Abstract

A whole class of two-color experiments involves intense, short Terahertz radiation pulses. A fast and moderately sensitive detector capable to resolve both near-infrared and Terahertz pulses at the same time is highly desirable. Here we present the first detector of this kind. The detector element is a GaAs-based field effect transistor operated at room temperature. THz detection is successfully demonstrated at frequencies up to 4.9 THz. The THz detection time constant is shorter than 30 ps, the optical time constant is 150 ps. This detector is ideally suited for precise, simultaneous resolution of optical and THz pulses and for pulse characterization of high-power THz pulses up to tens of kW peak power levels. The dynamic range of the detector is as large as 65±3dB/Hz, enabling applications in a large variety of experiments and setups, also including table-top systems.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. E. Öjefors, N. Baktash, Y. Zhao, R. A. Hadi, H. Sherry, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging detectors in a 65-nm CMOS SOI technology,” Proc. ESSCIRC, 486–489 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 3003–3005 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, A. Younus, E. Nguema, F. Teppe, W. Knap, E. Abraham, and P. Mounaix, “Plasma wave field effect transistor as a resonant detector for 1 terahertz imaging applications,” Optics Commun.282, 3055–3058 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mat.1, 26–33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1, 97–105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 166603 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, D. A. Schmid, and D. S. Chemla, “Broadband terahertz study of excitonic resonances in the high-density regime in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B72, 161314 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature414, 286–289 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandashekkar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultra-fast optica-pump teahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Zaks, R. Liu, and M. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature483, 580–583 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Zudov, A. P. Mitchell, and A. H. Chin, “Time-resolved, nonperturbative, and off-resonance generation of optical terahertz sidebands from bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B64, 121204 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Ciulin, S. Carter, M. S. Sherwin, A. Huntington, and L. Coldren, “Terahertz optical mixing in biased GaAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B70, 115312 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Bhattacharyya, M. Wagner, S. Zybell, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, M. Helm, and H. Schneider, “Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 103107 (2011)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Q. Li, S.-H. Ding, R. Yao, and Q. Wang, “Real-time terahertz scanning imaging by use of a pyroelectric array camera and image denoising,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 2381–2386 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, “High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Nature420, 153–156 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schönherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz62, 107–110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Winnerl, “GaAs/AlAs superlattices for detection of terahertz radiation,” Microelectron. J.31, 389–396 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. D. Ganichev, Y. V. Terent’ev, and I. D. Yaroshetskii, “Photon-drag photodetectors for the far-IR and submillimeter regions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.11, 20 (1985).
  21. S. Preu, H. Lu, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “Detection of nanosecond-scale, high power THz pulses with a field effect transistor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 053101 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 2465–2468 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Marachino, L. Chusseau, J. Torres, P. Nouvel, L. Varani, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Room-temperature terahertz mixer based on the simultaneous electronic and optical excitations of plasma waves in a field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 013502 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an incipient terahertz finite plasmonic crystal in couped two dimensional plasmonic cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 126803 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. R. Aizin and G. C. Dyer, “Transmission line theory of collective plasma excitations in periodic two-dimensional electron systems: Finite plasmonic crystals and Tamm states,” Phys. Rev. B86, 235316 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Preu, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved theory for non-resonant Thz detection in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111, 024502 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of Terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B73, 125328 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, M. Mundt, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Subharmonic mixing with field-effect transistors: theory and experiment at 639 GHz high above fτ,” IEEE Sensors J.13, 124–132 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Torres, H. Marinchio, P. Nouvel, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Chusseau, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Plasma waves subterahertz optical beating detection and enhancement in long-channel high-electron-mobility transistors: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.14, 491–497 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Kondo and K. Hirakawa, “Terahertz radiation from ultrahigh-speed field-effect transistors induced by ultrafast optical gate switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 191120 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 061301 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, D. Seliuta, L. Minkevicius, I. Kasalynas, G. Valusis, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “CMOS integrated antenna-coupled field-effect-transistors for the detection of 0.2 to 4.3 THz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques60, 3834–3843 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, M. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 153504 (2011)
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Lusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys.:Condens. Mater20, 284205 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Optimum excitation conditions for the generation of high-electric-field THz radiation from an oscillator-driven photoconductive device,” Opt. Lett.31, 1546–1548 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification,” Opt. Commun.281, 3567–3570 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Beck, H. Schäfer, G. Klatt, J. Demsar, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Impulsive Terahertz radiation with high electric fields from an amplifier-driven large-area photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express18, 9251–9257 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, M. Mundt, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Subharmonic mixing with field-effect transistors: theory and experiment at 639 GHz high above fτ,” IEEE Sensors J.13, 124–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

S. Preu, H. Lu, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “Detection of nanosecond-scale, high power THz pulses with a field effect transistor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 053101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an incipient terahertz finite plasmonic crystal in couped two dimensional plasmonic cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 126803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Aizin and G. C. Dyer, “Transmission line theory of collective plasma excitations in periodic two-dimensional electron systems: Finite plasmonic crystals and Tamm states,” Phys. Rev. B86, 235316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Preu, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved theory for non-resonant Thz detection in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111, 024502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, D. Seliuta, L. Minkevicius, I. Kasalynas, G. Valusis, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “CMOS integrated antenna-coupled field-effect-transistors for the detection of 0.2 to 4.3 THz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques60, 3834–3843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 166603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zaks, R. Liu, and M. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature483, 580–583 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. Bhattacharyya, M. Wagner, S. Zybell, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, M. Helm, and H. Schneider, “Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 103107 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, M. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 153504 (2011)
[CrossRef]

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 061301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

H. Marachino, L. Chusseau, J. Torres, P. Nouvel, L. Varani, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Room-temperature terahertz mixer based on the simultaneous electronic and optical excitations of plasma waves in a field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 013502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, H. Schäfer, G. Klatt, J. Demsar, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Impulsive Terahertz radiation with high electric fields from an amplifier-driven large-area photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express18, 9251–9257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, S.-H. Ding, R. Yao, and Q. Wang, “Real-time terahertz scanning imaging by use of a pyroelectric array camera and image denoising,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 2381–2386 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Öjefors, N. Baktash, Y. Zhao, R. A. Hadi, H. Sherry, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging detectors in a 65-nm CMOS SOI technology,” Proc. ESSCIRC, 486–489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. E. Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, A. Younus, E. Nguema, F. Teppe, W. Knap, E. Abraham, and P. Mounaix, “Plasma wave field effect transistor as a resonant detector for 1 terahertz imaging applications,” Optics Commun.282, 3055–3058 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schönherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandashekkar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultra-fast optica-pump teahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification,” Opt. Commun.281, 3567–3570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Lusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys.:Condens. Mater20, 284205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Torres, H. Marinchio, P. Nouvel, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Chusseau, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Plasma waves subterahertz optical beating detection and enhancement in long-channel high-electron-mobility transistors: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.14, 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Kondo and K. Hirakawa, “Terahertz radiation from ultrahigh-speed field-effect transistors induced by ultrafast optical gate switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 191120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of Terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B73, 125328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Optimum excitation conditions for the generation of high-electric-field THz radiation from an oscillator-driven photoconductive device,” Opt. Lett.31, 1546–1548 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, D. A. Schmid, and D. S. Chemla, “Broadband terahertz study of excitonic resonances in the high-density regime in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B72, 161314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. Ciulin, S. Carter, M. S. Sherwin, A. Huntington, and L. Coldren, “Terahertz optical mixing in biased GaAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B70, 115312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, “High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Nature420, 153–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mat.1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature414, 286–289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zudov, A. P. Mitchell, and A. H. Chin, “Time-resolved, nonperturbative, and off-resonance generation of optical terahertz sidebands from bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B64, 121204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Winnerl, “GaAs/AlAs superlattices for detection of terahertz radiation,” Microelectron. J.31, 389–396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 2465–2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

S. D. Ganichev, Y. V. Terent’ev, and I. D. Yaroshetskii, “Photon-drag photodetectors for the far-IR and submillimeter regions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.11, 20 (1985).

Abraham, E.

A. E. Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, A. Younus, E. Nguema, F. Teppe, W. Knap, E. Abraham, and P. Mounaix, “Plasma wave field effect transistor as a resonant detector for 1 terahertz imaging applications,” Optics Commun.282, 3055–3058 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature414, 286–289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizin, G. R.

G. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an incipient terahertz finite plasmonic crystal in couped two dimensional plasmonic cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 126803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Aizin and G. C. Dyer, “Transmission line theory of collective plasma excitations in periodic two-dimensional electron systems: Finite plasmonic crystals and Tamm states,” Phys. Rev. B86, 235316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

G. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an incipient terahertz finite plasmonic crystal in couped two dimensional plasmonic cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 126803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, A.

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baktash, N.

E. Öjefors, N. Baktash, Y. Zhao, R. A. Hadi, H. Sherry, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging detectors in a 65-nm CMOS SOI technology,” Proc. ESSCIRC, 486–489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Bhattacharyya, J.

J. Bhattacharyya, M. Wagner, S. Zybell, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, M. Helm, and H. Schneider, “Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 103107 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bichler, M.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature414, 286–289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchard, F.

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 166603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppel, S.

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, M. Mundt, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Subharmonic mixing with field-effect transistors: theory and experiment at 639 GHz high above fτ,” IEEE Sensors J.13, 124–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, D. Seliuta, L. Minkevicius, I. Kasalynas, G. Valusis, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “CMOS integrated antenna-coupled field-effect-transistors for the detection of 0.2 to 4.3 THz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques60, 3834–3843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature414, 286–289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, P. G.

S. Preu, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved theory for non-resonant Thz detection in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111, 024502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carr, G. L.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, “High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Nature420, 153–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, S.

V. Ciulin, S. Carter, M. S. Sherwin, A. Huntington, and L. Coldren, “Terahertz optical mixing in biased GaAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B70, 115312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chandashekkar, M.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandashekkar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultra-fast optica-pump teahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, D. A. Schmid, and D. S. Chemla, “Broadband terahertz study of excitonic resonances in the high-density regime in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B72, 161314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

M. Zudov, A. P. Mitchell, and A. H. Chin, “Time-resolved, nonperturbative, and off-resonance generation of optical terahertz sidebands from bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B64, 121204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chusseau, L.

H. Marachino, L. Chusseau, J. Torres, P. Nouvel, L. Varani, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Room-temperature terahertz mixer based on the simultaneous electronic and optical excitations of plasma waves in a field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 013502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Torres, H. Marinchio, P. Nouvel, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Chusseau, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Plasma waves subterahertz optical beating detection and enhancement in long-channel high-electron-mobility transistors: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.14, 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ciulin, V.

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A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, M. Mundt, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Subharmonic mixing with field-effect transistors: theory and experiment at 639 GHz high above fτ,” IEEE Sensors J.13, 124–132 (2013).
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K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification,” Opt. Commun.281, 3567–3570 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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S. Preu, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved theory for non-resonant Thz detection in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111, 024502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Preu, H. Lu, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “Detection of nanosecond-scale, high power THz pulses with a field effect transistor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 053101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandashekkar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultra-fast optica-pump teahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
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M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, M. Mundt, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Subharmonic mixing with field-effect transistors: theory and experiment at 639 GHz high above fτ,” IEEE Sensors J.13, 124–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, D. Seliuta, L. Minkevicius, I. Kasalynas, G. Valusis, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “CMOS integrated antenna-coupled field-effect-transistors for the detection of 0.2 to 4.3 THz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques60, 3834–3843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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H. Marachino, L. Chusseau, J. Torres, P. Nouvel, L. Varani, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Room-temperature terahertz mixer based on the simultaneous electronic and optical excitations of plasma waves in a field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 013502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Torres, H. Marinchio, P. Nouvel, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Chusseau, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Plasma waves subterahertz optical beating detection and enhancement in long-channel high-electron-mobility transistors: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.14, 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, H.

Scharter, S.

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schartner, S.

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, D. A.

R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, D. A. Schmid, and D. S. Chemla, “Broadband terahertz study of excitonic resonances in the high-density regime in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B72, 161314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, H.

J. Bhattacharyya, M. Wagner, S. Zybell, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, M. Helm, and H. Schneider, “Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 103107 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schönherr, D.

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schönherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seliuta, D.

S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, D. Seliuta, L. Minkevicius, I. Kasalynas, G. Valusis, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “CMOS integrated antenna-coupled field-effect-transistors for the detection of 0.2 to 4.3 THz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques60, 3834–3843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shaner, E. A.

G. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an incipient terahertz finite plasmonic crystal in couped two dimensional plasmonic cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 126803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapoval, S. Yu.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, M. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 153504 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Sherry, H.

E. Öjefors, N. Baktash, Y. Zhao, R. A. Hadi, H. Sherry, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging detectors in a 65-nm CMOS SOI technology,” Proc. ESSCIRC, 486–489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sherwin, M.

B. Zaks, R. Liu, and M. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature483, 580–583 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwin, M. S.

S. Preu, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved theory for non-resonant Thz detection in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111, 024502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Preu, H. Lu, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “Detection of nanosecond-scale, high power THz pulses with a field effect transistor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 053101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ciulin, S. Carter, M. S. Sherwin, A. Huntington, and L. Coldren, “Terahertz optical mixing in biased GaAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B70, 115312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiktorov, P.

H. Marachino, L. Chusseau, J. Torres, P. Nouvel, L. Varani, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Room-temperature terahertz mixer based on the simultaneous electronic and optical excitations of plasma waves in a field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 013502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Torres, H. Marinchio, P. Nouvel, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Chusseau, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Plasma waves subterahertz optical beating detection and enhancement in long-channel high-electron-mobility transistors: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.14, 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shivaraman, S.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandashekkar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultra-fast optica-pump teahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 2465–2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shur, M. S.

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of Terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B73, 125328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siebert, K. J.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, M. G.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandashekkar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultra-fast optica-pump teahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Starikov, E.

H. Marachino, L. Chusseau, J. Torres, P. Nouvel, L. Varani, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Room-temperature terahertz mixer based on the simultaneous electronic and optical excitations of plasma waves in a field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 013502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Torres, H. Marinchio, P. Nouvel, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Chusseau, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Plasma waves subterahertz optical beating detection and enhancement in long-channel high-electron-mobility transistors: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.14, 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stehr, D.

J. Bhattacharyya, M. Wagner, S. Zybell, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, M. Helm, and H. Schneider, “Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 103107 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Strait, J.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandashekkar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultra-fast optica-pump teahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sydlo, C.

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schönherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 166603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tani, S.

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 166603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature414, 286–289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teppe, F.

A. E. Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, A. Younus, E. Nguema, F. Teppe, W. Knap, E. Abraham, and P. Mounaix, “Plasma wave field effect transistor as a resonant detector for 1 terahertz imaging applications,” Optics Commun.282, 3055–3058 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Lusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys.:Condens. Mater20, 284205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of Terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B73, 125328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terent’ev, Y. V.

S. D. Ganichev, Y. V. Terent’ev, and I. D. Yaroshetskii, “Photon-drag photodetectors for the far-IR and submillimeter regions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.11, 20 (1985).

Thomson, M.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J.

H. Marachino, L. Chusseau, J. Torres, P. Nouvel, L. Varani, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Room-temperature terahertz mixer based on the simultaneous electronic and optical excitations of plasma waves in a field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 013502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Torres, H. Marinchio, P. Nouvel, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Chusseau, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Plasma waves subterahertz optical beating detection and enhancement in long-channel high-electron-mobility transistors: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.14, 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valusis, G.

S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, D. Seliuta, L. Minkevicius, I. Kasalynas, G. Valusis, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “CMOS integrated antenna-coupled field-effect-transistors for the detection of 0.2 to 4.3 THz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques60, 3834–3843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Varani, L.

H. Marachino, L. Chusseau, J. Torres, P. Nouvel, L. Varani, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Room-temperature terahertz mixer based on the simultaneous electronic and optical excitations of plasma waves in a field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 013502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Torres, H. Marinchio, P. Nouvel, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Chusseau, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Plasma waves subterahertz optical beating detection and enhancement in long-channel high-electron-mobility transistors: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.14, 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veksler, D.

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of Terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B73, 125328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vinh, N. Q.

G. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an incipient terahertz finite plasmonic crystal in couped two dimensional plasmonic cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 126803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

J. Bhattacharyya, M. Wagner, S. Zybell, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, M. Helm, and H. Schneider, “Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 103107 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 061301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Williams, G. P.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, “High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Nature420, 153–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winnerl, S.

J. Bhattacharyya, M. Wagner, S. Zybell, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, M. Helm, and H. Schneider, “Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 103107 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, H. Schäfer, G. Klatt, J. Demsar, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Impulsive Terahertz radiation with high electric fields from an amplifier-driven large-area photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express18, 9251–9257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Optimum excitation conditions for the generation of high-electric-field THz radiation from an oscillator-driven photoconductive device,” Opt. Lett.31, 1546–1548 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Winnerl, “GaAs/AlAs superlattices for detection of terahertz radiation,” Microelectron. J.31, 389–396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yao, R.

Yaroshetskii, I. D.

S. D. Ganichev, Y. V. Terent’ev, and I. D. Yaroshetskii, “Photon-drag photodetectors for the far-IR and submillimeter regions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.11, 20 (1985).

Yeh, K.-L.

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification,” Opt. Commun.281, 3567–3570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Younus, A.

A. E. Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, A. Younus, E. Nguema, F. Teppe, W. Knap, E. Abraham, and P. Mounaix, “Plasma wave field effect transistor as a resonant detector for 1 terahertz imaging applications,” Optics Commun.282, 3055–3058 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zaks, B.

B. Zaks, R. Liu, and M. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature483, 580–583 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zemlyakov, V. E.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, M. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 153504 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mat.1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

E. Öjefors, N. Baktash, Y. Zhao, R. A. Hadi, H. Sherry, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging detectors in a 65-nm CMOS SOI technology,” Proc. ESSCIRC, 486–489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zudov, M.

M. Zudov, A. P. Mitchell, and A. H. Chin, “Time-resolved, nonperturbative, and off-resonance generation of optical terahertz sidebands from bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B64, 121204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zybell, S.

J. Bhattacharyya, M. Wagner, S. Zybell, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, M. Helm, and H. Schneider, “Simultaneous time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy under two-colour near infrared and terahertz excitation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 103107 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, T. Roch, A. Andrews, S. Scharter, and G. Strasser, “Resonant enhancement of second order sideband generation for intraexcitonic transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 241105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Marachino, L. Chusseau, J. Torres, P. Nouvel, L. Varani, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Room-temperature terahertz mixer based on the simultaneous electronic and optical excitations of plasma waves in a field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 013502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo and K. Hirakawa, “Terahertz radiation from ultrahigh-speed field-effect transistors induced by ultrafast optical gate switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 191120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, M. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Yu. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 153504 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Frequenz (1)

C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, D. Schönherr, T. Goebel, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Fast THz detectors based on InGaAs Schottky diodes,” Frequenz62, 107–110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. (1)

J. Torres, H. Marinchio, P. Nouvel, G. Sabatini, C. Palermo, L. Varani, L. Chusseau, P. Shiktorov, E. Starikov, and V. Gruzinskis, “Plasma waves subterahertz optical beating detection and enhancement in long-channel high-electron-mobility transistors: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.14, 491–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, M. Mundt, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Subharmonic mixing with field-effect transistors: theory and experiment at 639 GHz high above fτ,” IEEE Sensors J.13, 124–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques (1)

S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, D. Seliuta, L. Minkevicius, I. Kasalynas, G. Valusis, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “CMOS integrated antenna-coupled field-effect-transistors for the detection of 0.2 to 4.3 THz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques60, 3834–3843 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Preu, G. H. Döhler, S. Malzer, L. Wang, and A. C. Gossard, “Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 061301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Preu, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved theory for non-resonant Thz detection in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111, 024502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys.:Condens. Mater (1)

W. Knap, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, D. Coquillat, and J. Lusakowski, “Plasma wave oscillations in nanometer field effect transistors for terahertz detection and emission,” J. Phys.:Condens. Mater20, 284205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. J. (1)

S. Winnerl, “GaAs/AlAs superlattices for detection of terahertz radiation,” Microelectron. J.31, 389–396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandashekkar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultra-fast optica-pump teahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8, 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mat. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mat.1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

B. Zaks, R. Liu, and M. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature483, 580–583 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, “High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Nature420, 153–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature414, 286–289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification,” Opt. Commun.281, 3567–3570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optics Commun. (1)

A. E. Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, A. Younus, E. Nguema, F. Teppe, W. Knap, E. Abraham, and P. Mounaix, “Plasma wave field effect transistor as a resonant detector for 1 terahertz imaging applications,” Optics Commun.282, 3055–3058 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

R. Huber, R. A. Kaindl, D. A. Schmid, and D. S. Chemla, “Broadband terahertz study of excitonic resonances in the high-density regime in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B72, 161314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Zudov, A. P. Mitchell, and A. H. Chin, “Time-resolved, nonperturbative, and off-resonance generation of optical terahertz sidebands from bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B64, 121204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Ciulin, S. Carter, M. S. Sherwin, A. Huntington, and L. Coldren, “Terahertz optical mixing in biased GaAs single quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B70, 115312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample layout of the FET detectors. a) Silicon-lens coupled devices (A,B). The THz power is coupled through the silicon lens. The optical beam is incident from the other side. b) Free space coupled device (C). Optical and THz beam are both incident for the air-side on the sample. c) Schematic top view. The wiring of the source and gate electrodes is electrically insulated using a SiO2 spacer layer (indicated by the red semi-transparent layer). d) Key dimensions of the sample layouts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Sample structure of the (Al)GaAs HEMT. The carrier mobility at room temperature is 6700 cm2/(Vs), the carrier concentration is 7× 1011 /cm2. b) Side view of the mesas. Optically excited regions are indicated in red. In area (I), the substrate between two mesas absorbs the NIR laser pulse. Area (II) specifies the absorbing part of the mesa.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Sample A, operated at 4.9 THz (λTHz =61.2 μm): the first optical pulse is synchronized with the FEL pulse. For the subsequent NIR pulse, there is no THz FEL pulse since there is only one FEL pulse (νrep = 13 MHz) every 6 optical pulses (νrep,o = 78 MHz). The experimental parameters are summarized in the figure. PFEL is the average power recorded with a thermal power meter. The threshold bias is Uthr =−1.1 V. The black line indicates the current relaxation between optical pulses. b) Exponential fit of the pulse fall time of the second optical pulse in a), resulting in a 1/e fall time of τ =170 ps. c) Several measurements with sample B, operated at 3.28 THz (λTHz =91.5 μm): The optical NIR pulse has been delayed electronically in several steps with respect to the THz pulse. The delays were extracted from the measurement and are in agreement with the performed electronic delay. d) Gaussian fit of the measured FEL pulse for zero delay (red graph at t=0 ns in subfigure c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Responsivity of all investigated devices with respect to the pulse energy for a reverse bias of UGS ≈ −0.5 ± 0.1 V (UG ≈ 0.6 V). The error bars take the calibration error of the thermal reference detector of an estimated 30% into account. b) Linearity of sample B. The solid lines indicate a linear THz power-detector signal dependence. The maximum FEL average power is indicated in the graph.

Equations (2)

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v = s / τ 3 d B = μ U D S / s s = μ U D S τ 3 d B .
R A ( λ T H z ) = R H ( λ T H z ) / ( 1 + ( 0.82 ρ k T H z ) 2 ) = R H ( λ T H z ) / ( 1 + ( 5.15 ρ / λ T H z ) 2 ) ,

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