Abstract

We use dispersive Fourier transformation to measure shot-to-shot spectral instabilities in femtosecond supercontinuum generation. We study both the onset phase of supercontinuum generation with distinct dispersive wave generation, as well as a highly-unstable supercontinuum regime spanning an octave in bandwidth. Wavelength correlation maps allow interactions between separated spectral components to be identified, even when such interactions are not apparent in shot-to-shot or average measurements. Experimental results are interpreted using numerical simulations. Our results show the clear advantages of dispersive Fourier transformation for studying spectral noise during supercontinuum generation.

© 2013 OSA

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  3. B. Wetzel, K. J. Blow, S. K. Turitsyn, G. Millot, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Random walks and random numbers from supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express20(10), 11143–11152 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Kudlinski, B. Barviau, A. Leray, C. Spriet, L. Héliot, and A. Mussot, “Control of pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in visible supercontinuum,” Opt. Express18(26), 27445–27454 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, “Fluctuations and correlations in modulation instability,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 463–468 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D. G. Welsch, M. Zielonka, F. König, and A. Sizmann, “Enhanced Quantum Correlations in Bound Higher-Order Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3801–3804 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. K. Lee, Y. C. Lai, and Y. Kivshar, “Quantum correlations in soliton collisions,” Phys. Rev. A71(3), 035801 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, N. Gisin, and J. P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 1–4 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Majus and A. Dubietis, “Statistical properties of ultrafast supercontinuum generated by femtosecond Gaussian and Bessel beams: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B30(4), 994–999 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded phase matching and nonlinear symmetry breaking in fiber frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(22), 223904 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Majus and A. Dubietis, “Statistical properties of ultrafast supercontinuum generated by femtosecond Gaussian and Bessel beams: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B30(4), 994–999 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

B. Wetzel, K. J. Blow, S. K. Turitsyn, G. Millot, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Random walks and random numbers from supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express20(10), 11143–11152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded phase matching and nonlinear symmetry breaking in fiber frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(22), 223904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, “Fluctuations and correlations in modulation instability,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 463–468 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sørensen, O. Bang, B. Wetzel, and J. M. Dudley, “Describing supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics using higher-order moments,” Opt. Commun.285(9), 2451–2455 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2007 (2)

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, N. Gisin, and J. P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. K. Lee, Y. C. Lai, and Y. Kivshar, “Quantum correlations in soliton collisions,” Phys. Rev. A71(3), 035801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D. G. Welsch, M. Zielonka, F. König, and A. Sizmann, “Enhanced Quantum Correlations in Bound Higher-Order Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3801–3804 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ackermann, R.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, N. Gisin, and J. P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

S. T. Sørensen, O. Bang, B. Wetzel, and J. M. Dudley, “Describing supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics using higher-order moments,” Opt. Commun.285(9), 2451–2455 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barviau, B.

Béjot, P.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, N. Gisin, and J. P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dias, F.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubietis, A.

Dudley, J. M.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wetzel, K. J. Blow, S. K. Turitsyn, G. Millot, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Random walks and random numbers from supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express20(10), 11143–11152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Sørensen, O. Bang, B. Wetzel, and J. M. Dudley, “Describing supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics using higher-order moments,” Opt. Commun.285(9), 2451–2455 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded phase matching and nonlinear symmetry breaking in fiber frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(22), 223904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erkintalo, M.

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded phase matching and nonlinear symmetry breaking in fiber frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(22), 223904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fatome, J.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finot, C.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded phase matching and nonlinear symmetry breaking in fiber frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(22), 223904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, N. Gisin, and J. P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goda, K.

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Héliot, L.

Herink, G.

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, “Fluctuations and correlations in modulation instability,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 463–468 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, “Fluctuations and correlations in modulation instability,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 463–468 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlsson, M.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, N. Gisin, and J. P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kibler, B.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y.

R. K. Lee, Y. C. Lai, and Y. Kivshar, “Quantum correlations in soliton collisions,” Phys. Rev. A71(3), 035801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knöll, L.

E. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D. G. Welsch, M. Zielonka, F. König, and A. Sizmann, “Enhanced Quantum Correlations in Bound Higher-Order Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3801–3804 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, F.

E. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D. G. Welsch, M. Zielonka, F. König, and A. Sizmann, “Enhanced Quantum Correlations in Bound Higher-Order Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3801–3804 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudlinski, A.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kudlinski, B. Barviau, A. Leray, C. Spriet, L. Héliot, and A. Mussot, “Control of pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in visible supercontinuum,” Opt. Express18(26), 27445–27454 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacourt, P. A.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, Y. C.

R. K. Lee, Y. C. Lai, and Y. Kivshar, “Quantum correlations in soliton collisions,” Phys. Rev. A71(3), 035801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Larger, L.

B. Wetzel, K. J. Blow, S. K. Turitsyn, G. Millot, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Random walks and random numbers from supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express20(10), 11143–11152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. K.

R. K. Lee, Y. C. Lai, and Y. Kivshar, “Quantum correlations in soliton collisions,” Phys. Rev. A71(3), 035801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leray, A.

Majus, D.

Merolla, J. M.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millot, G.

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wetzel, K. J. Blow, S. K. Turitsyn, G. Millot, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Random walks and random numbers from supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express20(10), 11143–11152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murdoch, S. G.

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded phase matching and nonlinear symmetry breaking in fiber frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(22), 223904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mussot, A.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kudlinski, B. Barviau, A. Leray, C. Spriet, L. Héliot, and A. Mussot, “Control of pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in visible supercontinuum,” Opt. Express18(26), 27445–27454 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, “Fluctuations and correlations in modulation instability,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 463–468 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmon, E.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, N. Gisin, and J. P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, E.

E. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D. G. Welsch, M. Zielonka, F. König, and A. Sizmann, “Enhanced Quantum Correlations in Bound Higher-Order Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3801–3804 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sizmann, A.

E. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D. G. Welsch, M. Zielonka, F. König, and A. Sizmann, “Enhanced Quantum Correlations in Bound Higher-Order Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3801–3804 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, “Fluctuations and correlations in modulation instability,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 463–468 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sørensen, S. T.

S. T. Sørensen, O. Bang, B. Wetzel, and J. M. Dudley, “Describing supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics using higher-order moments,” Opt. Commun.285(9), 2451–2455 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spriet, C.

Stefani, A.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sylvestre, T.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turitsyn, S. K.

Welsch, D. G.

E. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D. G. Welsch, M. Zielonka, F. König, and A. Sizmann, “Enhanced Quantum Correlations in Bound Higher-Order Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3801–3804 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wetzel, B.

B. Wetzel, K. J. Blow, S. K. Turitsyn, G. Millot, L. Larger, and J. M. Dudley, “Random walks and random numbers from supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express20(10), 11143–11152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Sørensen, O. Bang, B. Wetzel, and J. M. Dudley, “Describing supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics using higher-order moments,” Opt. Commun.285(9), 2451–2455 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, N. Gisin, and J. P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. Q.

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded phase matching and nonlinear symmetry breaking in fiber frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(22), 223904 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zielonka, M.

E. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D. G. Welsch, M. Zielonka, F. König, and A. Sizmann, “Enhanced Quantum Correlations in Bound Higher-Order Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3801–3804 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, N. Gisin, and J. P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. R. Solli, G. Herink, B. Jalali, and C. Ropers, “Fluctuations and correlations in modulation instability,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 463–468 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. T. Sørensen, O. Bang, B. Wetzel, and J. M. Dudley, “Describing supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics using higher-order moments,” Opt. Commun.285(9), 2451–2455 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Lee, Y. C. Lai, and Y. Kivshar, “Quantum correlations in soliton collisions,” Phys. Rev. A71(3), 035801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Schmidt, L. Knöll, D. G. Welsch, M. Zielonka, F. König, and A. Sizmann, “Enhanced Quantum Correlations in Bound Higher-Order Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3801–3804 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded phase matching and nonlinear symmetry breaking in fiber frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(22), 223904 (2012).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (2)

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, N. Akhmediev, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre,” Sci. Rep.2, 463 (2012).
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B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep.2, 882 (2012).
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J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers (Cambridge University, 2010).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Academic Press, 2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup. PCF: Photonic crystal fiber, OSA: Optical spectrum analyzer; (b) Frequency-to-time transfer function: experimental measurements (circles) and fit including β2 and β3 (red line). Time delay is plotted relative to an origin set at the pump frequency (820 nm corresponds to 365.9 THz).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength correlation maps simulated for several processes: (a) Wavelength jitter; (b) Wavelength jitter (two correlated pulses); (c) Wavelength jitter (two independent pulses); (d) Self-phase modulation (SPM) (yellow: positive correlation; blue: negative-correlation).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Top: averaged simulated spectra (blue line); Bottom: OSA experimental spectrum (red line); real-time spectra (grey dots); averaged real-time spectrum (black line); (b) Spectral evolution simulated along the fiber length showing pump spectral broadening and dispersive wave (DW) generation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental and numerical wavelength correlation maps (a) Experimental correlation map around the pump wavelength (b) Correlation in the soliton-dispersive wave region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results for highly unstable SC generation. (a) Spectral measurements from OSA (red dashed line); 1000 realisations from dispersive FT measurements showing real time fluctuations (grey dots); mean of these real-time spectra (black line). The arrows show long wavelength soliton peaks and rare rogue solitons (RS). (b) A selection of 5 experimental spectral measurements using dispersive FT illustrating spectral fluctuations. (c) Wavelength correlation matrix (DW: dispersive wave; Sol.: soliton) (d) Detail of the pump region.

Equations (1)

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ρ( λ 1 , λ 2 )= I( λ 1 )I( λ 2 ) I( λ 1 ) I( λ 2 ) ( I 2 ( λ 1 ) I( λ 1 ) 2 )( I 2 ( λ 2 ) I( λ 2 ) 2 ) ,

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