Abstract

We have proposed a new approach to tune the operation wavelength of Franz-Keldysh Ge electro-absorption modulation in Si photonics by controlling the local strain environment to cover the whole range of C + L bands (1.53 – 1.62 μm). The present paper shows a proof of strain-tuning modulator concept by the shift of the Ge absorption edge using SiNx stressor films and Franz-Keldysh effect in strain-controlled Ge.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express19(6), 5040–5046 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP8, 211–213 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Ding, T. Liow, E. Lim, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4, 1–3 (2012)
  6. C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. B. Park, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, J. Osaka, and K. Wada, “Reserve current reduction of Ge photodiodes on Si without post-growth annealing,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(4), 286–290 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Ding, A. E. Lim, J. T. Liow, M. B. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Dependences of photoluminescence from P-implanted epitaxial Ge,” Opt. Express20(8), 8228–8239 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Park, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, J. Osaka, and K. Wada, “Reserve current reduction of Ge photodiodes on Si without post-growth annealing,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(4), 286–290 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Duan, N.

A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express19(6), 5040–5046 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ding, T. Liow, E. Lim, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4, 1–3 (2012)

Hirosawa, I.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

S. B. Park, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, J. Osaka, and K. Wada, “Reserve current reduction of Ge photodiodes on Si without post-growth annealing,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(4), 286–290 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP8, 211–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP8, 211–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kakemura, Y.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koganezawa, T.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kohno, M.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kosemura, D.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuroyanagi, R.

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP8, 211–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Liao, H.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, A. E.

Lim, E.

L. Ding, T. Liow, E. Lim, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4, 1–3 (2012)

Liow, J. T.

Liow, T.

L. Ding, T. Liow, E. Lim, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4, 1–3 (2012)

Liow, T. Y.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.

L. Ding, T. Liow, E. Lim, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4, 1–3 (2012)

Lo, G. Q.

Micheal, J.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, T.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishita, T.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, A.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osaka, J.

Pan, D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. B.

Pollak, F. H.

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qing, F.

Saitoh, H.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takei, M.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takita, S.

Tsuchizawa, T.

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP8, 211–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

S. B. Park, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, J. Osaka, and K. Wada, “Reserve current reduction of Ge photodiodes on Si without post-growth annealing,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(4), 286–290 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP8, 211–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express19(6), 5040–5046 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ding, T. Liow, E. Lim, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4, 1–3 (2012)

Yu, M. B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

A. Ogura, H. Saitoh, D. Kosemura, Y. Kakemura, T. Yoshida, M. Takei, T. Koganezawa, I. Hirosawa, M. Kohno, T. Nishita, and T. Nakanishi, “Evaluation and control of Strain in Si induced by patterned SiN stressor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12(4), H117–H119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Micheal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 013501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B70(15), 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (2)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP8, 211–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. Liow, E. Lim, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4, 1–3 (2012)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The theoretical relationship of the absorption edge of Ge with applied stress along [010] on Ge(100).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The schematics of cross-section of the strained Ge photodetector and the reference photodetector. (b) The stress profile of the strained Ge photodetector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The responsitivity spectra of free space Ge photodetectors with and without stressors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The responsivity spectra of free space Ge photodetectors with SiNx stressors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The electric field profile of the Ge photodetector with stressors. The depth profile is calculated using P and B profiles of the Ge epilayer. (b) Figure of merit Δα/α at wavelength of 1640 nm as a function of applied reverse bias.

Equations (2)

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Δα α (exp)= (α(V)α(0)) α(0) × t i t ,
Δα α (real)= Δα α (exp)× t t i ,

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