Abstract

Aerosol complex refractive index (ACRI) has attracted intensive attentions due to its significance in modeling aerosol radiative effects. Determinations of ACRI from surface measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as well as number size distributions during June, 2008 based on an iterative Mie algorithm were performed. The aim of our study was to introduce an inversion approach with the merits of high time-resolutions to retrieve the optically effective ACRI, especially its imaginary part. Based on simultaneous measurements of aerosol characteristics, mean ACRI value of 1.50 ( ± 0.34)–i0.025 ( ± 0.015) at 550 nm in Hefei in summer was deducted. The lower imaginary parts with higher single scattering albedos and lower scattering Angstrom exponents were obtained for haze periods compared with nonhaze conditions with similar air-mass back-trajectories, indicating more large and scattering particles contributing to the formation of haze episodes. The derived imaginary parts of ACRI related to agricultural biomass burning were in the range from 0.013 to 0.029 at 550 nm. Significant negative correlations between retrieved imaginary parts of ACRI and measured single scattering albedos indicate that our retrieval approach is a reasonable method for determining the imaginary parts of complex refractive indices of aerosol particles.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

X. Zhang, Y. Huang, W. Zhu, and R. Rao, “Aerosol characteristics during summer haze episodes from different source regions over the coast city of North China Plain,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.122, 180–193 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. Papayannis, R. E. Mamouri, V. Amiridis, E. Remoundaki, G. Tsaknakis, P. Kokkalis, I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, A. Nenes, and C. Fountoukis, “Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.12(9), 4011–4032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, Y. Huang, and R. Rao, “Aerosol characteristics including fumigation effect under weak precipitation over the southeastern coast of China,” J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phy.84–85, 25–36 (2012).

2011 (4)

M. Stock, Y. F. Cheng, W. Birmili, A. Massling, B. Wehner, T. Muller, S. Leinert, N. Kalivitis, N. Mihalopoulos, and A. Wiedensohler, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Eastern Mediterranean: implications for regional direct radiative forcing under clean and polluted conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11(9), 4251–4271 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Z. Deng, C. S. Zhao, N. Ma, P. F. Liu, L. Ran, W. Y. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Liang, S. Liang, M. Y. Huang, X. C. Ma, Q. Zhang, J. N. Quan, P. Yan, S. Henning, K. Mildenberger, E. Sommerhage, M. Schafer, F. Stratmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols in the North China plain,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11(8), 3835–3846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Noh, D. Muller, I. Mattis, H. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, “Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: Multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea,” J. Geophys. Res.116(D6), D06206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivaprakasam, H. B. Lin, A. L. Huston, and J. D. Eversole, “Spectral characterization of biological aerosol particles using two-wavelength excited laser-induced fluorescence and elastic scattering measurements,” Opt. Express19(7), 6191–6208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanre, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D21), D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Muller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: Shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D7), D07202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Mack, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. Obrist, H. Moosmuller, K. A. Lewis, W. P. Arnott, G. R. McMeeking, A. P. Sullivan, C. E. Wold, W. M. Hao, J. L. Collett, and W. C. Malm, “Optical closure experiments for biomass smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(18), 9017–9026 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Müller, A. Schladitz, A. Massling, N. Kaaden, K. Kandler, and A. Wiedensohler, “Spectral absorption coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of Saharan dust during SAMUM-1,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.61(1), 79–95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schutz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jackel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.61(1), 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dornbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust absorption and refractive index from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.61(1), 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Noh, D. Muller, D. H. Shin, H. L. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ.43(4), 879–888 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. C. Raut and P. Chazette, “Radiative budget in the presence of multi-layered aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8(22), 6839–6864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Raut and P. Chazette, “Vertical profiles of urban aerosol complex refractive index in the frame of ESQUIF airborne measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8(4), 901–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

A. A. Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.7(6), 1523–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ.41(5), 1107–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Moorthy, S. S. Babu, and S. K. Satheesh, “Temporal heterogeneity in aerosol characteristics and the resulting radiative impact at a tropical coastal station—Part 1: Microphysical and optical properties,” Ann. Geophys.25(11), 2293–2308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, L. T. Marufu, R. R. Dickerson, Z. Li, T. Wen, Y. Wang, P. Wang, H. Chen, and J. W. Stehr, “In situ measurements of trace gases and aerosol optical properties at a rural site in northern China during East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment 2005,” J. Geophys. Res.112(D22), D22S04 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Raut and P. Chazette, “Retrieval of aerosol complex refractive index from a synergy between lidar, sunphotometer and in situ measurements during LISAIR experiment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.7(11), 2797–2815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and I. V. Geogdzhayev, “Satellite remote sensing reveals regional tropospheric aerosol trends,” Opt. Express15(12), 7423–7438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

A. Virkkula, I. K. Koponen, K. Teinila, R. Hillamo, V. M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala, “Effective real refractive index of dry aerosols in the Antarctic boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett.33(6), L06805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Mulholland, M. K. Donnelly, C. R. Hagwood, S. R. Kukuck, V. A. Hackley, and D. Y. H. Pui, “Measurement of 100 nm and 60 nm particle standards by Differential Mobility Analysis,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.111(4), 257–312 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Corrigan, V. Ramanathan, and J. J. Schauer, “Impact of monsoon transition on the physical and optical properties of aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res.111(D18), D18208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Randriamiarisoa, P. Chazette, P. Couvert, J. Sanak, and G. Megie, “Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(5), 1389–1407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, L. A. Remer, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Rudich, “The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(32), 11207–11212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Volckens and T. M. Peters, “Counting and particle transmission efficiency of the aerodynamic particle sizer,” J. Aerosol Sci.36(12), 1400–1408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, P. Hoffmann, and H. M. Ortner, “The chemical composition and complex refractive index of rural and urban influenced aerosols determined by individual particle analysis,” Atmos. Environ.38(38), 6531–6545 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

T. M. Peters and D. Leith, “Concentration measurement and counting efficiency of the aerodynamic particle sizer 3321,” J. Aerosol Sci.34(5), 627–634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyon, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, G. C. Roberts, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxo, and M. O. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci.34(7), 883–907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnaiter, H. Horvath, O. Mohler, K. H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and O. W. Schock, “UV-VIS-NIR spectral optical properties of soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci.34(10), 1421–1444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, P. N. Francis, A. Keil, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and P. H. Kaye, “The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res.108, (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

D. A. Ligon, A. E. Wetmore, and P. S. Gillespie, “Simulation of the passive infrared spectral signatures of bioaerosol and natural fog clouds immersed in the background atmosphere,” Opt. Express10(18), 909–919 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Hand and S. M. Kreidenweis, “A new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution data,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.36(10), 1012–1026 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29(10), 1415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS–APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ.36(24), 3939–3950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D15), 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci.59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Shi, R. M. Harrison, and D. Evans, “Comparison of ambient particle surface area measurement by epiphaniometer and SMPS/APS,” Atmos. Environ.35(35), 6193–6200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, J. C. Baird, C. A. Blazer, P. J. Drayton, and J. E. Frederick, “An empirical method for the determination of the complex refractive index of size-fractionated atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.34, 535–549 (2001).

P. Chazette and C. Liousse, “A case study of optical and chemical apportionment for urban aerosols in Thessaloniki,” Atmos. Environ.35(14), 2497–2506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res.105(D8), 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Jacobson, “A physically-based treatment of elemental carbon optics: implications for global direct forcing of aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett.27(2), 217–220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. W. Mulholland, N. P. Bryner, and C. Croarkin, “Measurement of the 100 nm NIST SRM 1963 by Differential Mobility Analysis,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.31(1), 39–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. L. Anderson and J. A. Ogren, “Determining aerosol radiative properties using the TSI 3563 integrating nephelometer,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.29(1), 57–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao and J. H. Seinfeld, “Radiative forcing by mineral dust aerosols: sensitivity to key variables,” J. Geophys. Res.103(D24), 31637–31645 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. M. Haywood and K. P. Shine, “Multi-spectral calculations of the direct radiative forcing of tropospheric sulphate and soot aerosols using a column model,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society—Part A123(543), 1907–1930 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Muller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: Shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D7), D07202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D15), 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

A. Papayannis, R. E. Mamouri, V. Amiridis, E. Remoundaki, G. Tsaknakis, P. Kokkalis, I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, A. Nenes, and C. Fountoukis, “Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.12(9), 4011–4032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

T. L. Anderson and J. A. Ogren, “Determining aerosol radiative properties using the TSI 3563 integrating nephelometer,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.29(1), 57–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ.41(5), 1107–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyon, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, G. C. Roberts, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxo, and M. O. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci.34(7), 883–907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, P. N. Francis, A. Keil, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and P. H. Kaye, “The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res.108, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Muller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: Shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D7), D07202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D15), 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arnott, W. P.

L. A. Mack, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. Obrist, H. Moosmuller, K. A. Lewis, W. P. Arnott, G. R. McMeeking, A. P. Sullivan, C. E. Wold, W. M. Hao, J. L. Collett, and W. C. Malm, “Optical closure experiments for biomass smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(18), 9017–9026 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Artaxo, P.

P. Guyon, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, G. C. Roberts, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxo, and M. O. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci.34(7), 883–907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Babu, S. S.

K. K. Moorthy, S. S. Babu, and S. K. Satheesh, “Temporal heterogeneity in aerosol characteristics and the resulting radiative impact at a tropical coastal station—Part 1: Microphysical and optical properties,” Ann. Geophys.25(11), 2293–2308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baird, J. C.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, J. C. Baird, C. A. Blazer, P. J. Drayton, and J. E. Frederick, “An empirical method for the determination of the complex refractive index of size-fractionated atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.34, 535–549 (2001).

Beck, J.

P. Guyon, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, G. C. Roberts, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxo, and M. O. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci.34(7), 883–907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res.105(D8), 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Birmili, W.

M. Stock, Y. F. Cheng, W. Birmili, A. Massling, B. Wehner, T. Muller, S. Leinert, N. Kalivitis, N. Mihalopoulos, and A. Wiedensohler, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Eastern Mediterranean: implications for regional direct radiative forcing under clean and polluted conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11(9), 4251–4271 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blazer, C. A.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, J. C. Baird, C. A. Blazer, P. J. Drayton, and J. E. Frederick, “An empirical method for the determination of the complex refractive index of size-fractionated atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.34, 535–549 (2001).

Boucher, O.

P. Guyon, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, G. C. Roberts, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxo, and M. O. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci.34(7), 883–907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res.105(D8), 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bryner, N. P.

G. W. Mulholland, N. P. Bryner, and C. Croarkin, “Measurement of the 100 nm NIST SRM 1963 by Differential Mobility Analysis,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.31(1), 39–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chand, D.

G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ.41(5), 1107–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

J. C. Raut and P. Chazette, “Radiative budget in the presence of multi-layered aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8(22), 6839–6864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Raut and P. Chazette, “Vertical profiles of urban aerosol complex refractive index in the frame of ESQUIF airborne measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.8(4), 901–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Raut and P. Chazette, “Retrieval of aerosol complex refractive index from a synergy between lidar, sunphotometer and in situ measurements during LISAIR experiment,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.7(11), 2797–2815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Randriamiarisoa, P. Chazette, P. Couvert, J. Sanak, and G. Megie, “Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(5), 1389–1407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Chazette and C. Liousse, “A case study of optical and chemical apportionment for urban aerosols in Thessaloniki,” Atmos. Environ.35(14), 2497–2506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

C. Li, L. T. Marufu, R. R. Dickerson, Z. Li, T. Wen, Y. Wang, P. Wang, H. Chen, and J. W. Stehr, “In situ measurements of trace gases and aerosol optical properties at a rural site in northern China during East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment 2005,” J. Geophys. Res.112(D22), D22S04 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Z. Z. Deng, C. S. Zhao, N. Ma, P. F. Liu, L. Ran, W. Y. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Liang, S. Liang, M. Y. Huang, X. C. Ma, Q. Zhang, J. N. Quan, P. Yan, S. Henning, K. Mildenberger, E. Sommerhage, M. Schafer, F. Stratmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols in the North China plain,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11(8), 3835–3846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. F.

M. Stock, Y. F. Cheng, W. Birmili, A. Massling, B. Wehner, T. Muller, S. Leinert, N. Kalivitis, N. Mihalopoulos, and A. Wiedensohler, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Eastern Mediterranean: implications for regional direct radiative forcing under clean and polluted conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11(9), 4251–4271 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Collett, J. L.

L. A. Mack, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. Obrist, H. Moosmuller, K. A. Lewis, W. P. Arnott, G. R. McMeeking, A. P. Sullivan, C. E. Wold, W. M. Hao, J. L. Collett, and W. C. Malm, “Optical closure experiments for biomass smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(18), 9017–9026 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corrigan, C. E.

C. E. Corrigan, V. Ramanathan, and J. J. Schauer, “Impact of monsoon transition on the physical and optical properties of aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res.111(D18), D18208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Couvert, P.

H. Randriamiarisoa, P. Chazette, P. Couvert, J. Sanak, and G. Megie, “Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(5), 1389–1407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cribb, M.

Y. M. Noh, D. Muller, D. H. Shin, H. L. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ.43(4), 879–888 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Croarkin, C.

G. W. Mulholland, N. P. Bryner, and C. Croarkin, “Measurement of the 100 nm NIST SRM 1963 by Differential Mobility Analysis,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.31(1), 39–55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Z. Z.

Z. Z. Deng, C. S. Zhao, N. Ma, P. F. Liu, L. Ran, W. Y. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Liang, S. Liang, M. Y. Huang, X. C. Ma, Q. Zhang, J. N. Quan, P. Yan, S. Henning, K. Mildenberger, E. Sommerhage, M. Schafer, F. Stratmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols in the North China plain,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11(8), 3835–3846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deutscher, C.

K. Kandler, L. Schutz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jackel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.61(1), 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, P.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanre, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D21), D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dickerson, R. R.

C. Li, L. T. Marufu, R. R. Dickerson, Z. Li, T. Wen, Y. Wang, P. Wang, H. Chen, and J. W. Stehr, “In situ measurements of trace gases and aerosol optical properties at a rural site in northern China during East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment 2005,” J. Geophys. Res.112(D22), D22S04 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dinar, E.

A. A. Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.7(6), 1523–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, M. K.

G. W. Mulholland, M. K. Donnelly, C. R. Hagwood, S. R. Kukuck, V. A. Hackley, and D. Y. H. Pui, “Measurement of 100 nm and 60 nm particle standards by Differential Mobility Analysis,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.111(4), 257–312 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dornbrack, A.

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dornbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust absorption and refractive index from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.61(1), 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drayton, P. J.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, J. C. Baird, C. A. Blazer, P. J. Drayton, and J. E. Frederick, “An empirical method for the determination of the complex refractive index of size-fractionated atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.34, 535–549 (2001).

Dubovik, O.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanre, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D21), D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci.59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29(10), 1415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, M.

K. Kandler, L. Schutz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jackel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.61(1), 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, P. Hoffmann, and H. M. Ortner, “The chemical composition and complex refractive index of rural and urban influenced aerosols determined by individual particle analysis,” Atmos. Environ.38(38), 6531–6545 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci.59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erlick, C.

A. A. Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.7(6), 1523–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ.41(5), 1107–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Esselborn, M.

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Muller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: Shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D7), D07202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dornbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust absorption and refractive index from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.61(1), 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D.

J. Shi, R. M. Harrison, and D. Evans, “Comparison of ambient particle surface area measurement by epiphaniometer and SMPS/APS,” Atmos. Environ.35(35), 6193–6200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J. D.

Ferrare, R. A.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res.105(D8), 9949–9970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiebig, M.

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dornbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust absorption and refractive index from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol.61(1), 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Formenti, P.

J. M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, P. N. Francis, A. Keil, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and P. H. Kaye, “The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res.108, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fountoukis, C.

A. Papayannis, R. E. Mamouri, V. Amiridis, E. Remoundaki, G. Tsaknakis, P. Kokkalis, I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, A. Nenes, and C. Fountoukis, “Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.12(9), 4011–4032 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Francis, P. N.

J. M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, P. N. Francis, A. Keil, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and P. H. Kaye, “The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res.108, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franke, K.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D15), 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J. E.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, J. C. Baird, C. A. Blazer, P. J. Drayton, and J. E. Frederick, “An empirical method for the determination of the complex refractive index of size-fractionated atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.34, 535–549 (2001).

Freudenthaler, V.

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Muller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: Shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D7), D07202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaffney, J. S.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, J. C. Baird, C. A. Blazer, P. J. Drayton, and J. E. Frederick, “An empirical method for the determination of the complex refractive index of size-fractionated atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.34, 535–549 (2001).

Geller, M. D.

S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS–APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ.36(24), 3939–3950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geogdzhayev, I. V.

Gillespie, P. S.

Graham, B.

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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci.59(3), 590–608 (2002).
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A. Virkkula, I. K. Koponen, K. Teinila, R. Hillamo, V. M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala, “Effective real refractive index of dry aerosols in the Antarctic boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett.33(6), L06805 (2006).
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Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, L. A. Remer, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Rudich, “The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(32), 11207–11212 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

J. L. Hand and S. M. Kreidenweis, “A new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution data,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.36(10), 1012–1026 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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G. W. Mulholland, M. K. Donnelly, C. R. Hagwood, S. R. Kukuck, V. A. Hackley, and D. Y. H. Pui, “Measurement of 100 nm and 60 nm particle standards by Differential Mobility Analysis,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.111(4), 257–312 (2006).
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A. Virkkula, I. K. Koponen, K. Teinila, R. Hillamo, V. M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala, “Effective real refractive index of dry aerosols in the Antarctic boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett.33(6), L06805 (2006).
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I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanre, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D21), D21203 (2010).
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29(10), 1415 (2002).
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Y. M. Noh, D. Muller, I. Mattis, H. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, “Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: Multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea,” J. Geophys. Res.116(D6), D06206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Y. M. Noh, D. Muller, D. H. Shin, H. L. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ.43(4), 879–888 (2009).
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Lee, K. H.

Y. M. Noh, D. Muller, D. H. Shin, H. L. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ.43(4), 879–888 (2009).
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M. Stock, Y. F. Cheng, W. Birmili, A. Massling, B. Wehner, T. Muller, S. Leinert, N. Kalivitis, N. Mihalopoulos, and A. Wiedensohler, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Eastern Mediterranean: implications for regional direct radiative forcing under clean and polluted conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11(9), 4251–4271 (2011).
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L. A. Mack, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. Obrist, H. Moosmuller, K. A. Lewis, W. P. Arnott, G. R. McMeeking, A. P. Sullivan, C. E. Wold, W. M. Hao, J. L. Collett, and W. C. Malm, “Optical closure experiments for biomass smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(18), 9017–9026 (2010).
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L. A. Mack, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. Obrist, H. Moosmuller, K. A. Lewis, W. P. Arnott, G. R. McMeeking, A. P. Sullivan, C. E. Wold, W. M. Hao, J. L. Collett, and W. C. Malm, “Optical closure experiments for biomass smoke aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(18), 9017–9026 (2010).
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C. Li, L. T. Marufu, R. R. Dickerson, Z. Li, T. Wen, Y. Wang, P. Wang, H. Chen, and J. W. Stehr, “In situ measurements of trace gases and aerosol optical properties at a rural site in northern China during East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment 2005,” J. Geophys. Res.112(D22), D22S04 (2007).
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Li, Z.

Y. M. Noh, D. Muller, D. H. Shin, H. L. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in Gwangju, Korea,” Atmos. Environ.43(4), 879–888 (2009).
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C. Li, L. T. Marufu, R. R. Dickerson, Z. Li, T. Wen, Y. Wang, P. Wang, H. Chen, and J. W. Stehr, “In situ measurements of trace gases and aerosol optical properties at a rural site in northern China during East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment 2005,” J. Geophys. Res.112(D22), D22S04 (2007).
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Whiteman, D. N.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanre, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.115(D21), D21203 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal variations of the measured scattering coefficients (a) and absorption coefficients (b) of atmospheric aerosols. The black solid squares, red open circles and blue dot-center triangles denote the wavelengths of 450, 550 and 700 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The aerosol number size distributions in terms of mean (a), median, 10th, 25th, 75th and 90th percentile (b) values, and the mean volume size distribution (c) measured from the combination of SMPS and APS during the whole sampling period.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal variations of the deducted real part (a) and imaginary part (b) of aerosol complex refractive indices. The black solid squares, red open circles and blue dot-center triangles indicate the wavelengths of 450, 550 and 700 nm, respectively. Yellow vertical bars for S1, S2, S3 and S4 denote different source regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation plots of single scattering albedo versus real part (left three) of derived complex refractive indices, and single scattering albedo versus imaginary part (right three). The black solid squares, green solid circles and blue solid triangles denote the wavelengths of 450, 550 and 700 nm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative HYSPLIT backward trajectories for S1 (a), S2 (b), S3 (c), S4 (d) over Hefei. Red, Blue and green denote backward trajectories arriving at 10, 100 and 500 m heights above ground level, respectively.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Details of the four representative source regions.

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Table 2 Summary of measured aerosol optical properties and retrieved complex refractive indicesa

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ 2 (n,k)= 1 N i=1 N \ [ ( σ sca ,calculated (n,k) σ sca ,measured σ sca ,measured ) 2 i + ( σ abs, calculated (n,k) σ abs, measured σ abs, measured ) 2 i ]
α s =log[ σ s ( λ 1 )/ σ s ( λ 2 ) ]/log( λ 1 / λ 2 ).

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