Abstract

Imaging techniques for studying the structure of opaque, granular and porous materials are limited by temporal resolution and radiation dose. We present a technique for characterising the structure of such materials by decoding three dimensional structural information from single, propagation based phase contrast X-ray images. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the distribution of diameters of glass microspheres in packed samples. We also present synthetic data, which shows that our inverse method is stable and that accuracy is improved by phase contrast X-ray imaging. Compared to computed tomography, our technique has superior temporal resolution and lower radiation dose.

© 2013 OSA

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2013

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image,” Opt. Express20(14), 15962–15968 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, and F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE7(8), e35691 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Hajari, D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. D. Quirk, M. S. Conradi, and J. C. Woods, “Morphometric changes in the human pulmonary acinus during inflation,” J. Appl. Physiol.112(6), 937–943 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kloss, C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker, “Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD–DEM,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dy.12, 140–152 (2012).

R. A. Jamison, J. A. Armitage, J. Carberry, M. J. Kitchen, S. B. Hooper, and A. Fouras, “Functional imaging to understand biomechanics: a critical tool for the study of biology, pathology and the development of pharmacological solutions,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.13(11), 2128–2140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. Knudsen, E. R. Weibel, H. J. G. Gundersen, F. V. Weinstein, and M. Ochs, “Assessment of air space size characteristics by intercept (chord) measurement: an accurate and efficient stereological approach,” J. Appl. Physiol.108(2), 412–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fain, M. L. Schiebler, D. G. McCormack, and G. Parraga, “Imaging of lung function using hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging: Review of current and emerging translational methods and applications,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging32(6), 1398–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Knust, M. Ochs, H. J. G. Gundersen, and J. R. Nyengaard, “Stereological estimates of alveolar number and size and capillary length and surface area in mice lungs,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)292(1), 113–122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bosecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys.4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, and J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 144104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, D. C. Dai, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain, “Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: An alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. J. Leij, T. A. Ghezzehei, and D. Or, “Modeling the dynamics of the soil pore-size distribution,” Soil Tillage Res.64(1-2), 61–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. P. Schmidt and M. L. Corradini, “The internal flow of diesel fuel injector nozzles: A review,” Int. J. Engine Res.2(1), 1–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Torquato, T. M. Truskett, and P. G. Debenedetti, “Is random close packing of spheres well defined?” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(10), 2064–2067 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x‐ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high‐energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. R. Mercer, M. L. Russell, and J. D. Crapo, “Alveolar septal structure in different species,” J. Appl. Physiol.77(3), 1060–1066 (1994).
[PubMed]

1992

C. E. Mandt, Y. Kuga, L. Tsang, and A. Ishimaru, “Microwave propagation and scattering in a dense distribution of non-tenuous spheres: experiment and theory,” Waves Random Media2(3), 225–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, “Radial distribution function for hard spheres,” Phys. Rev. A43(10), 5418–5423 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

C. M. Sayers and R. L. Smith, “The propagation of ultrasound in porous media,” Ultrasonics20(5), 201–205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972

A. W. Klein, R. F. Becker, and M. R. Bryson, “A method for estimating the distribution of alveolar sizes from histological lung sections,” Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc.91(2), 195–208 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “Small angle X-ray scattering by spherical particles of polystyrene and polyvinyltoluene,” Z. Phys.189(2), 151–162 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allison, B. J.

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altapova, V.

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amberger, S.

C. Kloss, C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker, “Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD–DEM,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dy.12, 140–152 (2012).

Armitage, J. A.

R. A. Jamison, J. A. Armitage, J. Carberry, M. J. Kitchen, S. B. Hooper, and A. Fouras, “Functional imaging to understand biomechanics: a critical tool for the study of biology, pathology and the development of pharmacological solutions,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.13(11), 2128–2140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, Y.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, G.

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baumbach, T.

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, R. F.

A. W. Klein, R. F. Becker, and M. R. Bryson, “A method for estimating the distribution of alveolar sizes from histological lung sections,” Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc.91(2), 195–208 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonse, U.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “Small angle X-ray scattering by spherical particles of polystyrene and polyvinyltoluene,” Z. Phys.189(2), 151–162 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bosecke, P.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bosecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys.4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bredenberg, C. E.

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bryson, M. R.

A. W. Klein, R. F. Becker, and M. R. Bryson, “A method for estimating the distribution of alveolar sizes from histological lung sections,” Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc.91(2), 195–208 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buffière, J.-Y.

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, and J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 144104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carberry, J.

R. A. Jamison, J. A. Armitage, J. Carberry, M. J. Kitchen, S. B. Hooper, and A. Fouras, “Functional imaging to understand biomechanics: a critical tool for the study of biology, pathology and the development of pharmacological solutions,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.13(11), 2128–2140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, D. E.

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carnibella, R.

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnibella, R. P.

Cerbino, R.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bosecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys.4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. M.

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, D. C. Dai, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain, “Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: An alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cloetens, P.

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, and F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE7(8), e35691 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, and J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 144104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Conradi, M. S.

A. J. Hajari, D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. D. Quirk, M. S. Conradi, and J. C. Woods, “Morphometric changes in the human pulmonary acinus during inflation,” J. Appl. Physiol.112(6), 937–943 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corradini, M. L.

D. P. Schmidt and M. L. Corradini, “The internal flow of diesel fuel injector nozzles: A review,” Int. J. Engine Res.2(1), 1–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crapo, J. D.

R. R. Mercer, M. L. Russell, and J. D. Crapo, “Alveolar septal structure in different species,” J. Appl. Physiol.77(3), 1060–1066 (1994).
[PubMed]

Dai, D. C.

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, D. C. Dai, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain, “Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: An alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Debenedetti, P. G.

S. Torquato, T. M. Truskett, and P. G. Debenedetti, “Is random close packing of spheres well defined?” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(10), 2064–2067 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubsky, S.

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ershov, A.

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fain, S.

S. Fain, M. L. Schiebler, D. G. McCormack, and G. Parraga, “Imaging of lung function using hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging: Review of current and emerging translational methods and applications,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging32(6), 1398–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fillinger, M.

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, J. R.

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, D. C. Dai, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain, “Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: An alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fouras, A.

R. A. Jamison, J. A. Armitage, J. Carberry, M. J. Kitchen, S. B. Hooper, and A. Fouras, “Functional imaging to understand biomechanics: a critical tool for the study of biology, pathology and the development of pharmacological solutions,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.13(11), 2128–2140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image,” Opt. Express20(14), 15962–15968 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, D.

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gatto, L. A.

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghezzehei, T. A.

F. J. Leij, T. A. Ghezzehei, and D. Or, “Modeling the dynamics of the soil pore-size distribution,” Soil Tillage Res.64(1-2), 61–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giglio, M.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bosecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys.4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goniva, C.

C. Kloss, C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker, “Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD–DEM,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dy.12, 140–152 (2012).

Goto, S.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grimal, Q.

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, and F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE7(8), e35691 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gundersen, H. J. G.

L. Knudsen, E. R. Weibel, H. J. G. Gundersen, F. V. Weinstein, and M. Ochs, “Assessment of air space size characteristics by intercept (chord) measurement: an accurate and efficient stereological approach,” J. Appl. Physiol.108(2), 412–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Knust, M. Ochs, H. J. G. Gundersen, and J. R. Nyengaard, “Stereological estimates of alveolar number and size and capillary length and surface area in mice lungs,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)292(1), 113–122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gureyev, T. E.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Habib, A.

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hager, A.

C. Kloss, C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker, “Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD–DEM,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dy.12, 140–152 (2012).

Hajari, A. J.

A. J. Hajari, D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. D. Quirk, M. S. Conradi, and J. C. Woods, “Morphometric changes in the human pulmonary acinus during inflation,” J. Appl. Physiol.112(6), 937–943 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Bonse and M. Hart, “Small angle X-ray scattering by spherical particles of polystyrene and polyvinyltoluene,” Z. Phys.189(2), 151–162 (1966).
[CrossRef]

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J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, S.

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, S. B.

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Jamison, J. A. Armitage, J. Carberry, M. J. Kitchen, S. B. Hooper, and A. Fouras, “Functional imaging to understand biomechanics: a critical tool for the study of biology, pathology and the development of pharmacological solutions,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.13(11), 2128–2140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hourigan, K.

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

C. E. Mandt, Y. Kuga, L. Tsang, and A. Ishimaru, “Microwave propagation and scattering in a dense distribution of non-tenuous spheres: experiment and theory,” Waves Random Media2(3), 225–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Isshiki, M.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, R. A.

R. A. Jamison, J. A. Armitage, J. Carberry, M. J. Kitchen, S. B. Hooper, and A. Fouras, “Functional imaging to understand biomechanics: a critical tool for the study of biology, pathology and the development of pharmacological solutions,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.13(11), 2128–2140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashef, J.

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, H.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, M.

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitchen, M. J.

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image,” Opt. Express20(14), 15962–15968 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Jamison, J. A. Armitage, J. Carberry, M. J. Kitchen, S. B. Hooper, and A. Fouras, “Functional imaging to understand biomechanics: a critical tool for the study of biology, pathology and the development of pharmacological solutions,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.13(11), 2128–2140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. W. Klein, R. F. Becker, and M. R. Bryson, “A method for estimating the distribution of alveolar sizes from histological lung sections,” Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc.91(2), 195–208 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Kloss, C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker, “Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD–DEM,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dy.12, 140–152 (2012).

Knudsen, L.

L. Knudsen, E. R. Weibel, H. J. G. Gundersen, F. V. Weinstein, and M. Ochs, “Assessment of air space size characteristics by intercept (chord) measurement: an accurate and efficient stereological approach,” J. Appl. Physiol.108(2), 412–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knust, J.

J. Knust, M. Ochs, H. J. G. Gundersen, and J. R. Nyengaard, “Stereological estimates of alveolar number and size and capillary length and surface area in mice lungs,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)292(1), 113–122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohn, V.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x‐ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high‐energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuga, Y.

C. E. Mandt, Y. Kuga, L. Tsang, and A. Ishimaru, “Microwave propagation and scattering in a dense distribution of non-tenuous spheres: experiment and theory,” Waves Random Media2(3), 225–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, S.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x‐ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high‐energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

LaBonne, C.

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, M.

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, and F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE7(8), e35691 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leij, F. J.

F. J. Leij, T. A. Ghezzehei, and D. Or, “Modeling the dynamics of the soil pore-size distribution,” Soil Tillage Res.64(1-2), 61–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levitt, J. A.

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, D. C. Dai, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain, “Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: An alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, R. A.

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ludwig, W.

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, and J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 144104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maire, E.

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, and J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 144104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mandt, C. E.

C. E. Mandt, Y. Kuga, L. Tsang, and A. Ishimaru, “Microwave propagation and scattering in a dense distribution of non-tenuous spheres: experiment and theory,” Waves Random Media2(3), 225–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McCann, U. G.

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCormack, D. G.

S. Fain, M. L. Schiebler, D. G. McCormack, and G. Parraga, “Imaging of lung function using hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging: Review of current and emerging translational methods and applications,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging32(6), 1398–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. R. Mercer, M. L. Russell, and J. D. Crapo, “Alveolar septal structure in different species,” J. Appl. Physiol.77(3), 1060–1066 (1994).
[PubMed]

Mokso, R.

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, and J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 144104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moosmann, J.

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, M. J.

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mudie, S. T.

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, J.

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieman, G. F.

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nyengaard, J. R.

J. Knust, M. Ochs, H. J. G. Gundersen, and J. R. Nyengaard, “Stereological estimates of alveolar number and size and capillary length and surface area in mice lungs,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)292(1), 113–122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ochs, M.

L. Knudsen, E. R. Weibel, H. J. G. Gundersen, F. V. Weinstein, and M. Ochs, “Assessment of air space size characteristics by intercept (chord) measurement: an accurate and efficient stereological approach,” J. Appl. Physiol.108(2), 412–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Knust, M. Ochs, H. J. G. Gundersen, and J. R. Nyengaard, “Stereological estimates of alveolar number and size and capillary length and surface area in mice lungs,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)292(1), 113–122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohashi, H.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Or, D.

F. J. Leij, T. A. Ghezzehei, and D. Or, “Modeling the dynamics of the soil pore-size distribution,” Soil Tillage Res.64(1-2), 61–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pacureanu, A.

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, and F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE7(8), e35691 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganin, D.

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parraga, G.

S. Fain, M. L. Schiebler, D. G. McCormack, and G. Parraga, “Imaging of lung function using hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging: Review of current and emerging translational methods and applications,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging32(6), 1398–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peverini, L.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bosecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys.4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peyrin, F.

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, and F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE7(8), e35691 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picone, A. L.

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pirker, S.

C. Kloss, C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker, “Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD–DEM,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dy.12, 140–152 (2012).

Pogany, A.

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Potenza, M. A. C.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bosecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys.4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, M. S.

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quirk, J. D.

A. J. Hajari, D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. D. Quirk, M. S. Conradi, and J. C. Woods, “Morphometric changes in the human pulmonary acinus during inflation,” J. Appl. Physiol.112(6), 937–943 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert, A.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bosecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys.4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, M. L.

R. R. Mercer, M. L. Russell, and J. D. Crapo, “Alveolar septal structure in different species,” J. Appl. Physiol.77(3), 1060–1066 (1994).
[PubMed]

Santos, A.

S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, “Radial distribution function for hard spheres,” Phys. Rev. A43(10), 5418–5423 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayers, C. M.

C. M. Sayers and R. L. Smith, “The propagation of ultrasound in porous media,” Ultrasonics20(5), 201–205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schelokov, I.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x‐ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high‐energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schiebler, M. L.

S. Fain, M. L. Schiebler, D. G. McCormack, and G. Parraga, “Imaging of lung function using hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging: Review of current and emerging translational methods and applications,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging32(6), 1398–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiller, H. J.

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, D. P.

D. P. Schmidt and M. L. Corradini, “The internal flow of diesel fuel injector nozzles: A review,” Int. J. Engine Res.2(1), 1–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siew, M.

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siew, M. L.

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siu, K. K. W.

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. L.

C. M. Sayers and R. L. Smith, “The propagation of ultrasound in porous media,” Ultrasonics20(5), 201–205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x‐ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high‐energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x‐ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high‐energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, A. W.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suhonen, H.

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, and F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE7(8), e35691 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukstanskii, A. L.

A. J. Hajari, D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. D. Quirk, M. S. Conradi, and J. C. Woods, “Morphometric changes in the human pulmonary acinus during inflation,” J. Appl. Physiol.112(6), 937–943 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, Y.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swift, G. P.

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, D. C. Dai, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain, “Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: An alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeshita, K.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thurgood, J.

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torquato, S.

S. Torquato, T. M. Truskett, and P. G. Debenedetti, “Is random close packing of spheres well defined?” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(10), 2064–2067 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truskett, T. M.

S. Torquato, T. M. Truskett, and P. G. Debenedetti, “Is random close packing of spheres well defined?” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(10), 2064–2067 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, L.

C. E. Mandt, Y. Kuga, L. Tsang, and A. Ishimaru, “Microwave propagation and scattering in a dense distribution of non-tenuous spheres: experiment and theory,” Waves Random Media2(3), 225–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Uesugi, K.

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umetani, K.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M.

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. J.

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weibel, E. R.

L. Knudsen, E. R. Weibel, H. J. G. Gundersen, F. V. Weinstein, and M. Ochs, “Assessment of air space size characteristics by intercept (chord) measurement: an accurate and efficient stereological approach,” J. Appl. Physiol.108(2), 412–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinstein, F. V.

L. Knudsen, E. R. Weibel, H. J. G. Gundersen, F. V. Weinstein, and M. Ochs, “Assessment of air space size characteristics by intercept (chord) measurement: an accurate and efficient stereological approach,” J. Appl. Physiol.108(2), 412–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkins, S. W.

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woods, J. C.

A. J. Hajari, D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. D. Quirk, M. S. Conradi, and J. C. Woods, “Morphometric changes in the human pulmonary acinus during inflation,” J. Appl. Physiol.112(6), 937–943 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonskiy, D. A.

A. J. Hajari, D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. D. Quirk, M. S. Conradi, and J. C. Woods, “Morphometric changes in the human pulmonary acinus during inflation,” J. Appl. Physiol.112(6), 937–943 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yagi, N.

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, H.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoneda, Y.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yuste, S. B.

S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, “Radial distribution function for hard spheres,” Phys. Rev. A43(10), 5418–5423 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care

D. E. Carney, C. E. Bredenberg, H. J. Schiller, A. L. Picone, U. G. McCann, L. A. Gatto, G. Bailey, M. Fillinger, and G. F. Nieman, “The mechanism of lung volume change during mechanical ventilation,” Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care160(5), 1697–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)

J. Knust, M. Ochs, H. J. G. Gundersen, and J. R. Nyengaard, “Stereological estimates of alveolar number and size and capillary length and surface area in mice lungs,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken)292(1), 113–122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng.

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W. Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(5), 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Mokso, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, W. Ludwig, and J.-Y. Buffière, “Nanoscale zoom tomography with hard x rays using Kirkpatrick-Baez optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 144104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.

R. A. Jamison, J. A. Armitage, J. Carberry, M. J. Kitchen, S. B. Hooper, and A. Fouras, “Functional imaging to understand biomechanics: a critical tool for the study of biology, pathology and the development of pharmacological solutions,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.13(11), 2128–2140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Engine Res.

D. P. Schmidt and M. L. Corradini, “The internal flow of diesel fuel injector nozzles: A review,” Int. J. Engine Res.2(1), 1–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, D. C. Dai, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain, “Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: An alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,” J. Appl. Phys.101(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol.

A. J. Hajari, D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. D. Quirk, M. S. Conradi, and J. C. Woods, “Morphometric changes in the human pulmonary acinus during inflation,” J. Appl. Physiol.112(6), 937–943 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Mercer, M. L. Russell, and J. D. Crapo, “Alveolar septal structure in different species,” J. Appl. Physiol.77(3), 1060–1066 (1994).
[PubMed]

L. Knudsen, E. R. Weibel, H. J. G. Gundersen, F. V. Weinstein, and M. Ochs, “Assessment of air space size characteristics by intercept (chord) measurement: an accurate and efficient stereological approach,” J. Appl. Physiol.108(2), 412–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Magn. Reson. Imaging

S. Fain, M. L. Schiebler, D. G. McCormack, and G. Parraga, “Imaging of lung function using hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging: Review of current and emerging translational methods and applications,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging32(6), 1398–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bosecke, and M. Giglio, “X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle,” Nat. Phys.4(3), 238–243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Moosmann, A. Ershov, V. Altapova, T. Baumbach, M. S. Prasad, C. LaBonne, X. Xiao, J. Kashef, and R. Hofmann, “X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation,” Nature497(7449), 374–377 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53(21), 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(18), 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, “Radial distribution function for hard spheres,” Phys. Rev. A43(10), 5418–5423 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Torquato, T. M. Truskett, and P. G. Debenedetti, “Is random close packing of spheres well defined?” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(10), 2064–2067 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE

J. Thurgood, S. Hooper, M. Siew, M. Wallace, S. Dubsky, M. Kitchen, R. A. Jamison, R. Carnibella, and A. Fouras, “Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits,” PLoS ONE7(10), e48122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Langer, A. Pacureanu, H. Suhonen, Q. Grimal, P. Cloetens, and F. Peyrin, “X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure,” PLoS ONE7(8), e35691 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Comput. Fluid Dy.

C. Kloss, C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker, “Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD–DEM,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dy.12, 140–152 (2012).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x‐ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high‐energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
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Soil Tillage Res.

F. J. Leij, T. A. Ghezzehei, and D. Or, “Modeling the dynamics of the soil pore-size distribution,” Soil Tillage Res.64(1-2), 61–78 (2002).
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C. M. Sayers and R. L. Smith, “The propagation of ultrasound in porous media,” Ultrasonics20(5), 201–205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media

C. E. Mandt, Y. Kuga, L. Tsang, and A. Ishimaru, “Microwave propagation and scattering in a dense distribution of non-tenuous spheres: experiment and theory,” Waves Random Media2(3), 225–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An overview of the complete process of solving for particle statistics. On the left, a single phase contrast image of the sample is taken at a propagation distance, z, and its spatial autocorrelation function (SAF) calculated. On the right the genetic algorithm (GA) iterates over simulated particle SAFs to find the particle parameters that produce the closest match between the two SAFs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The distributions of microsphere sizes obtained from experimental images. Nominal sieve sizes were (a) 63-75 µm, (b) 75-90 µm, (c) 90-106 µm and (d) 106-125 µm. These sizes are depicted by the light grey top hat functions. The darker grey curve is the distribution measured by a commercial particle sizer (Mastersizer 2000). The darkest/blue curve is the distribution measured by our method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The upper row is a series of experimental phase contrast X-ray images, of nominally 106-125 µm glass microspheres, recorded at propagation distances of 0.01 m, 0.4 m, 1 m, 2 m and 3 m. For comparison, the lower row shows simulated images at the same propagation distances. The latter is based on solutions for the distribution of sphere sizes in the experimental images. Each image is 1132.8 × 1132.8 µm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The geometric mean (GM) and (b) geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the distribution of microsphere diameters measured from synthetic phase contrast X-ray images at several propagation distances, z. In these two sub-figures, individual solutions are plotted as points, the parameters of the best solution are linked by a solid line, and the true solution is denoted by a horizontal dashed line. (c) The probability density functions (PDF) of microsphere diameters, measured at propagation distances of 0 m and 1 m. (d) The sum of absolute errors between the true and measured PDF at several propagation distances. The points at 0 m and 1 m correspond with the shaded area between the PDFs in (c). (e) Speckle contrast, measured as the standard deviation of image pixel intensities, as a function of propagation distance.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of nominal microsphere sizes with geometric mean, geometric standard deviation and interquartile range (IQR) measured by a commercial particle size analyzer and phase contrast X-ray speckle analysis

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= I raw I dark I flat I dark .
SAF 2D (j,k)= x,y I x,y I xj,yk ,
SAF ¯ 2D (j,k)= 1 N n=1 N SAF 2D_n (j,k) SAF 2D_n (0,0) ,
SAF(l)= 1 M m=1 M SAF ¯ 2D | l0.5 j 2 + k 2 <l+0.5 (j,k) ,
U exit = e μt e ikδt ,
I sim = | U propagated | 2 N(0, σ blur ),
x mutated (x)=min(max(N(x, σ mutation ), x lo ), x hi ),

Metrics