction width. Throughout the calculations a step junction with a symmetric doping profile is assumed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Modulation efficiency and (b) efficiency-loss FOM of the phase shifter with embedded 200nm wide interleaved junctions as a function of doping concentration calculated for different reverse biases. For the FOM calculation we assumed a worst-case scenario of the maximal free-carrier loss corresponded to zero bias and additional 2dB/cm propagation loss due to the waveguide surface roughness. The calculated results assumed mode confinement of 0.84, in agreement with the waveguide cross section dimensions of Fig. 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Free electrons and holes concentrations inside a single PN junction along the optical propagation direction for different reverse biases of 0V, 1V and 3V. b) Free carrier absorption loss profile along a single PN junction for different reverse biases of 0V, 1V and 3V. c) Free carriers variations profile along a single junction as a result of reverse bias application. d) Refractive index modulation profile along a single PN junction corresponding to the free carriers variations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Process simulation results of interleaved doping profile at the center width of the waveguide along the light propagation direction. The obtained metallurgical junctions (black dashed lines) are vertical and nearly perpendicular to the light propagation direction. b) Scanning electron micrograph of the test sample after selective shallow etching of the p-type (boron doped) regions of the phase shifter. The interleaved doping pattern is easily observed along the phase shifter. The obtained junction extensions into the rib areas are in the order of 70nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical microscope top view of the fabricated device. The MZI waveguides and the contact pads can be clearly observed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a) Transmission spectrum measurements of a MZI-modulator with 1.4mm long phase shifter operating under different values of reverse bias. b) Experimentally measured VπL values as a function of applied reverse bias.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

a) Transmission spectrum measurements of a 1.4mm long phase shifter at different operation voltages, when the reverse bias is applied on both arms of MZI. b) Free carrier loss derived from Fig. 9(a) by measuring the differences in peak transmission as a function of the reverse bias. Results were obtained by averaging over five consecutive transmission peaks. The free carrier loss at reverse bias of 5V is estimated from the process simulations using the measured doping levels. For comparison, we also plot the simulated free carrier loss curve.

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