Abstract

Compound optics such as lens systems can overcome the limitations concerning resolution, efficiency, or aberrations which fabrication constraints would impose on any single optical element. In this work we demonstrate unprecedented sub-5 nm point focusing of hard x-rays, based on the combination of a high gain Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror system and a high resolution W/Si multilayer zone plate (MZP) for ultra-short focal length f. The pre-focusing allows limiting the MZP radius to below 2 μm, compatible with the required 5 nm structure width and essentially unlimited aspect ratios, provided by enabling fabrication technology based on pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and focused ion beam (FIB).

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J.F. van der Veen, “Focusing X-Ray Beams to Nanometer Dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 204801 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013 (1)

C. Eberl, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, F. Döring, H. Hofsäss, and H.U. Krebs, “Enhanced resputtering and asymmetric interface mixing in W/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. A111, 431–437 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

M. Yasumoto, S. Tamura, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Terada, “Microstructure of Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for X-ray Focusing,” Physics Procedia32, 157–160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J.J. Lombardo, W.M. Harris, W.K.S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Rad.19, 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S.P. Krüger, M. Osterhoff, G. Giewekemeyer, H.U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Advances2, 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 013705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (2) Circular Type.” AIP Conf. Proc.: The 10th International Conference On X-Ray Microscope1365, 100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Röder, T. Liese, and H.U. Krebs, “Material-dependent smoothing of periodic rippled structures by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 103515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H.U. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 073710 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

H.C. Kang, H. Yan, R.P. Winarski, M.V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A.T. Macrander, and G.B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H.C. Kang, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A.T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G.B. Stephenson, and H.C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-Doubling Technique to Produce Ultrahigh-Resolution X-Ray Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H.C. Kang, J. Maser, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A.T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X-Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Schroer, “Focusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B74, 033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.M. Quiney, A.G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K.A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nature Physics2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C.G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G.P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, D.L. Olynick, A.L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Yu Song, and D.T. Attwood, “20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures,” Optics Lett.28, 2019–2021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J.F. van der Veen, “Focusing X-Ray Beams to Nanometer Dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 204801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature38449–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H.U. Krebs and O. Bremert, “Pulsed laser deposition of thin metallic alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62, 2341–2343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W.B. Yun, P.J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.63, 582–585 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M.J. Simpson and A.G. Michette, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta31, 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, and G. Schmahl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.316, 103 (1981).

1974 (1)

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Soft X-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications,” Opt. Commun.12, 160–163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

P. Kirkpatrick and A.V. Baez, “Formation of optical images by x-rays,” Opt. Soc. Am.38, 766–773 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G.P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, D.L. Olynick, A.L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Yu Song, and D.T. Attwood, “20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures,” Optics Lett.28, 2019–2021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arima, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.T.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G.P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, D.L. Olynick, A.L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Yu Song, and D.T. Attwood, “20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures,” Optics Lett.28, 2019–2021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baez, A.V.

P. Kirkpatrick and A.V. Baez, “Formation of optical images by x-rays,” Opt. Soc. Am.38, 766–773 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Bergemann, C.

C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J.F. van der Veen, “Focusing X-Ray Beams to Nanometer Dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 204801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bos, A.

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, T. Warwick, and A. Bos, “Principles and Applications of Zone Plate X-Ray Microscopes, in Hawkes,” in Science of Microscopy, P. W., J. C. H. Spence, (Springer, New York, 2007), pp. 835–926.
[CrossRef]

Boye, P.

C.G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bremert, O.

H.U. Krebs and O. Bremert, “Pulsed laser deposition of thin metallic alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62, 2341–2343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burghammer, M.

C.G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

H.M. Quiney, A.G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K.A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nature Physics2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G.P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, D.L. Olynick, A.L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Yu Song, and D.T. Attwood, “20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures,” Optics Lett.28, 2019–2021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, W.K.S.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J.J. Lombardo, W.M. Harris, W.K.S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Rad.19, 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chrzas, J.

W.B. Yun, P.J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.63, 582–585 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Conley, R.

H.C. Kang, H. Yan, R.P. Winarski, M.V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A.T. Macrander, and G.B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.C. Kang, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A.T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.C. Kang, J. Maser, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A.T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X-Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J.J. Lombardo, W.M. Harris, W.K.S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Rad.19, 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-Doubling Technique to Produce Ultrahigh-Resolution X-Ray Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denbeaux, G.P.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G.P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, D.L. Olynick, A.L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Yu Song, and D.T. Attwood, “20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures,” Optics Lett.28, 2019–2021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Döring, F.

C. Eberl, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, F. Döring, H. Hofsäss, and H.U. Krebs, “Enhanced resputtering and asymmetric interface mixing in W/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. A111, 431–437 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eberl, C.

C. Eberl, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, F. Döring, H. Hofsäss, and H.U. Krebs, “Enhanced resputtering and asymmetric interface mixing in W/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. A111, 431–437 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Feldkamp, J.

C.G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giewekemeyer, G.

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S.P. Krüger, M. Osterhoff, G. Giewekemeyer, H.U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Advances2, 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.W.

J.W. Goodman, J. Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company Publishers, Greenwood Village, 2005).

Handa, S.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harris, W.M.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J.J. Lombardo, W.M. Harris, W.K.S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Rad.19, 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G.P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, D.L. Olynick, A.L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Yu Song, and D.T. Attwood, “20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures,” Optics Lett.28, 2019–2021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, J.

H.C. Kang, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A.T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofsäss, H.

C. Eberl, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, F. Döring, H. Hofsäss, and H.U. Krebs, “Enhanced resputtering and asymmetric interface mixing in W/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. A111, 431–437 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Holt, M.V.

H.C. Kang, H. Yan, R.P. Winarski, M.V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A.T. Macrander, and G.B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M.

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, T. Warwick, and A. Bos, “Principles and Applications of Zone Plate X-Ray Microscopes, in Hawkes,” in Science of Microscopy, P. W., J. C. H. Spence, (Springer, New York, 2007), pp. 835–926.
[CrossRef]

Ichimaru, S.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 013705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (2) Circular Type.” AIP Conf. Proc.: The 10th International Conference On X-Ray Microscope1365, 100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, K.

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K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schlenkrich, F.

C. Eberl, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, F. Döring, H. Hofsäss, and H.U. Krebs, “Enhanced resputtering and asymmetric interface mixing in W/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. A111, 431–437 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, and G. Schmahl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.316, 103 (1981).

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Soft X-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications,” Opt. Commun.12, 160–163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C.

C. Schroer, “Focusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B74, 033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C.G.

C.G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Q.

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G.B. Stephenson, and H.C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, M.J.

M.J. Simpson and A.G. Michette, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta31, 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature38449–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature38449–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, G.B.

H.C. Kang, H. Yan, R.P. Winarski, M.V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A.T. Macrander, and G.B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G.B. Stephenson, and H.C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.C. Kang, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A.T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.C. Kang, J. Maser, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A.T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X-Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

M. Yasumoto, S. Tamura, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Terada, “Microstructure of Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for X-ray Focusing,” Physics Procedia32, 157–160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takano, H.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 013705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (2) Circular Type.” AIP Conf. Proc.: The 10th International Conference On X-Ray Microscope1365, 100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, H.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 013705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (2) Circular Type.” AIP Conf. Proc.: The 10th International Conference On X-Ray Microscope1365, 100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, A.

M. Yasumoto, S. Tamura, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Terada, “Microstructure of Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for X-ray Focusing,” Physics Procedia32, 157–160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tamasaku, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, S.

M. Yasumoto, S. Tamura, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Terada, “Microstructure of Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for X-ray Focusing,” Physics Procedia32, 157–160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Terada, Y.

M. Yasumoto, S. Tamura, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Terada, “Microstructure of Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for X-ray Focusing,” Physics Procedia32, 157–160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, T.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 013705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (2) Circular Type.” AIP Conf. Proc.: The 10th International Conference On X-Ray Microscope1365, 100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uesugi, K.

M. Yasumoto, S. Tamura, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Terada, “Microstructure of Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for X-ray Focusing,” Physics Procedia32, 157–160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van der Hart, A.

C.G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, J.F.

C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J.F. van der Veen, “Focusing X-Ray Beams to Nanometer Dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 204801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viccaro, P.J.

W.B. Yun, P.J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.63, 582–585 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J.J. Lombardo, W.M. Harris, W.K.S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Rad.19, 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-Doubling Technique to Produce Ultrahigh-Resolution X-Ray Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vincze, L.

C.G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voelz, D.G.

Vogt, S.

H.C. Kang, H. Yan, R.P. Winarski, M.V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A.T. Macrander, and G.B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G.B. Stephenson, and H.C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.C. Kang, J. Maser, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A.T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X-Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J.J. Lombardo, W.M. Harris, W.K.S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Rad.19, 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, T.

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, T. Warwick, and A. Bos, “Principles and Applications of Zone Plate X-Ray Microscopes, in Hawkes,” in Science of Microscopy, P. W., J. C. H. Spence, (Springer, New York, 2007), pp. 835–926.
[CrossRef]

Wieczorek, M.

H.C. Kang, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A.T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winarski, R.P.

H.C. Kang, H. Yan, R.P. Winarski, M.V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A.T. Macrander, and G.B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yabashi, M.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, D.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

H.C. Kang, H. Yan, R.P. Winarski, M.V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A.T. Macrander, and G.B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G.B. Stephenson, and H.C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.C. Kang, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A.T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasumoto, M.

M. Yasumoto, S. Tamura, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Terada, “Microstructure of Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for X-ray Focusing,” Physics Procedia32, 157–160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu Song, C.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G.P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, D.L. Olynick, A.L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Yu Song, and D.T. Attwood, “20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures,” Optics Lett.28, 2019–2021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yumoto, H.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W.B.

W.B. Yun, P.J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.63, 582–585 (1992).
[CrossRef]

AIP Advances (1)

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S.P. Krüger, M. Osterhoff, G. Giewekemeyer, H.U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Advances2, 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc.: The 10th International Conference On X-Ray Microscope (1)

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (2) Circular Type.” AIP Conf. Proc.: The 10th International Conference On X-Ray Microscope1365, 100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

C. Eberl, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, F. Döring, H. Hofsäss, and H.U. Krebs, “Enhanced resputtering and asymmetric interface mixing in W/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. A111, 431–437 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H.C. Kang, H. Yan, R.P. Winarski, M.V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A.T. Macrander, and G.B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.U. Krebs and O. Bremert, “Pulsed laser deposition of thin metallic alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62, 2341–2343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C.G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Röder, T. Liese, and H.U. Krebs, “Material-dependent smoothing of periodic rippled structures by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 103515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condensed Matter (1)

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter23, 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Rad. (1)

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J.J. Lombardo, W.M. Harris, W.K.S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Rad.19, 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature38449–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phys. (1)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10nm barrier in hard x-ray focusing,” Nature Phys.6, 122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature Physics (1)

H.M. Quiney, A.G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K.A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nature Physics2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

M.J. Simpson and A.G. Michette, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta31, 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Soft X-ray imaging zone plates with large zone numbers for microscopic and spectroscopic applications,” Opt. Commun.12, 160–163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

P. Kirkpatrick and A.V. Baez, “Formation of optical images by x-rays,” Opt. Soc. Am.38, 766–773 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Optics Lett. (1)

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G.P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, D.L. Olynick, A.L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Yu Song, and D.T. Attwood, “20-nm-resolution soft x-ray microscopy demonstrated by use of multilayer test structures,” Optics Lett.28, 2019–2021 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

C. Schroer, “Focusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B74, 033405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G.B. Stephenson, and H.C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B76, 115438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-Doubling Technique to Produce Ultrahigh-Resolution X-Ray Optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.C. Kang, J. Maser, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A.T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X-Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Bergemann, H. Keymeulen, and J.F. van der Veen, “Focusing X-Ray Beams to Nanometer Dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 204801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physics Procedia (1)

M. Yasumoto, S. Tamura, N. Kamijo, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Terada, “Microstructure of Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for X-ray Focusing,” Physics Procedia32, 157–160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, and G. Schmahl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.316, 103 (1981).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

W.B. Yun, P.J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.63, 582–585 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H.C. Kang, G.B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, R. Khachatryan, M. Wieczorek, A.T. Macrander, H. Yan, J. Maser, J. Hiller, and R. Koritala, “Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 046103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H.U. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 073710 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 013705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, T. Warwick, and A. Bos, “Principles and Applications of Zone Plate X-Ray Microscopes, in Hawkes,” in Science of Microscopy, P. W., J. C. H. Spence, (Springer, New York, 2007), pp. 835–926.
[CrossRef]

J.W. Goodman, J. Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company Publishers, Greenwood Village, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic fabrication process: Pulsed laser deposition of W and Si multilayer onto a rotating wire according to the Fresnel zone plate law. Focused ion beam fabrication of the MZP by cutting a slice out of the coated wire, placing it onto a sample holder and polishing it down to the optimal optical thickness of 0.7 μm. (b) Experimental setup of the synchrotron experiment: The MZP is positioned 2 mm downstream of the KB focus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Multislice-simulation of the field propagation inside the zone plate showing volume effects for long optical lengths of the MZP, that was finally cut to 0.7 μm. (b) Simulated intensity distribution of the MZP-focused field, along the propagation axis and (d) in the focal plane yielding a spot size of 4.4 nm (FWHM). (c) Intensity distribution at the defocus position of the MZP (the positions of the MZP zones are marked)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) TEM image of the MZP depicting the multilayer structure as well as a part of the central wire. (b) Comparison of measured and ideal layer thicknesses showing a good agreement, especially for the relevant outer zones. (c) TEM micrograph of a part of the MZP used for the analysis of roughnesses and the smoothing effect. (d) Layer position error as a function of angle for different zone numbers, illustrating the smoothing effect induced by PLD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FIB-fabrication of the MZP: (a) Attaching of the micromanipulator to the coated wire and making a cut off. (b) Placing of the MZP onto a beforehand prepared W tip and attaching by Pt deposition. (c) Removing the micromanipulator from the sample. (d) Thinning out the MZP to the desired optical thickness of 700 nm (side view). See text for details.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Analysis of the measured far-field intensity yielding a spot size below 5 nm. (a) Stitched far-field intensity pattern obtained by a high dynamic range pixel detector (Pilatus 300k). (b), Central autocorrelation (of (a)) of width 9.2 nm, indicating structures of 4.6 nm in the focal field. (c), Illustration of the three-planes phase-retrieval algorithm. (d), Measured far-field intensity obtained with the sCMOS detector. (e), Reconstruction of the far-field intensity obtained via the phase-retrieval algorithm, in good agreement to the measured data (d). (f–h), Reconstructed field showing the amplitude (f) and phase (g) of the exit wave in the MZP plane revealing the measured zones (h); note that virtual zones inside the W wire are not interdicted due to the far-field beamstop. (i), Reconstruction of the two-dimensional focus field, comparing well with the simulation in Fig. 2(d). (j), Line profiles of the horizontal and vertical focus intensities yielding a spot size of 4.3 nm×4.7 nm (FWHM of Gaussian fit, red line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulations of the focusing properties of distorted MZPs with conformal height fluctuations. Corresponding to (a) the ideal case, (b) A44 = 2 nm, and (c) A44 = 7 nm, for constant m = 44. The images represent the resulting exit waves, i.e. the wavefield directly behind the MZP. As a result of the distorted exit wave, the focal length f can slightly deviate from the ideal case. Therefore, the exit waves were propagated to a set of planes around f using the Fresnel propagator to identify the plane with the highest intensity, see (d) for the case of A44 = 7 nm, and (e) for the resulting focal intensity distribution. The one-dimensional intensity profiles through the focus shown in (f), (g) and (h), for the cases of (a), (b), and (c), respectively show that the width remains almost unaltered, while the intensity increases, as detailed for a wider range of Am in (h).

Equations (4)

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u zp = D f u f = 1 [ u f exp [ i k ( f ) ] i λ ( f ) exp [ i k 2 ( f ) ρ f 2 ] ] ,
u f = { 1 [ I d ( x d , y d ) arg u f ] , if ( x d , y d ) B , 1 u f , else .
u zp = { D f u f , if ( x zp , y zp ) A 1 , else ( KB illumination ) .
r n = ( n λ / 2 ) 2 + n λ f + ε ( φ ) .

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