Abstract

Conventional spectral domain interferometry (SDI) methods suffer from the need of data linearization. When applied to optical coherence tomography (OCT), conventional SDI methods are limited in their 3D capability, as they cannot deliver direct en-face cuts. Here we introduce a novel SDI method, which eliminates these disadvantages. We denote this method as Master - Slave Interferometry (MSI), because a signal is acquired by a slave interferometer for an optical path difference (OPD) value determined by a master interferometer. The MSI method radically changes the main building block of an SDI sensor and of a spectral domain OCT set-up. The serially provided signal in conventional technology is replaced by multiple signals, a signal for each OPD point in the object investigated. This opens novel avenues in parallel sensing and in parallelization of signal processing in 3D-OCT, with applications in high- resolution medical imaging and microscopy investigation of biosamples. Eliminating the need of linearization leads to lower cost OCT systems and opens potential avenues in increasing the speed of production of en-face OCT images in comparison with conventional SDI.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (2)

2011 (2)

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Attenuation of mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in a Talbot bands optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xi, L. Huo, J. Li, and X. Li, “Generic real-time uniform K-space sampling method for high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(9), 9511–9517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, S. Maeno, K. Aoshima, H. Hasegawa, and H. Koseki, “Real-time processing for full-range Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with zero-filling interpolation using multiple graphic processing units,” Appl. Opt.49(25), 4756–4762 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

M. A. Bail, G. Haeusler, J. M. Herrmann, M. W. Lindner, and R. Ringler, “Optical coherence tomography with the “spectral radar”: fast optical analysis in volume scatterers by short-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE2925, 298–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1980 (1)

Adler, D. C.

Alam, S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoshima, K.

Bail, M. A.

M. A. Bail, G. Haeusler, J. M. Herrmann, M. W. Lindner, and R. Ringler, “Optical coherence tomography with the “spectral radar”: fast optical analysis in volume scatterers by short-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE2925, 298–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barry, S.

Baumann, B.

Belabas, N.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bouma, B.

Bradu, A.

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system with balance detection,” Opt. Express20(16), 17522–17538 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Attenuation of mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in a Talbot bands optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Chen, Y.

Chinn, S. R.

Choi, S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

Ding, Z.

Dobson, C. C.

Dorrer, C.

Duker, J. S.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. D.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed Spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real-time en-face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett.33, 2556–2558 (2008).

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett.22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerth, C.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeusler, G.

M. A. Bail, G. Haeusler, J. M. Herrmann, M. W. Lindner, and R. Ringler, “Optical coherence tomography with the “spectral radar”: fast optical analysis in volume scatterers by short-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE2925, 298–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. X.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, H.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J. M.

M. A. Bail, G. Haeusler, J. M. Herrmann, M. W. Lindner, and R. Ringler, “Optical coherence tomography with the “spectral radar”: fast optical analysis in volume scatterers by short-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE2925, 298–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Huang, D.

Huang, X.

Huber, R.

Huo, L.

Iftimia, N.

Iftimia, N. V.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jiao, S.

Joffre, M.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klein, T.

Knighton, R.

Koseki, H.

Leitgeb, R.

Leith, E. N.

Li, J.

Li, X.

Likforman, J. P.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

M. A. Bail, G. Haeusler, J. M. Herrmann, M. W. Lindner, and R. Ringler, “Optical coherence tomography with the “spectral radar”: fast optical analysis in volume scatterers by short-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE2925, 298–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maeno, S.

Meng, J.

Morse, L.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palte, G.

Park, S. S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, “Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging,” Ophthalmology113(8), 1425–1431 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system with balance detection,” Opt. Express20(16), 17522–17538 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Microsc.247(3), 209–219 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Attenuation of mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in a Talbot bands optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(4), 464–499 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringler, R.

M. A. Bail, G. Haeusler, J. M. Herrmann, M. W. Lindner, and R. Ringler, “Optical coherence tomography with the “spectral radar”: fast optical analysis in volume scatterers by short-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE2925, 298–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

Rosen, R. B.

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.27(4), 464–499 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

Smith, L. M.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

Swanson, G. J.

Tearney, G.

Ustun, T. E.

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van der Jeught, S.

S. Van der Jeught, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Wang, K.

Watanabe, Y.

Werner, J. S.

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Appl. Opt. (3)

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A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Attenuation of mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in a Talbot bands optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076010 (2011).
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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (4411 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (5783 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (5423 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (5103 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the MSI principle. (a) Implementation of the MSI method using two interferometers, a master interferometer (MI) and a slave interferometer (SI). OS: optical source; MBS: master beam-splitter; SBS: slave beam-splitter; MRM: master reference mirror; SRM: slave reference mirror; O: object under investigation; MOM: master object mirror; XYSH: two-dimensional lateral scanning head; MAB: master acquisition block; SAB: slave acquisition block; C: comparison block. (b) Parallel implementation of the MSI principle, where the MI in (a) is replaced with SoM: storage bank of P memories, M1, M2, …MP, a memory for each point in depth in the object, O. C1, C2, …CP: P comparison blocks; A1, A2,…AP: amplitudes of sampled points of the A-scan from scattering points inside the object O from respective depths z1, z2, …zP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental OCT system implementing the MSI set-up in Fig. 1(b) using a swept source. OS: swept source; SI: slave interferometer; DC1, 20/80 single mode directional coupler; DC2: 50/50 single mode directional coupler; XYSH: two-dimensional lateral scanning head; L1 to L6: lenses; O: object; MO: model object; SAB: slave acquisition block; PhD1, PhD2: photo-detectors; DA: differential amplifier; CS(OPD): channelled spectrum delivered by the SAB; C: multiple channel comparison block equipped with P comparison blocks: C1, C2, …CP s; SoM: storage bank of P memories, M1, M2, …MP; A1, A2,…AP: amplitudes of the interference signal from P scattering points inside the object O from respective depths z1, z2, …zP; FFT: fast Fourier transformation block; PC: personal computer implementing the blocks C, SoM, FFT and display of images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Depth resolution for the MSI method, measured for different values of the windows width W. A number of M = 1280 sampling points were used to digitize the signal corresponding to a sweeping scan of the full spectral range. This means that the space interval of the correlation extends over 2M + 1 = 2561 points. (b) Sensitivity measured using the conventional FFT based SDI method using calibrated data (blue dashed curve) and measured using the correlation based MSI method for different window widths, W (red solid curve), for an OPD = 0.5 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A-scan profile for a single reflector determining an OPD = 1.28 mm measured using the FFT method (blue) and the correlation based MSI method (red) for calibrated data. The external k-clock provided by the swept source was used to perform the re-sampling of data. For the MSI method, P = 64 memories were used, of channelled spectra recorded by changing the OPD in steps of 1 μm and W = 100. (b) A-scan profile for a single reflector determining an OPD = 1.28 mm, measured using the conventional FFT based SDI method (blue dashed) and correlation based MSI method (red sold line) for non-calibrated data. The internal clock of the digitizer was used for sampling the data. For the MSI method, P = 64 memories were used, of channelled spectra recorded by changing the OPD in steps of 1 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sensitivity drop-offs vs. depth obtained using the FFT and the MSI method. Blue dashed curve, sensitivity profile obtained using the FFT based SDI method. Red solid curves, sensitivity profile produced by correlation based MSI with priori recorded channelled spectra shapes in P = 8 memories for three values of the window width, W: 10 (red triangular symbols), 100 (red circular symbols) and 320 (red squared symbols).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

C-scan images of the optic nerve area of the eye of AP, showing the lamina cribrosa. The voltage on the galvo-scanners XYSH was adjusted to fit all the lamina in the center of the image. The optic nerve were placed slightly away from OPD = 0 to avoid mirror terms disturbing the images. Each image is 200x200 pixels. The depth separation between consecutive C-scans is 30 µm measured in air. (a) Images generated using the MSI method. (b) Images generated using conventional FFT based SS-OCT. For better visualization, movies were created using the images shown in (a) and (b) (Media 1 and Media 2 respectively).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

C-scan images of the thumb. The thumb was placed slightly away from OPD = 0 to avoid mirror terms disturbing the images. Each image is 200x200 pixels. The size of images is 4.4x4.4 mm The depth separation between consecutive C-scans is 30 µm measured in air. (a) Images generated using the MSI method. b) Images generated using conventional FFT based SS-OCT.. For better visualization, movies were created using the images shown in (a) and (b) (Media 3 and Media 4 respectively).

Equations (4)

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Corr(OPD)=CS(OPD)M(OP D p )
A(OP D p )= s=S s=+S Corr( k s )
Sensitivity(Corr)=40+20log[ A(OP D p ,W,sample arm unblocked) A(OP D p ,W,sample arm blocked) ]
Sensitivity(FFT)=40+20log[ Amplitude FFT signal (OP D p ) Amplitude noise floor measured outside OP D p ]

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