Abstract

For enhancing the light extraction of a light-emitting diode, surface grating fabrication based on a simple method of combining photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching with phase mask interferometry has been demonstrated. To understand the optimum grating period in forming a surface grating on a vertical light-emitting diode (VLED), we construct a Llyod’s interferometer within PEC electrolyte (KOH) to fabricate surface gratings of various periods on VLEDs for comparing their light extraction efficiencies. Also, to compare the effectiveness of light extraction enhancement between surface grating and rough surface, VLEDs with the rough surfaces fabricated with two different KOH wet etching methods are fabricated. The comparisons of VLED characterizations show that among those grating VLEDs, the light extraction is more effective in a VLED of a smaller grating period. Also, compared with VLEDs of rough surfaces, the grating VLEDs of short grating periods (<2 μm) have the higher light extraction efficiencies, even though the root-mean-square roughness of the rough surface is significantly larger than the grating groove depth.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, Y. J. Park, Y. S. Beak, J. S. Lee, J. S. Park, V. V. Lysak, and C. H. Hong, “Improving the optical performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by altering light reflection and refraction with triangular air prism arrays,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 88–90 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light- emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Kim and J. Choi, “Enhanced photon tunneling for light enhancements from nanopatterned surfaces with sub-wavelength nanoholes,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 033103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light- emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123106 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 640–642 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (2)

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, Y. J. Park, Y. S. Beak, J. S. Lee, J. S. Park, V. V. Lysak, and C. H. Hong, “Improving the optical performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by altering light reflection and refraction with triangular air prism arrays,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light- emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector forenhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim and J. Choi, “Enhanced photon tunneling for light enhancements from nanopatterned surfaces with sub-wavelength nanoholes,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light- emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

K. Hiramatsu, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques used in group III nitride epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6961–6975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, F.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beak, Y. S.

Bhat, J. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chandramohan, S.

Chao, C. H.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light- emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. O.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light- emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

K. Kim and J. Choi, “Enhanced photon tunneling for light enhancements from nanopatterned surfaces with sub-wavelength nanoholes,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. K.

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light- emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erchak, A. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Girkin, J. M.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light- emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light- emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haberer, E. D.

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, N.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector forenhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, K.

K. Hiramatsu, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques used in group III nitride epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter13(32), 6961–6975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, Y. J. Park, Y. S. Beak, J. S. Lee, J. S. Park, V. V. Lysak, and C. H. Hong, “Improving the optical performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by altering light reflection and refraction with triangular air prism arrays,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector forenhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, H.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Im, J. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, Y. J. Park, Y. S. Beak, J. S. Lee, J. S. Park, V. V. Lysak, and C. H. Hong, “Improving the optical performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by altering light reflection and refraction with triangular air prism arrays,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector forenhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y. W.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A. Y.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, Y. J. Park, Y. S. Beak, J. S. Lee, J. S. Park, V. V. Lysak, and C. H. Hong, “Improving the optical performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by altering light reflection and refraction with triangular air prism arrays,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector forenhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, Y. J. Park, Y. S. Beak, J. S. Lee, J. S. Park, V. V. Lysak, and C. H. Hong, “Improving the optical performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by altering light reflection and refraction with triangular air prism arrays,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector forenhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, Y. J. Park, Y. S. Beak, J. S. Lee, J. S. Park, V. V. Lysak, and C. H. Hong, “Improving the optical performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by altering light reflection and refraction with triangular air prism arrays,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector forenhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. Kim and J. Choi, “Enhanced photon tunneling for light enhancements from nanopatterned surfaces with sub-wavelength nanoholes,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. K.

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light- emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J. S.

Lai, C. F.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light- emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light- emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

Lee, S. N.

Liao, C. H.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light- emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lysak, V. V.

Martin, P. S.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, G.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light- emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meier, C.

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Misra, M. S.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

Park, Q. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Park, Y. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z. X.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roh, Y. G.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, Y. J. Park, Y. S. Beak, J. S. Lee, J. S. Park, V. V. Lysak, and C. H. Hong, “Improving the optical performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by altering light reflection and refraction with triangular air prism arrays,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector forenhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T. Y.

Seong, T.-Y.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. O.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S. A.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ting, S. Y.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uthirakumar, P.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector forenhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light- emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(13), 2253–2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. J.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y. F.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. M.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W. Y.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light- emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H. H.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light- emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D. P.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. J.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. S.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

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D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
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A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113514 (2008).
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C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light- emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
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C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. Kim and J. Choi, “Enhanced photon tunneling for light enhancements from nanopatterned surfaces with sub-wavelength nanoholes,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 033103 (2009).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical setup for forming surface gratings. P: polarizer; SF: spatial filter. (b) Lloyd’s interferometer in the PEC electrolyte (KOH).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) and (b): SEM and AFM images of sample A, respectively. (c) and (d): SEM and AFM images of sample C, respectively. (e) and (f): SEM and AFM images of sample E, respectively. The AFM images in (b) and (d) have the dimension of 20 μm x 20 μm. That in (f) has the dimension of 10 μm x 10 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b): SEM and AFM images of sample F, respectively. (c) and (d): SEM and AFM images of sample H, respectively. (e) and (f): SEM and AFM images of sample I, respectively. (g) and (h): SEM and AFM images of sample K, respectively. The AFM images have the dimension of 10 μm x 10 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure of a grating VLED on Si substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

L-I curves of all the 12 VLED samples. The insert shows the picture of a lit VLED of the reference sample at 30 mA in injection current.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angle-dependent output intensities of the 12 VLED samples.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

I-V curves of the 12 VLED samples. The insert shows the magnified portion circled by the dashed rectangle.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 VLED sample designations and their characterization results.

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