Abstract

We observe spectral broadening of femtosecond pulses in single-mode anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO2) waveguides at telecommunication and near-visible wavelengths (1565 and 794 nm). By fitting our data to nonlinear pulse propagation simulations, we quantify nonlinear optical parameters around 1565 nm. Our fitting yields a nonlinear refractive index of 0.16 × 10−18 m2/W, no two-photon absorption, and stimulated Raman scattering from the 144 cm−1 Raman line of anatase with a gain coefficient of 6.6 × 10−12 m/W. Additionally, we report on asymmetric spectral broadening around 794 nm. The wide wavelength applicability and negligible two-photon absorption of TiO2 make it a promising material for integrated photonics.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (4)

2011 (5)

2010 (2)

C. Xiong, L. G. Helt, A. C. Judge, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. E. Sipe, and B. J. Eggleton, “Quantum-correlated photon pair generation in chalcogenide As2S3waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 16206–16216 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Castillo-Matadamas, R. M. Lima-Garca, and R. Quintero-Torres, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of TiO2nanoclusters at 850 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1100–1106 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 5601–5604 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108–3 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photon 3, 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I. W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 162–235 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

P. Koonath, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Limiting nature of continuum generation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 3 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodrguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. d. Coss, and G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2nanoparticles: anatase, brookite and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Portuondo-Campa, A. Tortschanoff, F. van Mourik, and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast nonresonant response of TiO2nanostructured films,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244718–10 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 12987–12994 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

J.-C. G. Bunzli and C. Piguet, “Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34, 1048–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

2003 (3)

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light,” J. Cerebr. Blood F. Met. 23, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Dinu, “Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1498–1503 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Tang, F. Lvy, H. Berger, and P. E. Schmid, “Urbach tail of anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 7771 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. Hashimoto, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Sol-gel preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of TiO2thin films,” B. Chem. Soc. Jpn 67, 653–660 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. I. Stegeman, “Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching,” Proc. SPIE 1852, 75–89 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. W. Hall and A. Pollard, “Near-infrared spectrophotometry: a new dimension in clinical chemistry,” Clin. Chem. 38, 1623–1631 (1992).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665–2673 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

S. Friberg and P. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1978 (2)

J. Pascual, J. Camassel, and H. Mathieu, “Fine structure in the intrinsic absorption edge of TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 5606 (1978).
[Crossref]

T. Ohsaka, F. Izumi, and Y. Fujiki, “Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 321–324 (1978).
[Crossref]

Absil, P. P.

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15, 16604–16644 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. P. Agrawal, “Quantum electronics–principles and applications,” in Nonlinear fiber optics,4th ed.(Elsevier/Academic Press, Amsterdam ; Boston, 2007).

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzini, S.

Bajoni, D.

Baker, N. J.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, H.

H. Tang, F. Lvy, H. Berger, and P. E. Schmid, “Urbach tail of anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 7771 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blow, K. J.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665–2673 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bock, M.

Borca, C. N.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

Boyraz, O.

Bradley, J. D. B.

Bunzli, J.-C. G.

J.-C. G. Bunzli and C. Piguet, “Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34, 1048–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgess, I. B.

Cab, C.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodrguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. d. Coss, and G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2nanoparticles: anatase, brookite and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camassel, J.

J. Pascual, J. Camassel, and H. Mathieu, “Fine structure in the intrinsic absorption edge of TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 5606 (1978).
[Crossref]

Castillo-Matadamas, H. A.

H. A. Castillo-Matadamas, R. M. Lima-Garca, and R. Quintero-Torres, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of TiO2nanoclusters at 850 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1100–1106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chen, A.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 5601–5604 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chergui, M.

E. Portuondo-Campa, A. Tortschanoff, F. van Mourik, and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast nonresonant response of TiO2nanostructured films,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244718–10 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, P. S.

Choi, D. Y.

Choy, J. T.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Colman, P.

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108–3 (2009).
[Crossref]

Combrie, S.

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108–3 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coss, R. d.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodrguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. d. Coss, and G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2nanoparticles: anatase, brookite and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dadap, J. I.

Dantus, M.

Das, S. K.

De Angelis, C.

De Rossi, A.

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108–3 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deotare, P. B.

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, “Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1498–1503 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dulkeith, E.

Eggleton, B. J.

El-Ganainy, R.

Elsaesser, T.

Espinosa-Pesqueira, M. E.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodrguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. d. Coss, and G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2nanoparticles: anatase, brookite and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, C. C.

Fainman, Y.

Finsterbusch, K.

Foster, M. A.

Friberg, S.

S. Friberg and P. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fu, L. B.

Fujiki, Y.

T. Ohsaka, F. Izumi, and Y. Fujiki, “Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 321–324 (1978).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Galli, M.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gardillou, F.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grassani, D.

Green, W. M.

Griebner, U.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grunwald, R.

Hadfield, R. H.

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photon 3, 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, J. W.

J. W. Hall and A. Pollard, “Near-infrared spectrophotometry: a new dimension in clinical chemistry,” Clin. Chem. 38, 1623–1631 (1992).
[PubMed]

Hashimoto, T.

T. Hashimoto, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Sol-gel preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of TiO2thin films,” B. Chem. Soc. Jpn 67, 653–660 (1994).
[Crossref]

Heebner, J. E.

Helt, L. G.

Ho, P. T.

Hryniewicz, J. V.

Hsieh, I. W.

Husko, C.

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108–3 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hutchings, D. C.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, K.

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photon 5, 293–296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iwanow, R.

Izumi, F.

T. Ohsaka, F. Izumi, and Y. Fujiki, “Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 321–324 (1978).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

P. Koonath, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Limiting nature of continuum generation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 3 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269–5273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joneckis, L. G.

Judge, A. C.

Kang, J. U.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koonath, P.

P. Koonath, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Limiting nature of continuum generation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 3 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol 24, 4502–4513 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuzucu, O.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Levy, J. S.

Li, Y.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 5601–5604 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photon 5, 293–296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lima-Garca, R. M.

H. A. Castillo-Matadamas, R. M. Lima-Garca, and R. Quintero-Torres, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of TiO2nanoclusters at 850 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1100–1106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Liscidini, M.

Little, B. E.

Liu, X.

Locatelli, A.

Loncar, M.

Long, H.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 5601–5604 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lozovoy, V. V.

Lu, P.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 5601–5604 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

Lvy, F.

H. Tang, F. Lvy, H. Berger, and P. E. Schmid, “Urbach tail of anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 7771 (1995).
[Crossref]

Madden, S.

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photon 5, 293–296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

Mart-Panameo, E. A.

Mathieu, H.

J. Pascual, J. Camassel, and H. Mathieu, “Fine structure in the intrinsic absorption edge of TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 5606 (1978).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photon 5, 293–296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

Milam, D.

Modotto, D.

Moll, K. D.

Morandotti, R.

Moss, D. J.

Nguyen, H. C.

Obrig, H.

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light,” J. Cerebr. Blood F. Met. 23, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ohsaka, T.

T. Ohsaka, F. Izumi, and Y. Fujiki, “Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 321–324 (1978).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

Osgood, J. R. M.

Oskam, G.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodrguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. d. Coss, and G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2nanoparticles: anatase, brookite and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Painter, O. J.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

Parsy, F.

Pascual, J.

J. Pascual, J. Camassel, and H. Mathieu, “Fine structure in the intrinsic absorption edge of TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 5606 (1978).
[Crossref]

Pastirk, I.

Payne, S. A.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Petrov, V.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pfuch, A.

Phillips, K. C.

Piguet, C.

J.-C. G. Bunzli and C. Piguet, “Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34, 1048–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollard, A.

J. W. Hall and A. Pollard, “Near-infrared spectrophotometry: a new dimension in clinical chemistry,” Clin. Chem. 38, 1623–1631 (1992).
[PubMed]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Portuondo-Campa, E.

E. Portuondo-Campa, A. Tortschanoff, F. van Mourik, and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast nonresonant response of TiO2nanostructured films,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244718–10 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pozzi, F.

Quintero-Torres, R.

H. A. Castillo-Matadamas, R. M. Lima-Garca, and R. Quintero-Torres, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of TiO2nanoclusters at 850 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1100–1106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reshef, O.

Reyes-Coronado, D.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodrguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. d. Coss, and G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2nanoparticles: anatase, brookite and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photon 5, 141–148 (2011).

Rivier, S.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rodrguez-Gattorno, G.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodrguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. d. Coss, and G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2nanoparticles: anatase, brookite and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanyuk, Y. E.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Saha, K.

Sakka, S.

T. Hashimoto, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Sol-gel preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of TiO2thin films,” B. Chem. Soc. Jpn 67, 653–660 (1994).
[Crossref]

Salem, R.

Saperstein, R. E.

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photon 5, 293–296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmid, P. E.

H. Tang, F. Lvy, H. Berger, and P. E. Schmid, “Urbach tail of anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 7771 (1995).
[Crossref]

Schwanke, C.

Seeber, W.

Seidel, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photon 5, 293–296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

Siviloglou, G. A.

Smith, P.

S. Friberg and P. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Solli, D. R.

P. Koonath, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Limiting nature of continuum generation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 3 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

Stanley, C. R.

Steel, M. J.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. A. Siviloglou, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, “Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching,” Proc. SPIE 1852, 75–89 (1993).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

Strain, M. J.

Suntsov, S.

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tang, H.

H. Tang, F. Lvy, H. Berger, and P. E. Schmid, “Urbach tail of anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 7771 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tortschanoff, A.

E. Portuondo-Campa, A. Tortschanoff, F. van Mourik, and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast nonresonant response of TiO2nanostructured films,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244718–10 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, Q. V.

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108–3 (2009).
[Crossref]

Turner, A. C.

van Mourik, F.

E. Portuondo-Campa, A. Tortschanoff, F. van Mourik, and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast nonresonant response of TiO2nanostructured films,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244718–10 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, A.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

Villringer, A.

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light,” J. Cerebr. Blood F. Met. 23, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wen, Y. H.

Wherrett, B. S.

Wilson, R. A.

Wood, D.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665–2673 (1989).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

Yang, G.

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 5601–5604 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, “Study of Nonlinear Optical Effects in Silicon Waveguides,” Ph.D. thesis (2009).

Yoko, T.

T. Hashimoto, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Sol-gel preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of TiO2thin films,” B. Chem. Soc. Jpn 67, 653–660 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Koonath, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Limiting nature of continuum generation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 3 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, A. De Rossi, C. Husko, and P. Colman, “High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108–3 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Chem. Soc. Jpn (1)

T. Hashimoto, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Sol-gel preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of TiO2thin films,” B. Chem. Soc. Jpn 67, 653–660 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

J.-C. G. Bunzli and C. Piguet, “Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34, 1048–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem. (1)

J. W. Hall and A. Pollard, “Near-infrared spectrophotometry: a new dimension in clinical chemistry,” Clin. Chem. 38, 1623–1631 (1992).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

M. Dinu, “Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1498–1503 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Friberg and P. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2089–2094 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665–2673 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Cerebr. Blood F. Met. (1)

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light,” J. Cerebr. Blood F. Met. 23, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

E. Portuondo-Campa, A. Tortschanoff, F. van Mourik, and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast nonresonant response of TiO2nanostructured films,” J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244718–10 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol (1)

F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol 24, 4502–4513 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. A. Castillo-Matadamas, R. M. Lima-Garca, and R. Quintero-Torres, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of TiO2nanoclusters at 850 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1100–1106 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

T. Ohsaka, F. Izumi, and Y. Fujiki, “Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 321–324 (1978).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodrguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. d. Coss, and G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2nanoparticles: anatase, brookite and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon (3)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photon 5, 141–148 (2011).

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photon 5, 293–296 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photon 3, 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (13)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 12949–12958 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15, 9205–9221 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-based monolithic optical frequency comb source,” Opt. Express 19, 14233–14239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269–5273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, L. G. Helt, A. C. Judge, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. E. Sipe, and B. J. Eggleton, “Quantum-correlated photon pair generation in chalcogenide As2S3waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 16206–16216 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, L. G. Helt, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, M. Galli, and D. Bajoni, “Ultra-low power generation of twin photons in a compact silicon ring resonator,” Opt. Express 20, 23100–23107 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Evans, J. D. B. Bradley, E. A. Mart-Panameo, and E. Mazur, “Mixed two- and three-photon absorption in bulk rutile (TiO2) around 800 nm,” Opt. Express 20, 3118–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
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Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15, 16604–16644 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 12987–12994 (2008).
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M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 12, 2880–2887 (2004).
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S. K. Das, C. Schwanke, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, M. Bock, G. Steinmeyer, T. Elsaesser, and R. Grunwald, “Highly efficient THG in TiO2nanolayers for third-order pulse characterization,” Opt. Express 19, 16985–16995 (2011).
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J. D. B. Bradley, C. C. Evans, J. T. Choy, O. Reshef, P. B. Deotare, F. Parsy, K. C. Phillips, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2waveguides for microphotonic devices,” Opt. Express 20, 23821–23831 (2012).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. Pascual, J. Camassel, and H. Mathieu, “Fine structure in the intrinsic absorption edge of TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 5606 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

H. Tang, F. Lvy, H. Berger, and P. E. Schmid, “Urbach tail of anatase TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 7771 (1995).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. I. Stegeman, “Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching,” Proc. SPIE 1852, 75–89 (1993).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. Long, A. Chen, G. Yang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 5601–5604 (2009).
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Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, “Quantum electronics–principles and applications,” in Nonlinear fiber optics,4th ed.(Elsevier/Academic Press, Amsterdam ; Boston, 2007).

L. Yin, “Study of Nonlinear Optical Effects in Silicon Waveguides,” Ph.D. thesis (2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrograph of a 200-nm wide polycrystalline-anatase TiO2 waveguide, prior to top cladding (a). The waveguide is trapezoidal in shape and the TiO2 grains are columnar in appearance. We show simulated mode-profiles of the fundamental TM and TE-like modes around 1565 and 794 nm (b and c, respectively), showing strong confinement in our single-mode waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured (thick) and simulated (thin) spectral broadening for a 900-nm wide polycrystalline-anatase TiO2 waveguide at λ0 = 1565 nm at incident energies from 29 pJ to 443 pJ. As the energy is increased, oscillatory features appear in the central peak and a secondary peak around 1600 nm emerges for energies greater than 120 pJ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (thick) and simulated (thin) spectral broadening for a 200-nm wide poly-crystalline anatase TiO2 waveguide at incident energies from 1 pJ to 48 pJ. The data show a strong red-shifted asymmetry with increasing energy at λ0 = 794 nm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser parameters used for measurement.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Nonlinear optical parameters determined from fitting simulation to experimental data (Figs. 2 and 3). We estimate an uncertainty of ± 20% for 1565 nm. Parameters around 794 nm should be considered order of magnitude estimates. Parameters with asterisks were not fit.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A ( z , t ) z + 1 2 α 1 A ( z , t ) + α 2 A 2 ( z , t ) A eff + α 3 ( A 2 ( z , t ) A eff ) 2 + i β 2 2 2 A ( z , t ) t 2 β 3 6 3 A ( z , t ) t 3 = i γ ( 1 + i ω 0 t ) ( A ( z , t ) R ( t ) | A ( z , t t ) | 2 d t ) ,
γ = 2 π λ n 2 ( x , y ) | F ( x , y ) | 4 d x d y ( | F ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y ) 2 .
R ( t ) = ( 1 f R ) δ ( t ) + f R h R ( t ) ,
h R ( t ) = τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 τ 1 τ 2 2 exp ( t / τ 2 ) sin ( t / τ 1 ) .

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