Abstract

In this paper, we show super-resolving single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers with a sub-20 nanometer resolution in a wide-field localization microscope based on the discovery of photoluminescence blinking in high-pressure high-temperature nanodiamonds (NDs). The photon statistics reveals that NDs containing not only single but also multiple NV centers show photoluminescence blinking. The combination of an atomic force microscope and an optical localization microscope built on the blinking feature enables the optically resolved two NV centers within single NDs for the first time. Our method establishes new avenues for studying nanoscale photon dynamics associated with single NV centers within NDs together with ND-based ultra-sensitive bioimaging devices.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

E. H. Chen, O. Gaathon, M. E. Trusheim, and D. Englund, “Wide-Field Multispectral Super-Resolution Imaging Using Spin-Dependent Fluorescence in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett.13(5), 2073–2077 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, C. I. Pakes, J. M. Say, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Effect of the nanodiamond host on a nitrogen-vacancy color-centre emission state,” Small9(1), 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

G. Waldherr, J. Beck, M. Steiner, P. Neumann, A. Gali, T. H. Frauenheim, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Dark states of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(15), 157601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Nusran, M. U. Momeen, and M. V. G. Dutt, “High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(2), 109–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tzeng, O. Faklaris, B. M. Chang, Y. Kuo, J. H. Hsu, and H. C. Chang, “Superresolution imaging of albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells by stimulated emission depletion,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(10), 2262–2265 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (3)

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Kouskousis, J. van Embden, D. Morrish, S. M. Russell, and M. Gu, “Super-resolution imaging and statistical analysis of CdSe/CdS Core/Shell semiconductor nanocrystals,” J Biophotonics3(7), 437–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett.9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter67(12), 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Verberk, A. M. Van Oijen, and M. Orrit, “Simple model for the power-law blinking of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter66(23), 233202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “"On”/”off” fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.115(2), 1028–1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles, W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, “Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter63(20), 205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.57(24), 2615–2616 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Al-Hmoud, M.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, G.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, A. S.

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles, W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, “Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter63(20), 205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beck, J.

G. Waldherr, J. Beck, M. Steiner, P. Neumann, A. Gali, T. H. Frauenheim, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Dark states of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(15), 157601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradac, C.

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, C. I. Pakes, J. M. Say, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Effect of the nanodiamond host on a nitrogen-vacancy color-centre emission state,” Small9(1), 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bratschitsch, R.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L. J.

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cappellaro, P.

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caruso, F.

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castelletto, S.

B. Kouskousis, X. Li, S. Castelletto, and M. Gu, “Nanoscopic localisation and characterisation of nanoparticle embedded photonic materials,” in Quantum Electronics Conference & Lasers and Electro-Optics (Melbourne, 2011), pp. 219–220.
[CrossRef]

Chan, I. Y.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, B. M.

Y. K. Tzeng, O. Faklaris, B. M. Chang, Y. Kuo, J. H. Hsu, and H. C. Chang, “Superresolution imaging of albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells by stimulated emission depletion,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(10), 2262–2265 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chang, C. C.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H. C.

Y. K. Tzeng, O. Faklaris, B. M. Chang, Y. Kuo, J. H. Hsu, and H. C. Chang, “Superresolution imaging of albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells by stimulated emission depletion,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(10), 2262–2265 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. R.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, E. H.

E. H. Chen, O. Gaathon, M. E. Trusheim, and D. Englund, “Wide-Field Multispectral Super-Resolution Imaging Using Spin-Dependent Fluorescence in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett.13(5), 2073–2077 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cižmár, T.

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colyer, R.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dankerl, M.

B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dertinger, T.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dutt, M. V. G.

N. M. Nusran, M. U. Momeen, and M. V. G. Dutt, “High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(2), 109–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggeling, C.

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett.9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Empedocles, S. A.

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles, W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, “Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter63(20), 205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Enderlein, J.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

E. H. Chen, O. Gaathon, M. E. Trusheim, and D. Englund, “Wide-Field Multispectral Super-Resolution Imaging Using Spin-Dependent Fluorescence in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett.13(5), 2073–2077 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faklaris, O.

Y. K. Tzeng, O. Faklaris, B. M. Chang, Y. Kuo, J. H. Hsu, and H. C. Chang, “Superresolution imaging of albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells by stimulated emission depletion,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(10), 2262–2265 (2011).
[PubMed]

Fang, C. Y.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fann, W.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Waldherr, J. Beck, M. Steiner, P. Neumann, A. Gali, T. H. Frauenheim, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Dark states of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(15), 157601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter67(12), 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “"On”/”off” fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.115(2), 1028–1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaathon, O.

E. H. Chen, O. Gaathon, M. E. Trusheim, and D. Englund, “Wide-Field Multispectral Super-Resolution Imaging Using Spin-Dependent Fluorescence in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett.13(5), 2073–2077 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, C. I. Pakes, J. M. Say, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Effect of the nanodiamond host on a nitrogen-vacancy color-centre emission state,” Small9(1), 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gali, A.

G. Waldherr, J. Beck, M. Steiner, P. Neumann, A. Gali, T. H. Frauenheim, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Dark states of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(15), 157601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter67(12), 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “"On”/”off” fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.115(2), 1028–1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, J. A.

B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

B. P. Kouskousis, J. van Embden, D. Morrish, S. M. Russell, and M. Gu, “Super-resolution imaging and statistical analysis of CdSe/CdS Core/Shell semiconductor nanocrystals,” J Biophotonics3(7), 437–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kouskousis, X. Li, S. Castelletto, and M. Gu, “Nanoscopic localisation and characterisation of nanoparticle embedded photonic materials,” in Quantum Electronics Conference & Lasers and Electro-Optics (Melbourne, 2011), pp. 219–220.
[CrossRef]

Hall, L. T.

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, H. F.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “"On”/”off” fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.115(2), 1028–1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, K. Y.

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett.9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauf, M. V.

B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heintzmann, R.

Hell, S. W.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett.9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollenberg, L. C. L.

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S.

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, J. H.

Y. K. Tzeng, O. Faklaris, B. M. Chang, Y. Kuo, J. H. Hsu, and H. C. Chang, “Superresolution imaging of albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells by stimulated emission depletion,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(10), 2262–2265 (2011).
[PubMed]

Irvine, S. E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, G.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelezko, F.

B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Waldherr, J. Beck, M. Steiner, P. Neumann, A. Gali, T. H. Frauenheim, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Dark states of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(15), 157601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett.9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. T.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter67(12), 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. A.

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jovin, T. M.

Kim, C.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.57(24), 2615–2616 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kolesov, R.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kouskousis, B.

B. Kouskousis, X. Li, S. Castelletto, and M. Gu, “Nanoscopic localisation and characterisation of nanoparticle embedded photonic materials,” in Quantum Electronics Conference & Lasers and Electro-Optics (Melbourne, 2011), pp. 219–220.
[CrossRef]

Kouskousis, B. P.

B. P. Kouskousis, J. van Embden, D. Morrish, S. M. Russell, and M. Gu, “Super-resolution imaging and statistical analysis of CdSe/CdS Core/Shell semiconductor nanocrystals,” J Biophotonics3(7), 437–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuno, M.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter67(12), 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “"On”/”off” fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.115(2), 1028–1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.

Y. K. Tzeng, O. Faklaris, B. M. Chang, Y. Kuo, J. H. Hsu, and H. C. Chang, “Superresolution imaging of albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells by stimulated emission depletion,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(10), 2262–2265 (2011).
[PubMed]

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C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles, W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, “Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter63(20), 205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

B. Kouskousis, X. Li, S. Castelletto, and M. Gu, “Nanoscopic localisation and characterisation of nanoparticle embedded photonic materials,” in Quantum Electronics Conference & Lasers and Electro-Optics (Melbourne, 2011), pp. 219–220.
[CrossRef]

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Lim, T. S.

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mansfield, S. M.

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.57(24), 2615–2616 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, S.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maze, J. R.

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGuinness, L. P.

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijer, J.

B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Momeen, M. U.

N. M. Nusran, M. U. Momeen, and M. V. G. Dutt, “High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(2), 109–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morrish, D.

B. P. Kouskousis, J. van Embden, D. Morrish, S. M. Russell, and M. Gu, “Super-resolution imaging and statistical analysis of CdSe/CdS Core/Shell semiconductor nanocrystals,” J Biophotonics3(7), 437–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulvaney, P.

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naidoo, N.

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naydenov, B.

B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesbitt, D. J.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter67(12), 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “"On”/”off” fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.115(2), 1028–1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles, W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, “Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter63(20), 205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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G. Waldherr, J. Beck, M. Steiner, P. Neumann, A. Gali, T. H. Frauenheim, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Dark states of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(15), 157601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. M. Nusran, M. U. Momeen, and M. V. G. Dutt, “High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(2), 109–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Verberk, A. M. Van Oijen, and M. Orrit, “Simple model for the power-law blinking of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter66(23), 233202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, C. I. Pakes, J. M. Say, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Effect of the nanodiamond host on a nitrogen-vacancy color-centre emission state,” Small9(1), 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
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C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, C. I. Pakes, J. M. Say, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Effect of the nanodiamond host on a nitrogen-vacancy color-centre emission state,” Small9(1), 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieger, B.

Rittweger, E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett.9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. P. Kouskousis, J. van Embden, D. Morrish, S. M. Russell, and M. Gu, “Super-resolution imaging and statistical analysis of CdSe/CdS Core/Shell semiconductor nanocrystals,” J Biophotonics3(7), 437–445 (2010).
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M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3(10), 793–796 (2006).
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C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, C. I. Pakes, J. M. Say, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Effect of the nanodiamond host on a nitrogen-vacancy color-centre emission state,” Small9(1), 132–139 (2013).
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L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods8(6), 499–505 (2011).
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K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles, W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, “Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter63(20), 205316 (2001).
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G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
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G. Waldherr, J. Beck, M. Steiner, P. Neumann, A. Gali, T. H. Frauenheim, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Dark states of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(15), 157601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
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J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
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J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
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C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
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Y. K. Tzeng, O. Faklaris, B. M. Chang, Y. Kuo, J. H. Hsu, and H. C. Chang, “Superresolution imaging of albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells by stimulated emission depletion,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(10), 2262–2265 (2011).
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Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
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B. P. Kouskousis, J. van Embden, D. Morrish, S. M. Russell, and M. Gu, “Super-resolution imaging and statistical analysis of CdSe/CdS Core/Shell semiconductor nanocrystals,” J Biophotonics3(7), 437–445 (2010).
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R. Verberk, A. M. Van Oijen, and M. Orrit, “Simple model for the power-law blinking of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter66(23), 233202 (2002).
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R. Verberk, A. M. Van Oijen, and M. Orrit, “Simple model for the power-law blinking of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter66(23), 233202 (2002).
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G. Waldherr, J. Beck, M. Steiner, P. Neumann, A. Gali, T. H. Frauenheim, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Dark states of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(15), 157601 (2011).
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J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
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K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett.9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles, W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, “Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter63(20), 205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wrachtrup, J.

B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
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G. Waldherr, J. Beck, M. Steiner, P. Neumann, A. Gali, T. H. Frauenheim, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Dark states of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(15), 157601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3(10), 793–796 (2006).
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J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, C. I. Pakes, J. M. Say, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Effect of the nanodiamond host on a nitrogen-vacancy color-centre emission state,” Small9(1), 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

Y. K. Tzeng, O. Faklaris, B. M. Chang, Y. Kuo, J. H. Hsu, and H. C. Chang, “Superresolution imaging of albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells by stimulated emission depletion,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.50(10), 2262–2265 (2011).
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B. P. Kouskousis, J. van Embden, D. Morrish, S. M. Russell, and M. Gu, “Super-resolution imaging and statistical analysis of CdSe/CdS Core/Shell semiconductor nanocrystals,” J Biophotonics3(7), 437–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “"On”/”off” fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.115(2), 1028–1040 (2001).
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Nano Lett. (2)

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett.9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Chen, O. Gaathon, M. E. Trusheim, and D. Englund, “Wide-Field Multispectral Super-Resolution Imaging Using Spin-Dependent Fluorescence in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett.13(5), 2073–2077 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

B. Grotz, M. V. Hauf, M. Dankerl, B. Naydenov, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, M. Stutzmann, F. Reinhard, and J. A. Garrido, “Charge state manipulation of qubits in diamond,” Nat Commun3, 729 (2012).
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Nat. Methods (2)

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3(10), 793–796 (2006).
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C. Bradac, T. Gaebel, N. Naidoo, M. J. Sellars, J. Twamley, L. J. Brown, A. S. Barnard, T. Plakhotnik, A. V. Zvyagin, and J. R. Rabeau, “Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(5), 345–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Nusran, M. U. Momeen, and M. V. G. Dutt, “High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(2), 109–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Chang, H. Y. Lee, K. Chen, C. C. Chang, D. S. Tsai, C. C. Fu, T. S. Lim, Y. K. Tzeng, C. Y. Fang, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, and W. Fann, “Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 284–288 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
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Nature (2)

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (3)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Super-resolving single NV centers within HPHT NDs through a wide-field localization microscope. (a), A wide-field optical microscope image of HPHT NDs. The inset shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a typical sized HPHT ND indicated by the dashed square. (b-d), Schematic illustration of stochastic photoluminescence blinking images of nanometrically distributed HPHT NDs at three different time sequences. The blinking NDs indicated by the dashed circles are recorded at different time sequences and reconstructed by a home-made algorithm. (e), Super-resolution reconstructed image. The inset shows the zoomed-in view of the reconstructed image of the same area in the SEM image. The scale bars in (a) and (e) are 1 μm and those in insets are 200 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoluminescence blinking behavior of HPHT NDs. (a)-(d), A typical stack of the time-sequential images of HPHT NDs showing photoluminescence blinking. (e), Emission spectrum of a blinking NV center within HPHT NDs as indicated by the dashed circle. Photoluminescence intensity trajectory (f) and histogram of intensity counts (g) of a blinking NV center within HPHT NDs. On-time P( τ on ) (h) and off-time P( τ off ) (i) probability of occurrence plots against the time durations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Collective photoluminescence blinking of NV centers within single NDs. (a), AFM image of the photoluminescence blinking NDs. The scale bar is 1 µm. The color squares indicate the blinking NDs containing single (blue), two (green) and three (red) NV centers. Second-order correlation function g (2) (τ) of single (b), two (d) and three (f) NV centers and corresponding histogram of photon counts showing two-state (c), three-state (e) and four-state (g) distributions, respectively. The insets schematically show the possible coupling states of multiple NV centers when located in the close proximity. (h) Statistic distribution of the size of single NDs containing 1 or 2 NVs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The localization accuracy as a function of the irradiance fluence. The blue squares represent the photons collected over a duration of 30 ms from a single NV center. The red circles represent the localization accuracy calculated using Eq. (2). The centroids of the fluorescence signals before (b) and after (c) system drift correction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optically resolved single NV centers within a single ND. Comparison between wide-field image (a) and reconstructed super-resolution image (b) of NV centers within HPHT NDs. (c), The cross section plots of the same area in the wide-field image (purple) and super-resolution image (red) show that two NV centers with a separation of 20 nm can now be optically resolved. (d), The zoomed-in view of the cross section in the super-resolution image. The inset schematically illustrates two NV centers located within a single ND with a separation of 20 nm. The scale bar is 200 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometrical optical illustration of imaging a NV located at position A within the ND into a virtual image at position A1 by a spherical shaped ND with a diameter of d.

Equations (2)

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P( τ on/off ) τ on/off m on/off
σ= ( s 2 + a 2 /12)/N

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