Abstract

Au triangular nanoprisms with strong dipole plasmon absorption peak at 1240 nm were prepared by wet chemical methods. Both numerical calculations and experiments were carried out to investigate the optical properties of the samples. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) and Local Density of States (LDOS) calculations demonstrate that strong electric field enhancement and large LDOS can be obtained at tip areas of the Au triangular nanoprisms. Z scan techniques were used to characterize the nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction, as well as one- and two-photon figures of merit (W and T, respectively) of the sample. The results show that maximum nonlinear refractive index can be obtained around the resonance absorption wavelength of 1240 nm, detuning the wavelength from the absorption peak will lead to the decrease of the nonlinear refractive index n2, while the nonlinear absorption coefficient β doesn’t change much with the wavelength. This large wavelength dependence of n2 and small change of β enable the sample to satisfy the all-optical switching demand of W> 1 and T< 1 easily in a large wavelength range of 1200-1300 nm. These significant nonlinear properties of the sample imply that Au triangular nanoprism is a good candidate for future optical switches in infrared optical communication wavelength region.

© 2013 OSA

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2013

H. J. Chen, L. Shao, Q. Li, and J. F. Wang, “Gold nanorods and their plasmonic properties,” Chem. Soc. Rev.42(7), 2679–2724 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. K. Wong and A. S. Helmy, “Optically defined plasmonic waveguides in crystalline semiconductors at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B30(4), 1000–1007 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, M. Chamanzar, and A. Adibi, “Compact on-chip plasmonic light concentration based on a hybrid photonic-plasmonic structure,” Opt. Express21(2), 1898–1910 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Sadeghi, A. Hatef, S. Fortin-Deschenes, and M. Meunier, “Coherent confinement of plasmonic field in quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle molecules,” Nanotechnology24(20), 205201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. R. Singh, C. Racknor, and D. Schindel, “Controlling the photoluminescence of acceptor and donor quantum dots embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 051115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren, S. Xu, Y. F. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid-based infrared optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Liu, Z. Yang, R. P. Liu, and X. Y. Li, “Multiple Fano resonances in plasmonic heptamer clusters composed of split nanorings,” ACS Nano6(7), 6260–6271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin and A. S. Helmy, “Analytical model for metal-insulator-metal mesh waveguide architectures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(11), 3157–3169 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, D. Y. Lei, L. Wondraczek, V. Nazabal, and S. A. Maier, “Hybrid nanoparticle-microcavity-based plasmonic nanosensors with improved detection resolution and extended remote-sensing ability,” Nat Commun3, 1108 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Z. Chen, A. Kirilyuk, A. Kimel, and T. Rasing, “Direct mapping of plasmonic coupling between a triangular gold island pair,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 163111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockel-Lelièvre, A. Baudrion, P. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective excitation of plasmon resonances of single Au triangles by polarization-dependent light excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Das, T. K. Chini, and J. Pond, “Probing higher order surface plasmon modes on individual truncated tetrahedral gold nanoparticle using cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy combined with FDTD simulations,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(29), 15610–15619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Kéna-Cohen, A. Wiener, Y. Sivan, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, A. Horsfield, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic sinks for the selective removal of long-lived states,” ACS Nano5(12), 9958–9965 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Sorger and X. Zhang, “Physics. Spotlight on plasmon lasers,” Science333(6043), 709–710 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Fang, L. Fan, C. F. Lin, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic coupling of bow tie antennas with Ag nanowire,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1676–1680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater.10(8), 631–636 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Singh, D. G. Schindel, and A. Hatef, “Dipole-dipole interaction in a quantum dot and metallic nanorod hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Martín-Cano, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and E. Moreno, “Resonance energy transfer and superradiance mediated by plasmonic nanowaveguides,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3129–3134 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-Assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lau, M. A. Swillam, and A. S. Helmy, “Hybrid orthogonal junctions: wideband plasmonic slot-silicon waveguide couplers,” Opt. Express18(26), 27048–27059 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nelayah, M. Kociak, O. Stéphan, N. Geuquet, L. Henrard, F. J. García de Abajo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and C. Colliex, “Two-dimensional quasistatic stationary short range surface plasmons in flat nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.10(3), 902–907 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. K. Zhou, M. Li, Z. J. Yang, X. N. Peng, X. R. Su, Z. S. Zhang, J. B. Li, N. C. Kim, X. F. Yu, L. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer across a silver nanowire array via resonant transmission and subwavelength imaging,” ACS Nano4(9), 5003–5010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, H. Oda, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in slow-light photonic-crystal slab waveguides of line-defect,” Opt. Express17(9), 7206–7216 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Merlein, M. Kahl, A. Zuschlag, A. Sell, A. Halm, J. Boneberg, P. Leiderer, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanomechanical control of an optical antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 230–233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant Plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. K. Zhou, X. R. Su, X. N. Peng, and L. Zhou, “Sublinear and superlinear photoluminescence from Nd doped anodic aluminum oxide templates loaded with Ag nanowires,” Opt. Express16(22), 18028–18033 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett.7(3), 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. Pan, W. Z. Chen, Y. P. Feng, W. Ji, and J. Y. Lin, “Optical limiting properties of metal nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(22), 223106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(18), 2405–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys.99(2), 023526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. E. Millstone, S. Park, K. L. Shuford, L. D. Qin, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Observation of a quadrupole plasmon mode for a colloidal solution of gold nanoprisms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127(15), 5312–5313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. C. Jin, Y. C. Cao, E. Hao, G. S. Métraux, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Controlling anisotropic nanoparticle growth through plasmon excitation,” Nature425(6957), 487–490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, N. Hayashi, and S. Omi, “Dispersion curves of complex third-order optical susceptibilities around the surface plasmon resonance in Ag nanocrystal–glass composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(6), 1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P.

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockel-Lelièvre, A. Baudrion, P. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective excitation of plasmon resonances of single Au triangles by polarization-dependent light excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Akimov, A. V.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater.10(8), 631–636 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakawa, K.

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Awada, C.

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockel-Lelièvre, A. Baudrion, P. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective excitation of plasmon resonances of single Au triangles by polarization-dependent light excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockel-Lelièvre, A. Baudrion, P. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective excitation of plasmon resonances of single Au triangles by polarization-dependent light excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-Assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-Assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-Assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baudrion, A.

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Z. Y. Fang, L. Fan, C. F. Lin, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic coupling of bow tie antennas with Ag nanowire,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1676–1680 (2011).
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V. J. Sorger and X. Zhang, “Physics. Spotlight on plasmon lasers,” Science333(6043), 709–710 (2011).
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Z. K. Zhou, M. Li, Z. J. Yang, X. N. Peng, X. R. Su, Z. S. Zhang, J. B. Li, N. C. Kim, X. F. Yu, L. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer across a silver nanowire array via resonant transmission and subwavelength imaging,” ACS Nano4(9), 5003–5010 (2010).
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J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys.99(2), 023526 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The SEM image and absorption spectra of Au triangular nanoprisms. (a) The estimated edge-length and thickness of Au nanoprisms are about 170 nm and 7 nm, respectively. (b) The absorption peaks at 530 nm and 1240 nm are corresponding to the dipole plasmon resonances of Au nanoparticle and nanoprisms, respectively. The inset is the SEM image of Au nanoprism with an inclined angle of 45°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The FDTD simulation results of Au triangular nanoprism. (a) The simulation absorption spectra of Au nanoprism. (b) and (c) are electric field distribution of Au nanoprism and Au nanoparticle at 1240 nm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The LDOS enhancement along edge-side of Au triangular nanoprism. (a) The simulation mode sketch. (b) The x-position dependence of LDOS along edge-side of Au nanoprism.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Z-scan data of Au triangular nanoprisms in water solution. (a) Schematic of the Z-scan experimental setup: M1 and M2 are reflective mirrors, ND is a neutral density filter, BS is a beam splitter, L is a lens with the focal length of 100 mm, S is sample, A is an aperture, D1 and D2 are detectors. (b) and (c) are open-aperture and closed-aperture Z-scan data with input irradiance intensity I0 = 0.43GW/cm2, respectively. The open symbols are the experiment data and the solid lines are fitting curves. (d) Nonlinear absorption coefficient β and refractive index γ of the sample vs. wavelength. (e) One- and two-photon figures of merit W and T vs. wavelength.

Equations (2)

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ρ( r ,ω)= 2ω π c 2 Im{tr[G( r , r ,ω)]},
E=iω μ 0 [ G xx G xy G xz G yz G yy G yz G zx G zy G zz ].[ j x j y j z ],

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