Abstract

We demonstrate unidirectional bistability in microdisk lasers electrically pumped and heterogeneously integrated on SOI. The lasers operate in continuous wave regime at room temperature and are single mode. Integrating a passive distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on the waveguide to which the microdisk is coupled feeds laser emission back into the laser cavity. This introduces an extra unidirectional gain and results in unidirectional emission of the laser, as demonstrated in simulations as well as in experiment.

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2012 (2)

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, D. A. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, Z. Huang, D. T. Spencer, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Teardrop reflector-assisted unidirectional hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(22), 1988–1990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Spuesens, F. Mandorlo, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, N. Olivier, J.-M. Fedeli, and D. Van Thourhout, “Compact integration of optical sources and detectors on SOI for optical interconnects fabricated in a 200mm CMOS pilot line,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1764–1770 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

2004 (1)

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett.27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Numai, “Analysis of signal voltage in a semiconductor ring laser gyro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.36(10), 1161–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

M. Sargent, “Theory of a multimode quasiequilibrium semiconductor-laser,” Phys. Rev. A48(1), 717–726 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(6), 561–564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, and D. C. Craft, “Unidirectional operation in a semiconductor ring diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(11), 1185–1187 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. J. D’Angelo, E. Izaguirre, G. B. Mindlin, G. Huyet, L. Gil, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of lasers in the presence of an imperfect O(2) symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(25), 3702–3705 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balle, S.

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, D. A. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, Z. Huang, D. T. Spencer, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Teardrop reflector-assisted unidirectional hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(22), 1988–1990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H.-H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express17(22), 20355–20364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binsma, H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

Capasso, F.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H.-H.

Chang, R. K.

Cohen, O.

Craft, D. C.

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, and D. C. Craft, “Unidirectional operation in a semiconductor ring diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(11), 1185–1187 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D’Angelo, E. J.

E. J. D’Angelo, E. Izaguirre, G. B. Mindlin, G. Huyet, L. Gil, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of lasers in the presence of an imperfect O(2) symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(25), 3702–3705 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, D.

de Vries, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Den Besten, J. H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diehl, L.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donati, S.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett.27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edamura, T.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fattal, D. A.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, D. A. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, Z. Huang, D. T. Spencer, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Teardrop reflector-assisted unidirectional hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(22), 1988–1990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fiorentino, M.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, D. A. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, Z. Huang, D. T. Spencer, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Teardrop reflector-assisted unidirectional hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(22), 1988–1990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H.-H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express17(22), 20355–20364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geluk, E.-J.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gil, L.

E. J. D’Angelo, E. Izaguirre, G. B. Mindlin, G. Huyet, L. Gil, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of lasers in the presence of an imperfect O(2) symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(25), 3702–3705 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giuliani, G.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett.27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glass, J. L.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(6), 561–564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohimer, J. P.

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, and D. C. Craft, “Unidirectional operation in a semiconductor ring diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(11), 1185–1187 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, D. A. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, Z. Huang, D. T. Spencer, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Teardrop reflector-assisted unidirectional hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(22), 1988–1990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huybrechts, K.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

E. J. D’Angelo, E. Izaguirre, G. B. Mindlin, G. Huyet, L. Gil, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of lasers in the presence of an imperfect O(2) symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(25), 3702–3705 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izaguirre, E.

E. J. D’Angelo, E. Izaguirre, G. B. Mindlin, G. Huyet, L. Gil, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of lasers in the presence of an imperfect O(2) symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(25), 3702–3705 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

Kan, H.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoe, G. D.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

Kumar, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Laybourn, P. J. R.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett.27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leijtens, X. J. M.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, A. F. J.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(6), 561–564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, D. A. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, Z. Huang, D. T. Spencer, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Teardrop reflector-assisted unidirectional hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(22), 1988–1990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H.-H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express17(22), 20355–20364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(6), 561–564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mandorlo, F.

McCall, S. L.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(6), 561–564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miglierina, R.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett.27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mindlin, G. B.

E. J. D’Angelo, E. Izaguirre, G. B. Mindlin, G. Huyet, L. Gil, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of lasers in the presence of an imperfect O(2) symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(25), 3702–3705 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morthier, G.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nöckel, J. U.

Numai, T.

T. Numai, “Analysis of signal voltage in a semiconductor ring laser gyro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.36(10), 1161–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okumura, T.

Olivier, N.

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Pearton, S. J.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(6), 561–564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raday, O.

Regreny, P.

T. Spuesens, F. Mandorlo, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, N. Olivier, J.-M. Fedeli, and D. Van Thourhout, “Compact integration of optical sources and detectors on SOI for optical interconnects fabricated in a 200mm CMOS pilot line,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1764–1770 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Sargent, M.

M. Sargent, “Theory of a multimode quasiequilibrium semiconductor-laser,” Phys. Rev. A48(1), 717–726 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrauwen, J.

Scire, A.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scirè, A.

Slusher, R. E.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(6), 561–564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorel, M.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett.27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, D. T.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, D. A. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, Z. Huang, D. T. Spencer, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Teardrop reflector-assisted unidirectional hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(22), 1988–1990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H.-H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express17(22), 20355–20364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spuesens, T.

T. Spuesens, F. Mandorlo, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, N. Olivier, J.-M. Fedeli, and D. Van Thourhout, “Compact integration of optical sources and detectors on SOI for optical interconnects fabricated in a 200mm CMOS pilot line,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1764–1770 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, S.

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, D. A. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, Z. Huang, D. T. Spencer, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Teardrop reflector-assisted unidirectional hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(22), 1988–1990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

Taillaert, D.

Tredicce, J. R.

E. J. D’Angelo, E. Izaguirre, G. B. Mindlin, G. Huyet, L. Gil, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of lasers in the presence of an imperfect O(2) symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(25), 3702–3705 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhinninghofen, J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Laere, F.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vawter, G. A.

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, and D. C. Craft, “Unidirectional operation in a semiconductor ring diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(11), 1185–1187 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiersig, J.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanishi, M.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, C.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, G. A. Vawter, and D. C. Craft, “Unidirectional operation in a semiconductor ring diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(11), 1185–1187 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(6), 561–564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Numai, “Analysis of signal voltage in a semiconductor ring laser gyro,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.36(10), 1161–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Liang, S. Srinivasan, D. A. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, Z. Huang, D. T. Spencer, J. E. Bowers, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Teardrop reflector-assisted unidirectional hybrid silicon microring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(22), 1988–1990 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Sargent, “Theory of a multimode quasiequilibrium semiconductor-laser,” Phys. Rev. A48(1), 717–726 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. J. D’Angelo, E. Izaguirre, G. B. Mindlin, G. Huyet, L. Gil, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of lasers in the presence of an imperfect O(2) symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(25), 3702–3705 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Q. J. Wang, C. Yan, N. Yu, J. Unterhinninghofen, J. Wiersig, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Whispering-gallery mode resonators for highly unidirectional laser action,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(52), 22407–22412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. J. Born, S. Yu, M. Sorel, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Controllable and stable mode selection in a semiconductor ring laser by injection locking,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO'03, (Baltimore, Maryland, 2003), pp. 1–3, paper CWK4.

J. Van Campenhout, “Thin-Film microlasers for the integration of electronic and photonic integrated circuits,” PhD thesis, Ghent University (2007).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of an InP-based microdisk laser heterogeneously integrated on SOI. The laser emission under electrical pumping of the microdisk evanescently couples to an underlying Si WG. The light is coupled out of the chip using grating couplers, and is collected with optical fibers. A DBR structure can be found on one side of the WG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design of the fabricated microdisk lasers. The DBR structure on the top WG has a period of 300nm, while the one on the bottom WG has a period of 290nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope pictures of the fabricated devices. The DBR structure can be seen on one side of the waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bifurcation diagrams of a 7.5µm diameter disk. The optical power in the CW mode is plotted in red, and the optical power in the CCW mode is plotted in black. Depending on initial conditions, one of the modes becomes dominant and suppresses the other at high bias current ((a) The CW mode becomes dominant, (b) The CCW mode becomes dominant).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bifurcation diagrams of a 7.5µm diameter disk: no gain suppression has been taken into account in the simulation. The optical power in the CW mode is plotted in red, and the optical power in the CCW mode is plotted in black. Unidirectional operation of the laser is not achieved without gain suppression in the microdisk cavity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bifurcation diagrams of a 7.5µm diameter disk coupled to a straight waveguide where a Bragg reflector is implemented on the CCW propagation direction of the system. All the power is coupled to the CW mode as soon as an external reflection is added to the system. (a) Bifurcation diagrams with a phase Φ=2π for increasing values of r. (b) Bifurcation diagrams with a phase Φ= π 2 for increasing values of r.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio of optical powers in the CW and the CCW modes as a function of the ratio of linear coupling between the modes over the amount of external reflection from the bus waveguide induced by the DBR. (a) For a phase Φ=2π and values of r between 0.01 and 1. (b) For a phase Φ= π 2 for values of rbetween 0.01 and 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

LI characteristics of microdisk lasers A and B with a diameter of 7.5µm. The plotted optical power is collected in optical fibers on both sides of the WGs. (a) Microdisk laser A coupled to a WG where the DBR has a period of 300nm. (b) Microdisk laser B coupled to a WG where the DBR has a period of 290nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectra of microdisk lasers A and B with a diameter of 7.5µm. The plotted optical power is collected in optical fibers on both sides of the WGs. (a) Microdisk laser A coupled to a WG where the DBR has a period of 300nm. (b) Microdisk laser B coupled to a WG where the DBR has a period of 290nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Transmission characteristics of a WG where the DBR has a period of 300nm (a), and of a WG where the DBR has a period of 290nm (b). The transmission characteristic of a straight WG of the same sample, acting as reference, is systematically plotted.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

LI curves of laser B under continuous wave operation at elevated temperatures. The slope efficiency decreases and the threshold current increases at higher temperatures. The power is the fiber coupled output power.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of parameters considered for the simulation of the bifurcation diagrams of the microdisk lasers.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectral characteristics of microdisk lasers A and B.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d E + dt = 1 2 (1jα)( G + 1 τ p ) E + + v g 2πR [ E noise1 +K E ]
d E dt = 1 2 (1jα)( G 1 τ p ) E + v g 2πR [ E noise2 +K E + ]
dN dt = I qV N τ c G + | E + | 2 G | E | 2
G + = Γ g 0 υ g (N N 0 ) 1+ ε s | E + | 2 + ε c | E | 2
G = Γ g 0 υ g (N N 0 ) 1+ ε s | E | 2 + ε c | E + | 2
G + =Γ g 0 υ g (N N 0 )(1 ε s | E + | 2 ε c | E | 2 )
G =Γ g 0 υ g (N N 0 )(1 ε s | E | 2 ε c | E + | 2 )
d E + dt = 1 2 (1jα)( G + 1 τ p ) E + + v g 2πR [ E noise1 +(K+r. e jΦ ) E ]
d E dt = 1 2 (1jα)( G 1 τ p ) E + v g 2πR [ E noise2 +K E + ]
G 0 = 1 τ p 2( v g 2πR ) | K 1 || K 2 | cos( Φ 1 + Φ 2 2 )

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