Abstract

Ultra-broadband infrared luminescence has been observed in bismuth (Bi)-doped germanate thin-films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The films are compatible with various types of substrates, including conventional dielectrics (LaAlO3, silica) and semiconductors (Si, GaAs). The emission peak position of the films can be finely tuned by changing oxygen partial pressure during the deposition, while the excitation wavelength locates from ultra-violet to near-infrared regions. The physical mechanism behind the observed infrared luminescence of the Bi-doped films, differing from that of the as-made glass, is discussed.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Liu, R. M. O. Jr, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 557–560 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Fotiadi, N. Zakharov, O. L. Antipov, and P. Mégret, “All-fiber coherent combining of Er-doped amplifiers through refractive index control in Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett.34(22), 3574–3576 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys.82(1), 1–39 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Su, H. Zhao, H. Li, L. Zheng, G. Ren, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and P. Solarz, “Near-infrared ultrabroadband luminescence spectra properties of subvalent bismuth in CsI halide crystals,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4551–4553 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doping with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Su, H. Zhao, H. Li, L. Zheng, X. Fan, X. Jiang, H. Tang, G. Ren, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and P. Solarz, “Near-infrared photoluminescence spectra in Bi-doped CsI crystal: evidence for Bi-valence conversions and Bi ion aggregation,” Opt. Mater. Express2(6), 757–764 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Sokolov, D. V. Philippovskiy, I. S. Lisitsky, M. S. Kouznetsov, K. S. Zaramenskikh, and E. M. Dianov, “Near-infrared luminescence in TlCl:Bi crystal,” Opt. Lett.38(3), 362–364 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped optical fibers: a challenging active medium for near-IR lasers and optical amplifiers,” Light Sci. Appl.1(5), e12 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. T. Sun, F. Shimaoka, Y. Miwa, J. Ruan, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Sensitized superbroadband near-IR emission in bismuth glass/Si nanocrystal superlattices,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2215–2217 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Miwa, H. T. Sun, K. Imakita, M. Fujii, Y. Teng, J. Qiu, Y. Sakka, and S. Hayashi, “Sensitized broadband near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicon-rich silica films,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4221–4223 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Morimoto, M. Fujii, H. Sun, Y. Miwa, K. Imakita, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Broadband near-infrared emission from bismuth-doped multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073511 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Sambri, S. Amoruso, X. Wang, M. Radovic, F. M. Granozio, and R. Bruzzese, “Substrate heating influence on plume propagation during pulsed laser deposition of complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Xu, S. Zhou, D. Tan, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional tunable ultra-broadband visible and near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083503 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci.57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. I. Kamitsos, Y. D. Yiannopoulos, M. A. Karakassides, G. D. Chryssikos, and H. Jain, “Raman and Infrared Structural Investigation of xRb2O∙(1 - x)GeO2 Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem.100(28), 11755–11765 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. S. Henderson and M. E. Fleet, “The structure of glasses along the Na2O-GeO2 join,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids134(3), 259–269 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. D. Chryssikos, M. S. Bitsis, J. A. Kapoutsis, and E. I. Kamitsos, “Vibrational investigation of lithium metaborate-metaaluminate glasses and crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids217(2-3), 278–290 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Gebavi, S. Taccheo, D. Tregoat, A. Monteville, and T. Robin, “Photobleaching of photodarkening in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate fibers with 633 nm irradiation,” Opt. Mater. Express2(9), 1286–1291 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of Emission Centers for Broadband NIR Luminescence in Bismuthate Glass by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(2), 542–544 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Cao, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and J. Qiu, “Superbroad near-to-mid-infrared luminescence from Bi5(3+) in Bi5(AlCl4)3.,” Opt. Express20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Cao, M. Peng, J. Zheng, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhang, “Superbroad near to mid infrared luminescence from closo-deltahedral Bi5(3+) cluster in Bi5(GaCl4)3.,” Opt. Express20(16), 18505–18514 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doping with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Sokolov, D. V. Philippovskiy, I. S. Lisitsky, M. S. Kouznetsov, K. S. Zaramenskikh, and E. M. Dianov, “Near-infrared luminescence in TlCl:Bi crystal,” Opt. Lett.38(3), 362–364 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, D. Tan, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional tunable ultra-broadband visible and near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

H. Gebavi, S. Taccheo, D. Tregoat, A. Monteville, and T. Robin, “Photobleaching of photodarkening in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate fibers with 633 nm irradiation,” Opt. Mater. Express2(9), 1286–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cao, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and J. Qiu, “Superbroad near-to-mid-infrared luminescence from Bi5(3+) in Bi5(AlCl4)3.,” Opt. Express20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cao, M. Peng, J. Zheng, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhang, “Superbroad near to mid infrared luminescence from closo-deltahedral Bi5(3+) cluster in Bi5(GaCl4)3.,” Opt. Express20(16), 18505–18514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped optical fibers: a challenging active medium for near-IR lasers and optical amplifiers,” Light Sci. Appl.1(5), e12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Su, H. Zhao, H. Li, L. Zheng, X. Fan, X. Jiang, H. Tang, G. Ren, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and P. Solarz, “Near-infrared photoluminescence spectra in Bi-doped CsI crystal: evidence for Bi-valence conversions and Bi ion aggregation,” Opt. Mater. Express2(6), 757–764 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morimoto, M. Fujii, H. Sun, Y. Miwa, K. Imakita, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Broadband near-infrared emission from bismuth-doped multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci.57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

X. Liu, R. M. O. Jr, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, F. Shimaoka, Y. Miwa, J. Ruan, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Sensitized superbroadband near-IR emission in bismuth glass/Si nanocrystal superlattices,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2215–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. A. Fotiadi, N. Zakharov, O. L. Antipov, and P. Mégret, “All-fiber coherent combining of Er-doped amplifiers through refractive index control in Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett.34(22), 3574–3576 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of Emission Centers for Broadband NIR Luminescence in Bismuthate Glass by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Sambri, S. Amoruso, X. Wang, M. Radovic, F. M. Granozio, and R. Bruzzese, “Substrate heating influence on plume propagation during pulsed laser deposition of complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys.82(1), 1–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chryssikos, M. S. Bitsis, J. A. Kapoutsis, and E. I. Kamitsos, “Vibrational investigation of lithium metaborate-metaaluminate glasses and crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids217(2-3), 278–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. I. Kamitsos, Y. D. Yiannopoulos, M. A. Karakassides, G. D. Chryssikos, and H. Jain, “Raman and Infrared Structural Investigation of xRb2O∙(1 - x)GeO2 Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem.100(28), 11755–11765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. S. Henderson and M. E. Fleet, “The structure of glasses along the Na2O-GeO2 join,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids134(3), 259–269 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Amoruso, S.

A. Sambri, S. Amoruso, X. Wang, M. Radovic, F. M. Granozio, and R. Bruzzese, “Substrate heating influence on plume propagation during pulsed laser deposition of complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Antipov, O. L.

Bitsis, M. S.

G. D. Chryssikos, M. S. Bitsis, J. A. Kapoutsis, and E. I. Kamitsos, “Vibrational investigation of lithium metaborate-metaaluminate glasses and crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids217(2-3), 278–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bogle, K. A.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzese, R.

A. Sambri, S. Amoruso, X. Wang, M. Radovic, F. M. Granozio, and R. Bruzzese, “Substrate heating influence on plume propagation during pulsed laser deposition of complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, R.

Chen, P.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doping with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, J.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chryssikos, G. D.

G. D. Chryssikos, M. S. Bitsis, J. A. Kapoutsis, and E. I. Kamitsos, “Vibrational investigation of lithium metaborate-metaaluminate glasses and crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids217(2-3), 278–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Kamitsos, Y. D. Yiannopoulos, M. A. Karakassides, G. D. Chryssikos, and H. Jain, “Raman and Infrared Structural Investigation of xRb2O∙(1 - x)GeO2 Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem.100(28), 11755–11765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, R. M.

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Dijkstra, M.

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Fleet, M. E.

G. S. Henderson and M. E. Fleet, “The structure of glasses along the Na2O-GeO2 join,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids134(3), 259–269 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fotiadi, A. A.

Fujii, M.

S. Morimoto, M. Fujii, H. Sun, Y. Miwa, K. Imakita, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Broadband near-infrared emission from bismuth-doped multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Miwa, H. T. Sun, K. Imakita, M. Fujii, Y. Teng, J. Qiu, Y. Sakka, and S. Hayashi, “Sensitized broadband near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicon-rich silica films,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4221–4223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, F. Shimaoka, Y. Miwa, J. Ruan, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Sensitized superbroadband near-IR emission in bismuth glass/Si nanocrystal superlattices,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2215–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gebavi, H.

Granozio, F. M.

A. Sambri, S. Amoruso, X. Wang, M. Radovic, F. M. Granozio, and R. Bruzzese, “Substrate heating influence on plume propagation during pulsed laser deposition of complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

X. Liu, R. M. O. Jr, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, J. M.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guan, M.

Hao, J.

B. Xu, S. Zhou, D. Tan, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional tunable ultra-broadband visible and near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doping with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

Henderson, G. S.

G. S. Henderson and M. E. Fleet, “The structure of glasses along the Na2O-GeO2 join,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids134(3), 259–269 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hollink, A. J. F.

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Z.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doping with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, D. Tan, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional tunable ultra-broadband visible and near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imakita, K.

S. Morimoto, M. Fujii, H. Sun, Y. Miwa, K. Imakita, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Broadband near-infrared emission from bismuth-doped multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miwa, H. T. Sun, K. Imakita, M. Fujii, Y. Teng, J. Qiu, Y. Sakka, and S. Hayashi, “Sensitized broadband near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicon-rich silica films,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4221–4223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, H.

E. I. Kamitsos, Y. D. Yiannopoulos, M. A. Karakassides, G. D. Chryssikos, and H. Jain, “Raman and Infrared Structural Investigation of xRb2O∙(1 - x)GeO2 Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem.100(28), 11755–11765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci.57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Jose, G.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci.57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, P.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci.57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jr, R. M. O.

X. Liu, R. M. O. Jr, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamitsos, E. I.

G. D. Chryssikos, M. S. Bitsis, J. A. Kapoutsis, and E. I. Kamitsos, “Vibrational investigation of lithium metaborate-metaaluminate glasses and crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids217(2-3), 278–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Kamitsos, Y. D. Yiannopoulos, M. A. Karakassides, G. D. Chryssikos, and H. Jain, “Raman and Infrared Structural Investigation of xRb2O∙(1 - x)GeO2 Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem.100(28), 11755–11765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kapoutsis, J. A.

G. D. Chryssikos, M. S. Bitsis, J. A. Kapoutsis, and E. I. Kamitsos, “Vibrational investigation of lithium metaborate-metaaluminate glasses and crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids217(2-3), 278–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karakassides, M. A.

E. I. Kamitsos, Y. D. Yiannopoulos, M. A. Karakassides, G. D. Chryssikos, and H. Jain, “Raman and Infrared Structural Investigation of xRb2O∙(1 - x)GeO2 Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem.100(28), 11755–11765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, L. J.

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kouznetsov, M. S.

Lai, C.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liao, S.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lisiecki, R.

Lisitsky, I. S.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, R. M. O. Jr, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lousteau, J.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci.57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Mégret, P.

Miwa, Y.

Monteville, A.

Morimoto, S.

S. Morimoto, M. Fujii, H. Sun, Y. Miwa, K. Imakita, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Broadband near-infrared emission from bismuth-doped multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ogale, S. B.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peng, M.

R. Cao, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and J. Qiu, “Superbroad near-to-mid-infrared luminescence from Bi5(3+) in Bi5(AlCl4)3.,” Opt. Express20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cao, M. Peng, J. Zheng, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhang, “Superbroad near to mid infrared luminescence from closo-deltahedral Bi5(3+) cluster in Bi5(GaCl4)3.,” Opt. Express20(16), 18505–18514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of Emission Centers for Broadband NIR Luminescence in Bismuthate Glass by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pham, S. V.

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Philippovskiy, D. V.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Pollnau, M.

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys.82(1), 1–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doping with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, D. Tan, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional tunable ultra-broadband visible and near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Morimoto, M. Fujii, H. Sun, Y. Miwa, K. Imakita, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Broadband near-infrared emission from bismuth-doped multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cao, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and J. Qiu, “Superbroad near-to-mid-infrared luminescence from Bi5(3+) in Bi5(AlCl4)3.,” Opt. Express20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cao, M. Peng, J. Zheng, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhang, “Superbroad near to mid infrared luminescence from closo-deltahedral Bi5(3+) cluster in Bi5(GaCl4)3.,” Opt. Express20(16), 18505–18514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Miwa, H. T. Sun, K. Imakita, M. Fujii, Y. Teng, J. Qiu, Y. Sakka, and S. Hayashi, “Sensitized broadband near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicon-rich silica films,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4221–4223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, F. Shimaoka, Y. Miwa, J. Ruan, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Sensitized superbroadband near-IR emission in bismuth glass/Si nanocrystal superlattices,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2215–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of Emission Centers for Broadband NIR Luminescence in Bismuthate Glass by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radovic, M.

A. Sambri, S. Amoruso, X. Wang, M. Radovic, F. M. Granozio, and R. Bruzzese, “Substrate heating influence on plume propagation during pulsed laser deposition of complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, G.

Richards, B.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci.57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Robin, T.

Ruan, J.

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

Sakka, Y.

H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Miwa, H. T. Sun, K. Imakita, M. Fujii, Y. Teng, J. Qiu, Y. Sakka, and S. Hayashi, “Sensitized broadband near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicon-rich silica films,” Opt. Lett.36(21), 4221–4223 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambri, A.

A. Sambri, S. Amoruso, X. Wang, M. Radovic, F. M. Granozio, and R. Bruzzese, “Substrate heating influence on plume propagation during pulsed laser deposition of complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimaoka, F.

Shirahata, N.

H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, V. O.

Solarz, P.

Su, L.

Sun, H.

S. Morimoto, M. Fujii, H. Sun, Y. Miwa, K. Imakita, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Broadband near-infrared emission from bismuth-doped multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. T.

Taccheo, S.

Tan, D.

B. Xu, S. Zhou, D. Tan, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional tunable ultra-broadband visible and near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, H.

Teddy-Fernandez, T.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci.57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Teng, Y.

Tregoat, D.

Valanoor, N.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

X. Liu, R. M. O. Jr, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

A. Sambri, S. Amoruso, X. Wang, M. Radovic, F. M. Granozio, and R. Bruzzese, “Substrate heating influence on plume propagation during pulsed laser deposition of complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

R. Cao, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and J. Qiu, “Superbroad near-to-mid-infrared luminescence from Bi5(3+) in Bi5(AlCl4)3.,” Opt. Express20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of Emission Centers for Broadband NIR Luminescence in Bismuthate Glass by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

B. Xu, S. Zhou, D. Tan, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional tunable ultra-broadband visible and near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doping with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Yiannopoulos, Y. D.

E. I. Kamitsos, Y. D. Yiannopoulos, M. A. Karakassides, G. D. Chryssikos, and H. Jain, “Raman and Infrared Structural Investigation of xRb2O∙(1 - x)GeO2 Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem.100(28), 11755–11765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yonezawa, T.

H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakharov, N.

Zaramenskikh, K. S.

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, H.

Zhao, Q.

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of Emission Centers for Broadband NIR Luminescence in Bismuthate Glass by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, L.

Zhou, J.

Zhou, S.

B. Xu, S. Zhou, D. Tan, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional tunable ultra-broadband visible and near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doping with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zollfrank, C.

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

K. A. Bogle, J. Cheung, Y. Chen, S. Liao, C. Lai, Y. Chu, J. M. Gregg, S. B. Ogale, and N. Valanoor, “Epitaxial Magnetic Oxide Nanocrystals Via Phase Decomposition of Bismuth Perovskite Precursors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(24), 5224–5230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Sambri, S. Amoruso, X. Wang, M. Radovic, F. M. Granozio, and R. Bruzzese, “Substrate heating influence on plume propagation during pulsed laser deposition of complex oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dalton Trans.

H. T. Sun, B. Xu, T. Yonezawa, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Fujii, J. Qiu, and H. Gao, “Photoluminescence from Bi5(GaCl4)3 molecular crystal,” Dalton Trans.41(36), 11055–11061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of Emission Centers for Broadband NIR Luminescence in Bismuthate Glass by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Morimoto, M. Fujii, H. Sun, Y. Miwa, K. Imakita, J. Qiu, and S. Hayashi, “Broadband near-infrared emission from bismuth-doped multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, D. Tan, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional tunable ultra-broadband visible and near-infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys.82(1), 1–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doping with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

G. S. Henderson and M. E. Fleet, “The structure of glasses along the Na2O-GeO2 join,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids134(3), 259–269 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chryssikos, M. S. Bitsis, J. A. Kapoutsis, and E. I. Kamitsos, “Vibrational investigation of lithium metaborate-metaaluminate glasses and crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids217(2-3), 278–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

E. I. Kamitsos, Y. D. Yiannopoulos, M. A. Karakassides, G. D. Chryssikos, and H. Jain, “Raman and Infrared Structural Investigation of xRb2O∙(1 - x)GeO2 Glasses,” J. Phys. Chem.100(28), 11755–11765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl.

E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped optical fibers: a challenging active medium for near-IR lasers and optical amplifiers,” Light Sci. Appl.1(5), e12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

X. Liu, R. M. O. Jr, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Prog. Mater. Sci.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci.57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sensor. Actuat. B

S. V. Pham, M. Dijkstra, A. J. F. Hollink, L. J. Kauppinen, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, P. V. Lambeck, and H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, “On-chip bulk-index concentration and direct, label-free protein sensing utilizing an optical grated-waveguide cavity,” Sensor. Actuat. B174, 602–608 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD pattern of the film deposited at 450 °C with oxygen pressure (PO2) of 1.0 Pa on silica substrate. The inset shows the digital photographs of the silica substrate and film. (b) PL spectra of films deposited at 450 °C with PO2 of 1.0 Pa on different substrates. The inset illustrates standard optical communication bands.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)-(c) PL spectra of the films. (a) PO2: 1.0 Pa, deposition temperatures (T): 300~600 °C. (b) PO2: 1.0 Pa, T: 450 °C, in situ annealed at 450 °C for 0~2.0 h. (c) T: 450 °C, PO2: 1.0~14.0 Pa, the inset is the emission peak position as a function of PO2. (d) PL spectra of the glass target. The inset is the emission peak position as a function of the excitation wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)-(b) PL and PLE spectra of the film deposited at 450 °C under 1.0 Pa. (c) PLE spectra of films deposited at 450 °C under different PO2. (d) Fluorescence decay curves of the glass target and films deposited under different PO2 excited by 350 nm. The monitored emission wavelength of films in Figs. 3(c)-3(d) is as the peak positions in the inset of Fig. 2(c). The monitored emission wavelength for the glass target is 1200nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of the glass target and films deposited at 450 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) PL spectra and (b) fluorescence decay curves of films. The films are deposited at 450 °C under 1.0 Pa without annealing or in situ annealed at 450 °C under 0.5 atm and 1.0 Pa for 1 h, respectively. (c) PL spectra of the film deposited at 450 °C under 1.0 Pa detected by InGaAs and InSb detector.

Equations (1)

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B i x+n + n 2 O 2 B i x + n 4 O 2

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