Abstract

This paper demonstrates a novel retro-reflective dome that enhances the directionality of a light emitting diode (LED) by recycling photons reflected by a textured LED die surface. A simulation model is developed to describe both the photon recycling process within the dome and the role of specific pyramid patterns on the top surface of the LED die. Advanced simulations showed that a perfectly polished surface with 100% reflectivity potentially enhances the directionality of the dome by 340%, 250%, and 240% using reflective domes with 10°, 20°, and 30° light cones, respectively. In the experiment, the directionality of the domes exhibiting surface imperfections is enhanced by approximately 160%, 150%, and 130% using 10°, 20°, and 30° light cones, respectively. By incorporating a textured top surface on the LED die, the proposed dome effectively increases the directionality of the LED light source.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE5941, 594101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W.T. Welford and R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic Press 1989).
  6. J. Z. Jiao and B. Wang, “Etendue concerns for automotive headlamps using white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE5187, 234–242 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Li and S. Inatsugu, “Etendue efficient coupling of an array of LEDs for projection display,” Proc. SPIE5740, 36–40 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Fournier and J. Rolland, “Design methodology for high brightness projectors,” J. Disp. Technol.4(1), 86–91 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Alexander, “Requirements on LEDs in etendue limited light engines,” Proc. SPIE7001(70010F), 1–10 (2008).
  10. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-brightness light-emitting diodes using surface texture,” Proc. SPIE4278, 19–25 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).
  19. C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun.284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. C. Sun, S. Y. Tsai, and T. X. Lee, “Enhancement of angular flux utilization based on implanted micro pyramid array and lens encapsulation in GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 289–294 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Badano and J. Kanicki, “Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.90(4), 1827–1830 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun.284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, S. Y. Tsai, and T. X. Lee, “Enhancement of angular flux utilization based on implanted micro pyramid array and lens encapsulation in GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 289–294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Fournier and J. Rolland, “Design methodology for high brightness projectors,” J. Disp. Technol.4(1), 86–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Alexander, “Requirements on LEDs in etendue limited light engines,” Proc. SPIE7001(70010F), 1–10 (2008).

2007 (2)

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

K. Li and S. Inatsugu, “Etendue efficient coupling of an array of LEDs for projection display,” Proc. SPIE5740, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE5941, 594101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

J. Z. Jiao and B. Wang, “Etendue concerns for automotive headlamps using white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE5187, 234–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-brightness light-emitting diodes using surface texture,” Proc. SPIE4278, 19–25 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, “Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.90(4), 1827–1830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, W.

W. Alexander, “Requirements on LEDs in etendue limited light engines,” Proc. SPIE7001(70010F), 1–10 (2008).

Badano, A.

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, “Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.90(4), 1827–1830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun.284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W. T.

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE5941, 594101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, R.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, F.

F. Fournier and J. Rolland, “Design methodology for high brightness projectors,” J. Disp. Technol.4(1), 86–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K. F.

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Hatakoshi, G.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inatsugu, S.

K. Li and S. Inatsugu, “Etendue efficient coupling of an array of LEDs for projection display,” Proc. SPIE5740, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W. J.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Jiao, J. Z.

J. Z. Jiao and B. Wang, “Etendue concerns for automotive headlamps using white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE5187, 234–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kanicki, J.

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, “Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.90(4), 1827–1830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kugler, S.

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-brightness light-emitting diodes using surface texture,” Proc. SPIE4278, 19–25 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. X.

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun.284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, S. Y. Tsai, and T. X. Lee, “Enhancement of angular flux utilization based on implanted micro pyramid array and lens encapsulation in GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 289–294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

K. Li and S. Inatsugu, “Etendue efficient coupling of an array of LEDs for projection display,” Proc. SPIE5740, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. Y.

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-brightness light-emitting diodes using surface texture,” Proc. SPIE4278, 19–25 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. C.

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun.284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. H.

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, Y.

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Y.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Rolland, J.

F. Fournier and J. Rolland, “Design methodology for high brightness projectors,” J. Disp. Technol.4(1), 86–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rumbolz, C.

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, G. D.

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stauss, P.

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-brightness light-emitting diodes using surface texture,” Proc. SPIE4278, 19–25 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K. P.

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-brightness light-emitting diodes using surface texture,” Proc. SPIE4278, 19–25 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, H.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun.284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, S. Y. Tsai, and T. X. Lee, “Enhancement of angular flux utilization based on implanted micro pyramid array and lens encapsulation in GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 289–294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S. Y.

C. C. Sun, S. Y. Tsai, and T. X. Lee, “Enhancement of angular flux utilization based on implanted micro pyramid array and lens encapsulation in GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 289–294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun.284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

J. Z. Jiao and B. Wang, “Etendue concerns for automotive headlamps using white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE5187, 234–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, Ch.

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, R.

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-brightness light-emitting diodes using surface texture,” Proc. SPIE4278, 19–25 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. H.

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zull, H.

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-brightness light-emitting diodes using surface texture,” Proc. SPIE4278, 19–25 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InAlGaP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantumwell heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonics crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, “Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.90(4), 1827–1830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (3)

C. C. Sun, S. Y. Tsai, and T. X. Lee, “Enhancement of angular flux utilization based on implanted micro pyramid array and lens encapsulation in GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 289–294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Fournier and J. Rolland, “Design methodology for high brightness projectors,” J. Disp. Technol.4(1), 86–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, and S. Y. Tsai, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling,” Opt. Commun.284(20), 4862–4868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array,” Opt. Eng.43(8), 1700–1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (7)

Y. Qin, X. Guo, W. J. Jiang, R. Fang, and G. D. Shen, “Light Extraction Analysis of AlGaInP based LED with Surface Texture,” Proc. SPIE7635(763505), 1–7 (2009).

N. Linder, S. Kugler, P. Stauss, K. P. Streubel, R. Wirth, and H. Zull, “High-brightness light-emitting diodes using surface texture,” Proc. SPIE4278, 19–25 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity lightemitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE7231(72310C), 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Alexander, “Requirements on LEDs in etendue limited light engines,” Proc. SPIE7001(70010F), 1–10 (2008).

J. Z. Jiao and B. Wang, “Etendue concerns for automotive headlamps using white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE5187, 234–242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Li and S. Inatsugu, “Etendue efficient coupling of an array of LEDs for projection display,” Proc. SPIE5740, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE5941, 594101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W.T. Welford and R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic Press 1989).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the RRD with an open hole on the top, where Ω is the half angle of the light cone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The geometry and (b) the optical simulation parameters in the simulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The SEM image of EZ-1000. (a)The top view of the LED die, (b) top view of the surface texture, (c) side view of pyramids.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The geometry of the textured surface and (b) the detailed distribution of the different pyramids.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The light distribution curve of EZ 1000. (a) Experimental measurement, (b) the simulation result.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The geometry of the RRD.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation of the received optical power ratio from the RRD to the LED die with respect to radius of the RRD.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The schematic diagram of experiment for measuring the flux by the LED and RRD with a specific light cone.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental measurement and the corresponding simulation for DER vs. half angle of the light cone under the designed light cones: (a) 10°, (b) 20°, (c) 30 o. Black dot: experimental measurement. Lines for simulation with reflectivity of 100% (red), 70% (blue), 60% (green) and 50% (pink).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental measurement and the corresponding simulation for light pattern vs. angle of the light cone under different light cones: (a) 10°, (b) 20°, (c) 30°. Black dot: experimental measurement. Lines for simulation with reflectivity of 100% (red), 70% (blue), 60% (green) and 50% (pink).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic diagram of the experiment in testing the surface quality of the RRD.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental measurement and the corresponding simulation for DER vs. the angle of the light cone with the 30° RRD for the case with the light source of a rectangle LED die. Black dot: experimental measurement. Lines for simulation with reflectivity of 90% (blue), 60% (red), and 50% (green).

Equations (1)

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DER= F RR Ω F Die Ω ,

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