Abstract

A realistic nonspherical model for Emiliania huxleyi (EHUX) is built, based on electron micrographs of coccolithophore cells. The Inherent Optical Properties (IOP) of the EHUX are then calculated numerically by using the discrete dipole approximation. The coccolithophore model includes a near-spherical core with the refractive index of 1.04 + mij, and a carbonate shell formed by smaller coccoliths with refractive index of 1.2 + mij, where mi = 0 or 0.01 and j2 = −1. The reported IOP are the Mueller scattering matrix, backscattering probability, and depolarization ratio. Our calculation shows that the Mueller matrices of coccolithophores show different angular dependence from those of coccoliths.

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2012 (4)

A. Sadeghi, T. Dinter, M. Vountas, B. Taylor, M. Altenburg-Soppa, and A. Bracher, “Remote sensing of coccolithophore blooms in selected oceanic regions using the PhytoDOAS method applied to hyper-spectral satellite data,” Biogeoscience9, 2127–2143, (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, M. A. Thomas, and J. Tyynelä, “Light scattering by particles with small-scale surface roughness: Comparison off our classes of model geometries,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer113, 2356–2367, (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, D. J. Gray, Y. Huot, Y. You, and L. Bi, “Comparison of optically derived particle size distributions: scattering over the full angular range versus diffraction at near forward angles,” Appl. Opt.51, 5085–5099 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: a 2007–2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer111, 650–658. (2010)
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, S. Rodier, K. Xu, W. Sun, J. Huang, B. Lin, P. Zhai, and D. Josset, “Occurrence, liquid water content, and fraction of supercooled water clouds from combined CALIOP/IIR/MODIS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H34, (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

P. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, and C. Li, “Application of the symplectic finite-difference time-domain method to light scattering by small particles,” Appl. Opt.44, 1650–1656 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98, 122–140, (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. R. Gordon and T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr.46, 1438–1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt.40, 2929–2945 (2001)
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. Volten, J.F. de Haan, J.W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

S. Ackleson, W. M. Balch, and P.M. Holligan, “Response of water leaving radiance to particulate calcite and chlorophyll a concentrations: A model for Gulf of Maine coccolithophore blooms,”J. Geophys. Res.99, 7483–7499, (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, “Discrete dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,11, 1491–1499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. D. Milliman, “Production and accumulation of calcium in the ocean,” Global Biogeochem. Cy.7, 927–957, (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, and P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” Proc. SPIE1537, Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, 30–41 (1991);
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr.30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev.16, 527–610, (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aas, S.

Ackleson, S.

S. Ackleson, W. M. Balch, and P.M. Holligan, “Response of water leaving radiance to particulate calcite and chlorophyll a concentrations: A model for Gulf of Maine coccolithophore blooms,”J. Geophys. Res.99, 7483–7499, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Altenburg-Soppa, M.

A. Sadeghi, T. Dinter, M. Vountas, B. Taylor, M. Altenburg-Soppa, and A. Bracher, “Remote sensing of coccolithophore blooms in selected oceanic regions using the PhytoDOAS method applied to hyper-spectral satellite data,” Biogeoscience9, 2127–2143, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98, 122–140, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

H. R. Gordon, T. J. Smyth, W. M. Balch, G. C. Boynton, and G. A. Tarran, “Light scattering by coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Appl. Opt.48, 6059–6073 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ackleson, W. M. Balch, and P.M. Holligan, “Response of water leaving radiance to particulate calcite and chlorophyll a concentrations: A model for Gulf of Maine coccolithophore blooms,”J. Geophys. Res.99, 7483–7499, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Banner, M. L.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bhandari, P.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bi, L.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles(Wiley, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, T.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, G. C.

Bracher, A.

A. Sadeghi, T. Dinter, M. Vountas, B. Taylor, M. Altenburg-Soppa, and A. Bracher, “Remote sensing of coccolithophore blooms in selected oceanic regions using the PhytoDOAS method applied to hyper-spectral satellite data,” Biogeoscience9, 2127–2143, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

Brock, R. S.

Carvalho, L.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Y.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, F.

H. Volten, J.F. de Haan, J.W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Czerski, H.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Darecki, M.

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Taylor, B.

A. Sadeghi, T. Dinter, M. Vountas, B. Taylor, M. Altenburg-Soppa, and A. Bracher, “Remote sensing of coccolithophore blooms in selected oceanic regions using the PhytoDOAS method applied to hyper-spectral satellite data,” Biogeoscience9, 2127–2143, (2012).
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Thomas, M. A.

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, M. A. Thomas, and J. Tyynelä, “Light scattering by particles with small-scale surface roughness: Comparison off our classes of model geometries,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer113, 2356–2367, (2012).
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J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev.16, 527–610, (1974).
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles, (Cambridge University, 2002).

Twardowski, M.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tyynelä, J.

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, M. A. Thomas, and J. Tyynelä, “Light scattering by particles with small-scale surface roughness: Comparison off our classes of model geometries,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer113, 2356–2367, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vagle, S.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Dommelen, R.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J.F. de Haan, J.W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 1180–1197 (1998).
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Vaughan, M.

S. Rodier, P. Zhai, D. B. Josset, Y. Hu, and M. Vaughan, “CALIPSO lidar measurements for ocean sub-surface studies,” presented at the 34th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Sydney, Australia, 10–15, Apr. 2011.

Videen, G.

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: a 2007–2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer111, 650–658. (2010)
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J.F. de Haan, J.W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr.30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt.23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vountas, M.

A. Sadeghi, T. Dinter, M. Vountas, B. Taylor, M. Altenburg-Soppa, and A. Bracher, “Remote sensing of coccolithophore blooms in selected oceanic regions using the PhytoDOAS method applied to hyper-spectral satellite data,” Biogeoscience9, 2127–2143, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, L.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
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Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98, 122–140, (2005).
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Wijesekera, H.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wouts, R.

H. Volten, J.F. de Haan, J.W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr.43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wriedt, T.

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: a 2007–2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer111, 650–658. (2010)
[CrossRef]

Wurl, O.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

Y. Hu, S. Rodier, K. Xu, W. Sun, J. Huang, B. Lin, P. Zhai, and D. Josset, “Occurrence, liquid water content, and fraction of supercooled water clouds from combined CALIOP/IIR/MODIS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H34, (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

Yildiz, S.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, D. J. Gray, Y. Huot, Y. You, and L. Bi, “Comparison of optically derived particle size distributions: scattering over the full angular range versus diffraction at near forward angles,” Appl. Opt.51, 5085–5099 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, D. K. P.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yurkin, M. A.

Yurkin, M.A.

M.A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete-dipole-approximation code ADDA: capabilities and known limitations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer112, 2234–2247 (2011).
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Zakharova, N. T.

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: a 2007–2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer111, 650–658. (2010)
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

Zaneveld, R.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, C. J.

T. Dickey, M. L. Banner, P. Bhandari, T. Boyd, L. Carvalho, G. Chang, Y. Chao, H. Czerski, M. Darecki, C. Dong, D. Farmer, S. Freeman, J. Gemmrich, P. Gernez, N. Hall-Patch, B. Holt, S. Jiang, C. Jones, G. Kattawar, D. LeBel, L. Lenain, M. Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Logan, D. Manov, W. K. Melville, M. A. Moline, R. Morison, F. Nencioli, W. S. Pegau, B. Reineman, I. Robbins, R. Rttgers, H. Schultz, L. Shen, M. Shinki, M. Slivkoff, M. Soklski, F. Spada, N. Statom, D. Stramsk, P. Sutherland, M. Twardowski, S. Vagle, R. Van Dommelen, K. Voss, L. Washburn, J. Wei, H. Wijesekera, O. Wurl, D. Yang, S. Yildiz, Y. You, D. K. P. Yue, R. Zaneveld, and C. J. Zappa, “Introduction to special section on recent advances in the study of optical variability in the near-surface and upper ocean,”J. Geophys. Res.117, C00H20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, P.

Y. Hu, S. Rodier, K. Xu, W. Sun, J. Huang, B. Lin, P. Zhai, and D. Josset, “Occurrence, liquid water content, and fraction of supercooled water clouds from combined CALIOP/IIR/MODIS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H34, (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, and C. Li, “Application of the symplectic finite-difference time-domain method to light scattering by small particles,” Appl. Opt.44, 1650–1656 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rodier, P. Zhai, D. B. Josset, Y. Hu, and M. Vaughan, “CALIPSO lidar measurements for ocean sub-surface studies,” presented at the 34th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Sydney, Australia, 10–15, Apr. 2011.

Zhang, X.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biogeoscience (1)

A. Sadeghi, T. Dinter, M. Vountas, B. Taylor, M. Altenburg-Soppa, and A. Bracher, “Remote sensing of coccolithophore blooms in selected oceanic regions using the PhytoDOAS method applied to hyper-spectral satellite data,” Biogeoscience9, 2127–2143, (2012).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The detached coccolith model with its axis shown. (b) a sketch of a cross section of the coccolith in a half plane containing the axis. (c) the projection of the inner or outer spherical cap in the xy plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A symmetrical coccolithophore model consisting of individual coccoliths. (b) An asymmetrical (irregular) coccolithophore model consisting of individual coccoliths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase function and reduced scattering matrix elements for detached coccoliths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

phase function and reduced scattering matrix elements for symmetrical coccolithophore.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase function and reduced scattering matrix elements for asymmetrical coccolithophores.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(S33S44)/S11 for symmetrical coccolithophores.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Scattering efficiency, (b) Backscattering ratio, and (c) Lidar depolarization ratio as a function of particle size.

Equations (37)

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θ 1 = arcsin ( r 1 / r 0 )
r 3 = ( r 0 cos θ 1 + d h ) 2 + r 1 2
θ 2 = arcsin { r 1 / r 3 }
θ 3 = arcsin ( r 2 / r 0 )
δ ϕ = 2 π / N
ϕ n = n * δ ϕ , n = 1 , 3 , 5 , , N 1.
VI = V { ( ρ x y r 1 ) 2 + ( z r 0 cos θ 1 ) 2 < d c / 2 }
VI = V { ( ρ x y r 2 ) 2 + ( z r 0 cos θ 3 ) 2 < d c / 2 }
VI n = V { { | r r 0 | < d c / 2 } { θ > θ 1 } { θ < θ 3 } { | ϕ ϕ n | < δ ϕ / 2 } }
VI = VI 1 VI 3 VI n VI N 1
VI = VI VI VI
VII = V { ( ρ x y r 1 ) 2 + [ z ( r 0 cos θ 1 + d h ) ] 2 < d c / 2 }
VII = V { ( ρ x y r 3 sin θ 3 ) 2 + ( z r 3 cos θ 3 ) 2 < d c / 2 }
VII n = V { { | r r 3 | < d c / 2 } { θ > θ 2 } { θ < θ 3 } { | ϕ ϕ n | < δ ϕ / 2 } }
VII = VII 1 VII 3 VII n VII N 1
VII = VII VII VII
VIII = V { z r 0 cos θ 1 d c / 2 } { z r 0 cos θ 1 + d h + d c / 2 }
VIII = V { ρ x y r 1 d c / 2 } { ρ x y r 1 + d c / 2 }
VIII = VIII VIII
V c = VI VII VIII
r g = M r l
M = ( x ^ l y ^ l z ^ l )
r l = M 1 r g
m ( r < r 0 ) = 1.04 + m i j
N θ , cocco = NINT ( π / ( 2 θ 3 ) ) + 1
θ c = π ( i 1 ) / ( N θ , cocco 1 ) , i = 1 , 2 , , N θ , cocco
N ϕ , cocco = NINT ( 2 π r 0 sin θ c / ( 2 r 2 ) )
ϕ c = 2 π ( i 1 ) / N ϕ , cocco , i = 1 , 2 , , N ϕ , cocco
m ( r V c ) = 1.2 + m i j
η > 0.5
( I s Q s U s V s ) = 1 k 2 r 2 ( S 11 S 12 S 13 S 14 S 21 S 22 S 23 S 24 S 31 S 32 S 33 S 34 S 41 S 42 S 43 S 44 ) ( I i Q i U i V i )
i j ( S i j / S 11 ) 2 4
p ( Θ ) = S 11 ( Θ ) k 2 C scat
4 π p d Ω = 1
Q scat = C scat / ( π r v 2 )
B b p = π / 2 π S 11 ( Θ ) sin Θ d Θ 0 π S 11 ( Θ ) sin Θ d Θ
δ L = S 11 ( π ) S 22 ( π ) S 11 ( π ) + S 22 ( π )

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