Abstract

We study the nonlinear optical properties of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanowires (NWs) fabricated by a top-down ion beam enhanced etching method. First, we demonstrate generation and propagation of the second-harmonic (SH) light in LiNbO3 NWs of typical rectangular cross-sections of 400 x 600 nm2 and length from 10 to 50 μm. Then, we show local fluorescent excitation of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye with the propagated SH signal in standard concentrations as for biological applications. By measuring the detected average power of the propagated fundamental harmonic (FH) and the SH signal at the output of the NWs, we directly prove the dominating role of the SH signal over possible two-photon excitation processes with the FH in the DAPI dye. We estimate that 63 ± 6 pW of the propagated SH average power is required for detectable dye excitation. Finally, we model the waveguiding of the SH light to determine the smallest NW cross-section (around 40x60 nm2) which is potentially able to excite fluorescence with a FH intensity below the cell damage threshold.

© 2013 OSA

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2013

J. Richter, A. Steinbrück, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and R. Grange, “Plasmonic core–shell nanowires for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Plasmonics8(1), 115–120 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

H. Choo, M. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire building blocks: From flux line pinning to artificial photosynthesis,” MRS Bull.37(09), 806–813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, G. Brönstrup, M. Kiometzis, A. Sergeyev, J. Richter, C. Leiterer, W. Fritzsche, C. Gutsche, A. Lysov, W. Prost, F.-J. Tegude, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and S. Christiansen, “Far-field imaging for direct visualization of light interferences in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5412–5417 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanatinia, M. Swillo, and S. Anand, “Surface second-harmonic generation from vertical GaP nanopillars,” Nano Lett.12(2), 820–826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knabe, K. Buse, W. Assenmacher, and W. Mader, “Spontaneous polarization in ultrasmall lithium niobate nanocrystals revealed by second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B86(19), 195428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J. P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

F. Dutto, C. Raillon, K. Schenk, and A. Radenovic, “Nonlinear optical response in single alkaline niobate nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2517–2521 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Solntsev, A. A. Sukhorukov, D. N. Neshev, R. Iliew, R. Geiss, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Cascaded third harmonic generation in lithium niobate nanowaveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, P. J. Reece, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Nonlinear optical processes in optically trapped InP nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4149–4153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, L. Hanson, Y. Cui, and B. Cui, “Vertical nanopillars for highly localized fluorescence imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(10), 3894–3899 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, J.-H. Park, Y. Choi, C.-J. Heo, S.-M. Yang, L. P. Lee, and P. Yang, “Nanowire-based single-cell endoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(3), 191–196 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Barrelet, H.-S. Ee, S.-H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Nonlinear mixing in nanowire subwavelength waveguides,” Nano Lett.11(7), 3022–3025 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Valiulis, V. Jukna, O. Jedrkiewicz, M. Clerici, E. Rubino, and P. DiTrapani, “Propagation dynamics and X-pulse formation in phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A83(4), 043834 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

P. Yang, R. Yan, and M. Fardy, “Semiconductor nanowire: what’s next?” Nano Lett.10(5), 1529–1536 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, T. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, W. Wesch, and A. Tünnermann, “Ultra thin high index contrast photonic crystal slabs in lithium niobate,” Opt. Mater.33(1), 19–21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, S. Crankshaw, T. Tran, L. C. Chuang, M. Moewe, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Second-harmonic generation from a single wurtzite GaAs nanoneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Grange, J.-W. Choi, C.-L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, A. Magrez, R. Smajda, L. Forró, and D. Psaltis, “Lithium niobate nanowires synthesis, optical properties, and manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 143105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Ann. Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, “Optical second-harmonic scattering from cyllindrical particles,” Phys. Rev. B78(20), 121–1098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. P. Long, B. S. Simpkins, D. J. Rowenhorst, and P. E. Pehrsson, “Far-field imaging of optical second-harmonic generation in single GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(3), 831–836 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurisic, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. M. Dixon, M. Taniguchi, and J. S. Lindsey, “PhotochemCAD 2: a refined program with accompanying spectral databases for photochemical calculations,” Photochem. Photobiol.81(1), 212–213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire photonic circuit elements,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1981–1985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Cosa, K. S. Focsaneanu, J. R. McLean, J. P. McNamee, and J. C. Scaiano, “Photophysical properties of fluorescent DNA-dyes bound to single- and double-stranded DNA in aqueous buffered solution,” Photochem. Photobiol.73(6), 585–599 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

1990

F. Otto, “DAPI staining of fixed cells for high-resolution flow cytometry of nuclear DNA,” Methods Cell Biol.33, 105–110 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

S. Hamada and S. Fujita, “DAPI staining improved for quantitative cytofluorometry,” Histochemistry79(2), 219–226 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

K. Morikawa and M. Yanagida, “Visualization of individual DNA molecules in solution by light microscopy: DAPI staining method,” J. Biochem.89(2), 693–696 (1981).
[PubMed]

1980

K. G. Porter and Y. S. Feig, “The use of DAPI for identifying aquatic microflora,” Limnol. Oceanogr.25(5), 943–948 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, R.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anand, S.

R. Sanatinia, M. Swillo, and S. Anand, “Surface second-harmonic generation from vertical GaP nanopillars,” Nano Lett.12(2), 820–826 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assenmacher, W.

B. Knabe, K. Buse, W. Assenmacher, and W. Mader, “Spontaneous polarization in ultrasmall lithium niobate nanocrystals revealed by second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B86(19), 195428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barille, R.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurisic, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barrelet, C. J.

C. J. Barrelet, H.-S. Ee, S.-H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Nonlinear mixing in nanowire subwavelength waveguides,” Nano Lett.11(7), 3022–3025 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire photonic circuit elements,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1981–1985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

H. Choo, M. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bonacina, L.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J. P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brönstrup, G.

R. Grange, G. Brönstrup, M. Kiometzis, A. Sergeyev, J. Richter, C. Leiterer, W. Fritzsche, C. Gutsche, A. Lysov, W. Prost, F.-J. Tegude, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and S. Christiansen, “Far-field imaging for direct visualization of light interferences in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.12(10), 5412–5417 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

B. Knabe, K. Buse, W. Assenmacher, and W. Mader, “Spontaneous polarization in ultrasmall lithium niobate nanocrystals revealed by second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B86(19), 195428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

H. Choo, M. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, S. W.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurisic, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurisic, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of a NW (a) and its facet (b). The inset in (b) shows the crystal structure of the NW. The width, the height and the length of the presented NW are 460 ± 20 nm, 610 ± 20 nm and 48.9 ± 0.4 µm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) White light image of the studied NW. The dashed circle indicates the illumination area of the FH incident beam spot. (b) SH light at the NW input and propagated SH light at the NW output. The average power of the output SH signal is found to be 347 ± 40 pW. The width, the height and the length of the studied NW are 460 ± 20 nm, 610 ± 20 nm and 48.9 ± 0.4 µm, respectively. The dash-and-dot line indicates the position of the NW. (c) The dependence of the SH signal at the NW output on the incident laser beam power. The dots correspond to the experimental results and the solid line corresponds to the quadratic fit. The error bars show uncertainty of choosing the signal pixels for integration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of the fluorescence signal in DAPI dye solution with concentrations of 1 µg/ml (a) and 50 ng/ml (b). The collected fluorescence signals at the NW output are found to be 17.6 ± 1.9 fW and 2.4 ± 1.2 fW in DAPI dye solutions with concentrations of 1 µg/ml and 50 ng/ml, respectively. The dashed and the dotted circles indicate the illumination area of the incident beam spot and the fluorescence signal at the NW output, respectively. The dash-and-dot line indicates the position of the NW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SH and fluorescence signals versus FH laser beam power. The squares correspond to the propagated SH signal power and the circles correspond to the fluorescence signal power. The error bars show uncertainty of choosing the signal pixels for integration. (b) The SNR of the fluorescence signal versus the average power of the propagated SH signal. The width, the height and the length of the studied NW are 671.35 ± 53.48 nm, 503.9 ± 39.87 nm and 38.8 ± 0.3 µm, respectively. The red dashed line shows the limiting value of the SNR equal to 5 at which the features of the image can be unambiguously identified according to the Rose criterion. The error bars show uncertainty of choosing the signal pixels for integration.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Rate Equations for the SPA and TPA Processes and Their Contribution to Fluorescence Excitationa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Smallest NW Height and Width for Various NW Crystal Structures at which the NW Provides a Propagated SH Average Power above 63 ± 6 pW and the Predicted Average Power of the SH Signala

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