Abstract

In this paper we use a Terahertz (THz) time-domain system to image and analyze the structure of an artwork attributed to the Spanish artist Goya painted in 1771. The THz images show features that cannot be seen with optical inspection and complement data obtained with X-ray imaging that provide evidence of its authenticity, which is validated by other independent studies. For instance, a feature with a strong resemblance with one of Goya’s known signatures is seen in the THz images. In particular, this paper demonstrates the potential of THz imaging as a complementary technique along with X-ray for the verification and authentication of artwork pieces through the detection of features that remain hidden to optical inspection.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. K. Kawase, H. Hoshina, A. Iwasaki, Y. Sasaki, and T. Shibuya, “Mail screening applications of Terahertz radiation,” Electron. Lett.46(26), S66–S68 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using Terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(1), 177–183 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a Review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.59(2), 209–223 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Labaune, J. B. Jackson, S. Pages-Camagna, I. N. Duling, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Papyrus imaging with Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 607–612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by Terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 585–590 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga and M. Picollo, “Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the analysis of artists' materials,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, H. Hoshina, A. Iwasaki, Y. Sasaki, and T. Shibuya, “Mail screening applications of Terahertz radiation,” Electron. Lett.46(26), S66–S68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband Terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun.282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, “Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz,” Opt. Express15(19), 12060–12067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a Review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.59(2), 209–223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using Terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Picollo and S. Porcinai, “Non-destructive spectroscopic investigation on artworks,” Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Spectrosc.2, 125–135 (1999).

1998

M. Koch, S. Hunsche, P. Schumacher, M. C. Nuss, J. Feldmann, and J. Fromm, “THz-imaging: a new method for density mapping of wood,” Wood Sci. Technol.32, 421–427 (1998).

Abraham, E.

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by Terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 585–590 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband Terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun.282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baron, M.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastiaans, G. J.

Boiret, M.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowen, J.

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chaminade, P.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

Cole, B. E.

Y. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using Terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delagnes, J. C.

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by Terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 585–590 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband Terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun.282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Doria, A.

G. P. Gallerano, A. Doria, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Petralia, I. Spassovsky, K. Fukunaga, and I. Hosako, “THz-ARTE: Non-invasive Terahertz diagnostics for art conservation,” in Proceedings of IEEE of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadenca, CA, 1998), pp. 1–2.

Duling, I. N.

J. Labaune, J. B. Jackson, S. Pages-Camagna, I. N. Duling, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Papyrus imaging with Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 607–612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

El Fatimy, A.

E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband Terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun.282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

M. Koch, S. Hunsche, P. Schumacher, M. C. Nuss, J. Feldmann, and J. Fromm, “THz-imaging: a new method for density mapping of wood,” Wood Sci. Technol.32, 421–427 (1998).

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using Terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, J.

M. Koch, S. Hunsche, P. Schumacher, M. C. Nuss, J. Feldmann, and J. Fromm, “THz-imaging: a new method for density mapping of wood,” Wood Sci. Technol.32, 421–427 (1998).

Fukunaga, K.

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga and M. Picollo, “Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the analysis of artists' materials,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gallerano, A. Doria, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Petralia, I. Spassovsky, K. Fukunaga, and I. Hosako, “THz-ARTE: Non-invasive Terahertz diagnostics for art conservation,” in Proceedings of IEEE of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadenca, CA, 1998), pp. 1–2.

Gallerano, G. P.

G. P. Gallerano, A. Doria, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Petralia, I. Spassovsky, K. Fukunaga, and I. Hosako, “THz-ARTE: Non-invasive Terahertz diagnostics for art conservation,” in Proceedings of IEEE of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadenca, CA, 1998), pp. 1–2.

Gendre, C.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, M.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giovenale, E.

G. P. Gallerano, A. Doria, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Petralia, I. Spassovsky, K. Fukunaga, and I. Hosako, “THz-ARTE: Non-invasive Terahertz diagnostics for art conservation,” in Proceedings of IEEE of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadenca, CA, 1998), pp. 1–2.

Gordon, K. C.

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a Review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.59(2), 209–223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hangyo, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hosako, I.

G. P. Gallerano, A. Doria, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Petralia, I. Spassovsky, K. Fukunaga, and I. Hosako, “THz-ARTE: Non-invasive Terahertz diagnostics for art conservation,” in Proceedings of IEEE of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadenca, CA, 1998), pp. 1–2.

Hoshina, H.

K. Kawase, H. Hoshina, A. Iwasaki, Y. Sasaki, and T. Shibuya, “Mail screening applications of Terahertz radiation,” Electron. Lett.46(26), S66–S68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

M. Koch, S. Hunsche, P. Schumacher, M. C. Nuss, J. Feldmann, and J. Fromm, “THz-imaging: a new method for density mapping of wood,” Wood Sci. Technol.32, 421–427 (1998).

Ikeda, T.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

K. Kawase, H. Hoshina, A. Iwasaki, Y. Sasaki, and T. Shibuya, “Mail screening applications of Terahertz radiation,” Electron. Lett.46(26), S66–S68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Labaune, J. B. Jackson, S. Pages-Camagna, I. N. Duling, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Papyrus imaging with Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 607–612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Julien, M.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, H. Hoshina, A. Iwasaki, Y. Sasaki, and T. Shibuya, “Mail screening applications of Terahertz radiation,” Electron. Lett.46(26), S66–S68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, M. C.

Y. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

M. Koch, S. Hunsche, P. Schumacher, M. C. Nuss, J. Feldmann, and J. Fromm, “THz-imaging: a new method for density mapping of wood,” Wood Sci. Technol.32, 421–427 (1998).

Koide, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Labaune, J.

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Labaune, J. B. Jackson, S. Pages-Camagna, I. N. Duling, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Papyrus imaging with Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 607–612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lecoq, O.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, T.

Y. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, A.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Menu, M.

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Labaune, J. B. Jackson, S. Pages-Camagna, I. N. Duling, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Papyrus imaging with Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 607–612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Messina, G.

G. P. Gallerano, A. Doria, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Petralia, I. Spassovsky, K. Fukunaga, and I. Hosako, “THz-ARTE: Non-invasive Terahertz diagnostics for art conservation,” in Proceedings of IEEE of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadenca, CA, 1998), pp. 1–2.

Meunier, L.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minami, Y.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mounaix, P.

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by Terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 585–590 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband Terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun.282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

J. Labaune, J. B. Jackson, S. Pages-Camagna, I. N. Duling, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Papyrus imaging with Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 607–612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a Review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.59(2), 209–223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguema, E.

E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband Terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun.282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

M. Koch, S. Hunsche, P. Schumacher, M. C. Nuss, J. Feldmann, and J. Fromm, “THz-imaging: a new method for density mapping of wood,” Wood Sci. Technol.32, 421–427 (1998).

Pages-Camagna, S.

J. Labaune, J. B. Jackson, S. Pages-Camagna, I. N. Duling, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Papyrus imaging with Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 607–612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Péan, J. M.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a Review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.59(2), 209–223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petralia, A.

G. P. Gallerano, A. Doria, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Petralia, I. Spassovsky, K. Fukunaga, and I. Hosako, “THz-ARTE: Non-invasive Terahertz diagnostics for art conservation,” in Proceedings of IEEE of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadenca, CA, 1998), pp. 1–2.

Picollo, M.

K. Fukunaga and M. Picollo, “Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the analysis of artists' materials,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Picollo and S. Porcinai, “Non-destructive spectroscopic investigation on artworks,” Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Spectrosc.2, 125–135 (1999).

Porcinai, S.

M. Picollo and S. Porcinai, “Non-destructive spectroscopic investigation on artworks,” Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Spectrosc.2, 125–135 (1999).

Rades, T.

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a Review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.59(2), 209–223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, Y.

K. Kawase, H. Hoshina, A. Iwasaki, Y. Sasaki, and T. Shibuya, “Mail screening applications of Terahertz radiation,” Electron. Lett.46(26), S66–S68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, P.

M. Koch, S. Hunsche, P. Schumacher, M. C. Nuss, J. Feldmann, and J. Fromm, “THz-imaging: a new method for density mapping of wood,” Wood Sci. Technol.32, 421–427 (1998).

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, T.

K. Kawase, H. Hoshina, A. Iwasaki, Y. Sasaki, and T. Shibuya, “Mail screening applications of Terahertz radiation,” Electron. Lett.46(26), S66–S68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spassovsky, I.

G. P. Gallerano, A. Doria, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Petralia, I. Spassovsky, K. Fukunaga, and I. Hosako, “THz-ARTE: Non-invasive Terahertz diagnostics for art conservation,” in Proceedings of IEEE of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadenca, CA, 1998), pp. 1–2.

Strachan, C. J.

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a Review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.59(2), 209–223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using Terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tani, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuno, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G.

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Younus, A.

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by Terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 585–590 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband Terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun.282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, J. A.

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a Review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.59(2), 209–223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhao, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

K. Fukunaga and M. Picollo, “Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the analysis of artists' materials,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Labaune, J. B. Jackson, S. Pages-Camagna, I. N. Duling, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Papyrus imaging with Terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 607–612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by Terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(3), 585–590 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

K. Kawase, H. Hoshina, A. Iwasaki, Y. Sasaki, and T. Shibuya, “Mail screening applications of Terahertz radiation,” Electron. Lett.46(26), S66–S68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.

C. Gendre, M. Genty, M. Boiret, M. Julien, L. Meunier, O. Lecoq, M. Baron, P. Chaminade, and J. M. Péan, “Development of a process analytical technology (PAT) for in-Line Monitoring of Film Thickness and Mass of Coating Materials During a Pan Coating Operation,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci.43(4), 244–250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of Terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci.1(1), 220–231 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Pharm. Pharmacol.

J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging in the pharmaceutical setting--a Review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.59(2), 209–223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pharm. Sci.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using Terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci.94(4), 837–846 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 3B), L414–L417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband Terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun.282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Spectrosc.

M. Picollo and S. Porcinai, “Non-destructive spectroscopic investigation on artworks,” Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Spectrosc.2, 125–135 (1999).

Wood Sci. Technol.

M. Koch, S. Hunsche, P. Schumacher, M. C. Nuss, J. Feldmann, and J. Fromm, “THz-imaging: a new method for density mapping of wood,” Wood Sci. Technol.32, 421–427 (1998).

Other

G. P. Gallerano, A. Doria, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Petralia, I. Spassovsky, K. Fukunaga, and I. Hosako, “THz-ARTE: Non-invasive Terahertz diagnostics for art conservation,” in Proceedings of IEEE of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, (Pasadenca, CA, 1998), pp. 1–2.

P. Gassier and J. W. Bareau, Goya: His Life and Work (Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1971).

N. Glendinning, Goya and His Critics (Yale University Press, 1977).

M. Mena-Márquez and J. Wilson (private communication).

A. Canellas-López, Las firmas y rúbricas del pintor Goya (Real Academia de Nobles y Bellas Artes de San Luís, Zaragoza, 1991).

M. Riera and N. Hernández, (private communication, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental layout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Composition of “Sacrifice to Vesta” at different transparency levels of visible and THz images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Structural features in the THz image and signature area. (b) Known signature of the artist. (c) Alleged signature resulting from finding the maximum amplitude in the time-domain data. (d) Image of the alleged signature in the frequency domain at 0.8 THz. (e) Image of the same area in the frequency domain at 0.46 THz in which the alleged signature is not visible due to larger wavelength than that corresponding to 0.8 THz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

X-ray image in which alleged signature is not visible nor wrinkles and defects on the upper third sector.

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