Abstract

A novel magnetic field sensor using tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) interacting with magnetic fluid is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The TFBG is surrounded by magnetic fluid whose complex refractive index changes with external magnetic field. The guiding properties of cladding modes excited by the TFBG are therefore modulated by the external magnetic field. As a result, the magnetic field strength measurement is successfully achieved within a range up to 196 Gauss by monitoring extinction ratio of cladding mode resonance. Furthermore, temperature variation can be obtained simultaneously from the wavelength shift of the TFBG transmission spectrum.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013

2012

2011

J. Dai, M. Yang, X. Li, H. Liu, and X. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol.17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, X. Dong, C. C. Chan, C. L. Zhao, and S. Jin, “Power-referenced optical fiber refractometer based on a hybrid fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(22), 1706–1708 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, Y. Liu, L. Y. Shao, J. Kang, and C. L. Zhao, “Temperature-independent fiber bending sensor based on a superimposed grating,” IEEE Sens. J.11(11), 3019–3022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Shao and J. Albert, “Lateral force sensor based on a core-offset tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1855–1858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Optical fiber cladding ring magnetic field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(13), 929–931 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-Y. Shao, J. P. Coyle, S. T. Barry, and J. Albert, “Anomalous permittivity and plasmon resonances of copper nanoparticle conformal coatings on optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 128–137 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on measuring the transmission power of tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol.15(3), 233–236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, L. Shao, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Tilted fiber grating accelerometer incorporating an abrupt biconical taper for cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express17(23), 20651–20660 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 635–637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinez, F. Cecelja, and R. Rakowski, “A novel magneto-optic ferrofluid material for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.123–124, 438–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi1(7), 1604–1609 (2004) (c).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. S. Didosyan, H. Hauser, J. Nicolics, V. Y. Barash, and P. L. Fulmek, “Magneto-optical current sensor by domain wall motion in orthoferrites,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.49(1), 14–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

N. A. Yusuf, A. Ramadan, and H. Abu-Safia, “The wavelength and concentration dependence of the magneto-dielectric anisotropy effect in magnetic fluids determined from magneto-optical measurements,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.184(3), 375–386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, and S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn.31(6), 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abu-Safia, H.

N. A. Yusuf, A. Ramadan, and H. Abu-Safia, “The wavelength and concentration dependence of the magneto-dielectric anisotropy effect in magnetic fluids determined from magneto-optical measurements,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.184(3), 375–386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Barash, V. Y.

Y. S. Didosyan, H. Hauser, J. Nicolics, V. Y. Barash, and P. L. Fulmek, “Magneto-optical current sensor by domain wall motion in orthoferrites,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.49(1), 14–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barry, S. T.

Bialiayeu, A.

Candiani, A.

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Optical fiber cladding ring magnetic field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(13), 929–931 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Caucheteur, C.

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(1), 83–108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cecelja, F.

L. Martinez, F. Cecelja, and R. Rakowski, “A novel magneto-optic ferrofluid material for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.123–124, 438–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Li, X. Dong, C. C. Chan, C. L. Zhao, and S. Jin, “Power-referenced optical fiber refractometer based on a hybrid fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(22), 1706–1708 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 635–637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. Chen, and Z. Lv, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett.8(4), 392–394 (2010).

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. H.

Chen, X.

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J. J.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Childs, P.

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Optical fiber cladding ring magnetic field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(13), 929–931 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coyle, J. P.

Dai, J.

J. Dai, M. Yang, X. Li, H. Liu, and X. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol.17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Di, Z.

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Didosyan, Y. S.

Y. S. Didosyan, H. Hauser, J. Nicolics, V. Y. Barash, and P. L. Fulmek, “Magneto-optical current sensor by domain wall motion in orthoferrites,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.49(1), 14–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Li, X. Dong, C. C. Chan, C. L. Zhao, and S. Jin, “Power-referenced optical fiber refractometer based on a hybrid fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(22), 1706–1708 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, Y. Liu, L. Y. Shao, J. Kang, and C. L. Zhao, “Temperature-independent fiber bending sensor based on a superimposed grating,” IEEE Sens. J.11(11), 3019–3022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fulmek, P. L.

Y. S. Didosyan, H. Hauser, J. Nicolics, V. Y. Barash, and P. L. Fulmek, “Magneto-optical current sensor by domain wall motion in orthoferrites,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.49(1), 14–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gong, T.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, P. G.

Griffiths, M. B. E.

Guan, B. O.

Guo, T.

Hauser, H.

Y. S. Didosyan, H. Hauser, J. Nicolics, V. Y. Barash, and P. L. Fulmek, “Magneto-optical current sensor by domain wall motion in orthoferrites,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.49(1), 14–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi1(7), 1604–1609 (2004) (c).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi1(7), 1604–1609 (2004) (c).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T.

Ishiko, D.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, and S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn.31(6), 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, S.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, and S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn.31(6), 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, N.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, and S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn.31(6), 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

T. Li, X. Dong, C. C. Chan, C. L. Zhao, and S. Jin, “Power-referenced optical fiber refractometer based on a hybrid fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(22), 1706–1708 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

X. Dong, Y. Liu, L. Y. Shao, J. Kang, and C. L. Zhao, “Temperature-independent fiber bending sensor based on a superimposed grating,” IEEE Sens. J.11(11), 3019–3022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

Laronche, A.

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 635–637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lew, W. S.

Li, T.

T. Li, X. Dong, C. C. Chan, C. L. Zhao, and S. Jin, “Power-referenced optical fiber refractometer based on a hybrid fiber grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(22), 1706–1708 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

J. Dai, M. Yang, X. Li, H. Liu, and X. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol.17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. Chen, and Z. Lv, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett.8(4), 392–394 (2010).

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, W.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liew, H. F.

Liu, B.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on measuring the transmission power of tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol.15(3), 233–236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

J. Dai, M. Yang, X. Li, H. Liu, and X. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol.17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Dong, Y. Liu, L. Y. Shao, J. Kang, and C. L. Zhao, “Temperature-independent fiber bending sensor based on a superimposed grating,” IEEE Sens. J.11(11), 3019–3022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Z.

Mandia, D. J.

Martinez, L.

L. Martinez, F. Cecelja, and R. Rakowski, “A novel magneto-optic ferrofluid material for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.123–124, 438–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miao, Y. P.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on measuring the transmission power of tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol.15(3), 233–236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minemoto, H.

N. Itoh, H. Minemoto, D. Ishiko, and S. Ishizuka, “Optical magnetic field sensors with high linearity using bi-substituted rare earth iron garnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn.31(6), 3191–3193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nicolics, J.

Y. S. Didosyan, H. Hauser, J. Nicolics, V. Y. Barash, and P. L. Fulmek, “Magneto-optical current sensor by domain wall motion in orthoferrites,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.49(1), 14–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pissadakis, S.

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Optical fiber cladding ring magnetic field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(13), 929–931 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pu, S.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rakowski, R.

L. Martinez, F. Cecelja, and R. Rakowski, “A novel magneto-optic ferrofluid material for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.123–124, 438–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramadan, A.

N. A. Yusuf, A. Ramadan, and H. Abu-Safia, “The wavelength and concentration dependence of the magneto-dielectric anisotropy effect in magnetic fluids determined from magneto-optical measurements,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.184(3), 375–386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ran, Y.

Shang, L.

Shao, L.

Shao, L. Y.

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(1), 83–108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Shao and J. Albert, “Lateral force sensor based on a core-offset tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1855–1858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, Y. Liu, L. Y. Shao, J. Kang, and C. L. Zhao, “Temperature-independent fiber bending sensor based on a superimposed grating,” IEEE Sens. J.11(11), 3019–3022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L.-Y.

Tam, H. Y.

Tong, X.

J. Dai, M. Yang, X. Li, H. Liu, and X. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol.17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. C.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectra of the TFBG before and after magnetic fluid surrounding.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for magnetic field measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectra of the TFBG under various magnetic field strengths; (b) Evolution of the selected cladding mode resonance with magnetic field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between extinction ratio and magnetic field strength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured wavelength shifts against temperature.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ B =2 n eff,co Λ/cosθ,
λ c,i =( n eff,co + n eff,cl,i )Λ/cosθ,
Δ λ B =2( n eff,co cosθ dΛ dT + Λ cosθ d n eff,co dT )ΔT,
Δ λ c,i =( ( n eff,co + n eff,cl,i ) cosθ dΛ dT + Λ cosθ d( n eff,co + n eff,cl,i ) dT )ΔT,

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