Abstract

We describe a device which has the potential to be used both as a virtual image display and as a backlight. The pupil of the emitted light fills the device approximately to its periphery and the collimated emission can be scanned both horizontally and vertically in the manner needed to illuminate an eye in any position. The aim is to reduce the power needed to illuminate a liquid crystal panel but also to enable a smooth transition from 3D to a virtual image as the user nears the screen.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. A. R. L. Travis, “Autostereoscopic 3-D display,” Appl. Opt.29(29), 4341–4342 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Ezra, G. J. Woodgate, B. A. Omar, N. S. Holliman, J. Harrold, and L. S. Shapiro, “New autostereoscopic display system,” Sharp Tech. J.62, 10–14 (1995).
  3. A. R. L. Travis, “The display of three-dimensional video images,” Proc. IEEE85(11), 1817–1832 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, and R. Häussler, “A new approach to electro-holography for TV and projection displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38(1), 1224–1227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. R. L. Travis, T. Large, N. Emerton, and S. Bathiche, “Collimated light from a waveguide for a display backlight,” Opt. Express17(22), 19714–19719 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, R. Häussler, S. Reichelt, G. Fütterer, and A. Schwerdtner, “Eye-tracking solutions for real-time holographic 3-D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 345–347 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36(1), 360–363 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Levola, “Novel diffractive optical components for near to eye displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37(1), 64–67 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Cameron, “Optical Waveguide Technology & Its Application In Head Mounted Displays,” Proc. SPIE 8383A, paper 13 (2012).
  11. X. Zhou and E. Gulari, “Waveguide panel display using electromechanical spatial modulators,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers29(1), 1022–1025 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Oguchi, M. Hayase, and T. Hatsuzawa, “Micromachined Display Device Using Sheet Waveguide and Multicantilevers Driven by Electrostatic Force,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.52(4), 984–991 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Takeuchi, T. Nanataki, and I. Ohwada, “Tiled display utilizing ceramic actuators for large area flat panels,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32(1), 470–473 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, R. Häussler, S. Reichelt, G. Fütterer, and A. Schwerdtner, “Eye-tracking solutions for real-time holographic 3-D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 345–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, and R. Häussler, “A new approach to electro-holography for TV and projection displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38(1), 1224–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Levola, “Novel diffractive optical components for near to eye displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37(1), 64–67 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Oguchi, M. Hayase, and T. Hatsuzawa, “Micromachined Display Device Using Sheet Waveguide and Multicantilevers Driven by Electrostatic Force,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.52(4), 984–991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36(1), 360–363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Takeuchi, T. Nanataki, and I. Ohwada, “Tiled display utilizing ceramic actuators for large area flat panels,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32(1), 470–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

X. Zhou and E. Gulari, “Waveguide panel display using electromechanical spatial modulators,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers29(1), 1022–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. R. L. Travis, “The display of three-dimensional video images,” Proc. IEEE85(11), 1817–1832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. Ezra, G. J. Woodgate, B. A. Omar, N. S. Holliman, J. Harrold, and L. S. Shapiro, “New autostereoscopic display system,” Sharp Tech. J.62, 10–14 (1995).

1990

Aiki, K.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akutsu, K.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amitai, Y.

Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36(1), 360–363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bathiche, S.

Buczynski, R. R.

R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emerton, N.

Ezra, D.

D. Ezra, G. J. Woodgate, B. A. Omar, N. S. Holliman, J. Harrold, and L. S. Shapiro, “New autostereoscopic display system,” Sharp Tech. J.62, 10–14 (1995).

Frese, I.

R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fütterer, G.

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, R. Häussler, S. Reichelt, G. Fütterer, and A. Schwerdtner, “Eye-tracking solutions for real-time holographic 3-D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 345–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gulari, E.

X. Zhou and E. Gulari, “Waveguide panel display using electromechanical spatial modulators,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers29(1), 1022–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harrold, J.

D. Ezra, G. J. Woodgate, B. A. Omar, N. S. Holliman, J. Harrold, and L. S. Shapiro, “New autostereoscopic display system,” Sharp Tech. J.62, 10–14 (1995).

Hatsuzawa, T.

T. Oguchi, M. Hayase, and T. Hatsuzawa, “Micromachined Display Device Using Sheet Waveguide and Multicantilevers Driven by Electrostatic Force,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.52(4), 984–991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Häussler, R.

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, R. Häussler, S. Reichelt, G. Fütterer, and A. Schwerdtner, “Eye-tracking solutions for real-time holographic 3-D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 345–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, and R. Häussler, “A new approach to electro-holography for TV and projection displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38(1), 1224–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayase, M.

T. Oguchi, M. Hayase, and T. Hatsuzawa, “Micromachined Display Device Using Sheet Waveguide and Multicantilevers Driven by Electrostatic Force,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.52(4), 984–991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holliman, N. S.

D. Ezra, G. J. Woodgate, B. A. Omar, N. S. Holliman, J. Harrold, and L. S. Shapiro, “New autostereoscopic display system,” Sharp Tech. J.62, 10–14 (1995).

Kasztelanic, R.

R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klotzbucher, T.

R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kufner, S.

R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, M.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Large, T.

Leister, N.

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, R. Häussler, S. Reichelt, G. Fütterer, and A. Schwerdtner, “Eye-tracking solutions for real-time holographic 3-D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 345–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, and R. Häussler, “A new approach to electro-holography for TV and projection displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38(1), 1224–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Levola, T.

T. Levola, “Novel diffractive optical components for near to eye displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37(1), 64–67 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, I.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mukawa, H.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, S.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nanataki, T.

Y. Takeuchi, T. Nanataki, and I. Ohwada, “Tiled display utilizing ceramic actuators for large area flat panels,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32(1), 470–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, M.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oguchi, T.

T. Oguchi, M. Hayase, and T. Hatsuzawa, “Micromachined Display Device Using Sheet Waveguide and Multicantilevers Driven by Electrostatic Force,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.52(4), 984–991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohwada, I.

Y. Takeuchi, T. Nanataki, and I. Ohwada, “Tiled display utilizing ceramic actuators for large area flat panels,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32(1), 470–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Omar, B. A.

D. Ezra, G. J. Woodgate, B. A. Omar, N. S. Holliman, J. Harrold, and L. S. Shapiro, “New autostereoscopic display system,” Sharp Tech. J.62, 10–14 (1995).

Reichelt, S.

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, R. Häussler, S. Reichelt, G. Fütterer, and A. Schwerdtner, “Eye-tracking solutions for real-time holographic 3-D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 345–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sagan, A.

R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwerdtner, A.

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, R. Häussler, S. Reichelt, G. Fütterer, and A. Schwerdtner, “Eye-tracking solutions for real-time holographic 3-D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 345–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, R. Häussler, S. Reichelt, G. Fütterer, and A. Schwerdtner, “Eye-tracking solutions for real-time holographic 3-D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 345–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, and R. Häussler, “A new approach to electro-holography for TV and projection displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38(1), 1224–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, L. S.

D. Ezra, G. J. Woodgate, B. A. Omar, N. S. Holliman, J. Harrold, and L. S. Shapiro, “New autostereoscopic display system,” Sharp Tech. J.62, 10–14 (1995).

Szoplik, T.

R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, Y.

Y. Takeuchi, T. Nanataki, and I. Ohwada, “Tiled display utilizing ceramic actuators for large area flat panels,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32(1), 470–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Travis, A. R. L.

Woodgate, G. J.

D. Ezra, G. J. Woodgate, B. A. Omar, N. S. Holliman, J. Harrold, and L. S. Shapiro, “New autostereoscopic display system,” Sharp Tech. J.62, 10–14 (1995).

Yoshida, T.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou and E. Gulari, “Waveguide panel display using electromechanical spatial modulators,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers29(1), 1022–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.

T. Oguchi, M. Hayase, and T. Hatsuzawa, “Micromachined Display Device Using Sheet Waveguide and Multicantilevers Driven by Electrostatic Force,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.52(4), 984–991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

A. R. L. Travis, “The display of three-dimensional video images,” Proc. IEEE85(11), 1817–1832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. R. Buczynski, S. Kufner, R. Kasztelanic, A. Sagan, I. Frese, T. Klotzbucher, and T. Szoplik, “Polymer-based pixel matrix display in MOEMS technology,” Proc. SPIE5455, 36–43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sharp Tech. J.

D. Ezra, G. J. Woodgate, B. A. Omar, N. S. Holliman, J. Harrold, and L. S. Shapiro, “New autostereoscopic display system,” Sharp Tech. J.62, 10–14 (1995).

SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers

X. Zhou and E. Gulari, “Waveguide panel display using electromechanical spatial modulators,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers29(1), 1022–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takeuchi, T. Nanataki, and I. Ohwada, “Tiled display utilizing ceramic actuators for large area flat panels,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32(1), 470–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, R. Häussler, S. Reichelt, G. Fütterer, and A. Schwerdtner, “Eye-tracking solutions for real-time holographic 3-D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 345–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36(1), 360–363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Levola, “Novel diffractive optical components for near to eye displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers37(1), 64–67 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, and R. Häussler, “A new approach to electro-holography for TV and projection displays,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38(1), 1224–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Cameron, “Optical Waveguide Technology & Its Application In Head Mounted Displays,” Proc. SPIE 8383A, paper 13 (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Each time the guided ray reflects off the grating, part is diffracted out. Emission from the rod scans left/right; emission from the slab scans up/down

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission from the rod reflects off the large mirror, back through the rod and into the slab.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image captured by a camera at infinite focus with 2 mm diameter stop placed close to the light-guide. Image has been digitally rotated and cropped.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of light-guide with surface diffuser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illuminate the liquid crystal panel with collimated light and each eye will see a small part of the image. The position of the illuminated parts will move as ray direction scans.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

We propose time-multiplexing a convergent fan of rays by switching gratings in and out of the evanescent field while the guided ray is scanned.

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