Abstract

We show that nearly perfect absorption can be achieved in a simple structure with highly doped silicon on a sapphire (SOS) substrate. An SOS structure with the n-Si film being 600 nm thick and having doping concentration of 2e19 cm−3 has an absorption peak of 96% in the film at a wavelength of 12.1 μm. More generally, 95% absorption in the n-Si can be achieved and tailored to specific wavelengths in the range of 11.6-15.1 μm utilizing dopings of 1-2.4e19 cm−3 and film thicknesses of 600-1000 nm. Regions of 90% absorption can be achievable down to 11 μm and up to as much as 22 μm with tailoring of doping and film thickness. It is also shown that choice of substrate with large k/n (imaginary over real part of refractive index) is imperative for high absorption in the thin-film and will play a role in tailoring possibilities. Shown here are results for n-Si, but in general these results also apply to p-Si and the methods may be used to investigate structures with alternative films or substrates. This investigated SOS structure has high potential since desired film thickness and doping investigated here for perfect absorption can be purchased commercially and easily tuned by etching the silicon film.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (5)

R. Soref, J. Hendrickson, and J. W. Cleary, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared plasmonic-photonics using heavily doped n-Ge/Ge and n-GeSn/GeSn heterostructures,” Opt. Express20(4), 3814–3824 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Law, D. C. Adams, A. M. Taylor, and D. Wasserman, “Mid-infrared designer metals,” Opt. Express20(11), 12155–12165 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Cleary, M. R. Snure, K. D. Leedy, D. C. Look, K. Eyink, and A. Tiwari, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared surface plasmon properties in doped zinc oxides,” Proc. SPIE8545, 854504 (2012).

J. Hendrickson, J. Guo, B. Zhang, W. Buchwald, and R. Soref, “Wideband perfect light absorber at midwave infrared using multiplexed metal structures,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 371–373 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, “Oxides and nitrides as alternative plasmonic materials in the optical range,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1090–1099 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2000 (1)

M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. C.

Basov, D. N.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Boreman, G. D.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W.

Buchwald, W. R.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Canali, C.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cleary, J. W.

R. Soref, J. Hendrickson, and J. W. Cleary, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared plasmonic-photonics using heavily doped n-Ge/Ge and n-GeSn/GeSn heterostructures,” Opt. Express20(4), 3814–3824 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Cleary, M. R. Snure, K. D. Leedy, D. C. Look, K. Eyink, and A. Tiwari, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared surface plasmon properties in doped zinc oxides,” Proc. SPIE8545, 854504 (2012).

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davids, P. S.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, O.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eyink, K.

J. W. Cleary, M. R. Snure, K. D. Leedy, D. C. Look, K. Eyink, and A. Tiwari, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared surface plasmon properties in doped zinc oxides,” Proc. SPIE8545, 854504 (2012).

Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ginn, J. C.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Hendrickson, J.

Herzinger, C. M.

M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacoboni, C.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, T.

Jarecki, R. L.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jonasz, M.

Kats, M. A.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kitamura, R.

Law, S.

Leedy, K. D.

D. C. Look and K. D. Leedy, “ZnO plasmonics for telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Cleary, M. R. Snure, K. D. Leedy, D. C. Look, K. Eyink, and A. Tiwari, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared surface plasmon properties in doped zinc oxides,” Proc. SPIE8545, 854504 (2012).

Lin, J.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

D. C. Look and K. D. Leedy, “ZnO plasmonics for telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Cleary, M. R. Snure, K. D. Leedy, D. C. Look, K. Eyink, and A. Tiwari, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared surface plasmon properties in doped zinc oxides,” Proc. SPIE8545, 854504 (2012).

Medhi, G.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naik, G. V.

Ottaviani, G.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Peale, R. E.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, R. E. Peale, and W. Buchwald, “Longwave plasmonics on doped silicon and silicides,” Opt. Express16(9), 6507–6514 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilon, L.

Qazilbash, M. M.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quaranta, A. A.

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, S.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rooney, G.

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shahzad, M.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shaner, E. A.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, D.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Snure, M. R.

J. W. Cleary, M. R. Snure, K. D. Leedy, D. C. Look, K. Eyink, and A. Tiwari, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared surface plasmon properties in doped zinc oxides,” Proc. SPIE8545, 854504 (2012).

Soref, R.

Streyer, W.

Taylor, A. M.

Tiwald, T. E.

M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, A.

J. W. Cleary, M. R. Snure, K. D. Leedy, D. C. Look, K. Eyink, and A. Tiwari, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared surface plasmon properties in doped zinc oxides,” Proc. SPIE8545, 854504 (2012).

Wasserman, D.

Yang, Z.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. C. Look and K. D. Leedy, “ZnO plasmonics for telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(22), 221101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Schubert, T. E. Tiwald, and C. M. Herzinger, “Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B61(12), 8187–8201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. W. Cleary, M. R. Snure, K. D. Leedy, D. C. Look, K. Eyink, and A. Tiwari, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared surface plasmon properties in doped zinc oxides,” Proc. SPIE8545, 854504 (2012).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(2), 77–89 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Born and M. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th expanded ed. (Cambridge University, 2002).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1988).

B. Van Zeghbroeck, “Detailed description of the effective mass,” in Principles of Semiconductor Device, http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book (2004).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SOS Structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependent (left) n and k, and (right) k/n for sapphire [7]. The dashed line indicates k/n = 10 and the wavelength regions with k/n > 10 are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength dependent n and k for n-type silicon for N = 1e19 and 5e19 cm−3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption contour of the thin film with arbitrary optical constants on infinitely thick sapphire. (top) λ = 11.75 microns, 600 nm thick, (bottom-left) λ = 13.9 microns, 600 nm thick (bottom-right) λ = 13.9 microns, 850 nm thick film. The black curve indicates the Drude optical constants for n-Si with carrier concentrations labeled in units of cm−3. The dashed line illustrates n = k.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption of the n-Si thin-film with N = 2e19 cm−3, d = 600 nm (left) and 850 nm (right). The substrate is infinitely thick sapphire.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption of the entire structure with N = 2e19 cm−3, d = 600 nm (left) and 850 nm (right), and on 750 μm thick sapphire.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

FDTD calculation of power absorbed for a structure with 600 nm of 2e19 cm−3doped n-Si on 10.4 μm thick sapphire at the absorption peak wavelength of 12.1 μm. (left) is a 1D slice of the contour with the x-axis representing the axis perpendicular to the film and (right) is a contour of the spatial power absorbed in the structure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

FDTD calculation of power absorbed for a structure with 850 nm of 2e19 cm−3doped n-Si on 10.15 μm thick sapphire at the absorption peak wavelength of 12.5 μm. (left) is a 1D slice of the contour with the x-axis representing the axis perpendicular to the film and (right) is a contour of the spatial power absorbed in the structure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absorption contours as a function of wavelength and doping for the n-Si film. Shown is only absorption > 70% for clarity. The dashed line is the 90% line and the solid black line is 95% absorption. The film thickness of 600, 850, 1000 and 1500 nm show the tailoring possibilities for maximum absorption on 750 um of sapphire.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Limits of wavelength and carrier concentration giving 90 and 95% absorption for n-Si thin films on sapphire

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η 2 = ( n+ik ) 2 = ε [ 1 ω p 2 ω 2 +iω ω τ ],
ω p = 2πc λ p = N e 2 m ε ε o ,
ω τ = e m μ( N ) ,
r i,j = η i η j η i + η j t i,j = 2 η i η i + η j .
β i = 2π λ η i d i .
r i1,f = r i1,i + r i,f exp( 2i β i ) 1+ r i1,i r i,f exp( 2i β i ) t i1,f = t i1,i t i,f exp( i β i ) 1+ r i1,i r i,f exp( 2i β i ) ,
R= | r 0,f | 2 T= η f η 0 | t 0,f | 2 ,
A=1(T+R).

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