Abstract

The composite structure of SiO2@AgNPs@p-SiNWs based on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) produced by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) method has been designed to realize the significant reflection suppression over a broad wavelength range (300 - 2500 nm). Especially, the reflectivity of the structure even below 0.3% at a wide range of 620 - 1950 nm can be achieved. It also has been demonstrated that SiO2 capers play a dominant role in the significant reflection suppression of the composite structure.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. S. Kolesar, V. M. Bright, and D. M. Sowders, “Optical reflectance reduction of textured silicon surfaces coated with an antireflective thin film,” Thin Solid Films290–291, 23–29 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  3. H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater.23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “Platinum nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowires for efficient solar energy conversion,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3704–3709 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Lee, S. Y. Bae, S. Mobasser, and H. Manohara, “A novel silicon nanotips antireflection surface for the micro Sun sensor,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2438–2442 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).
  8. S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S. Y. Lin, “Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2527–2529 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Broadband antireflection gratings fabricated upon silicon substrates,” Opt. Lett.24(20), 1422–1424 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength periodic structures for semiconductor anti-reflection coating in the visible domain,” Proc. SPIE2776, 300–309 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. K. Srivastava, D. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kar, V. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Excellent antireflection properties of vertical silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1506–1511 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 743–748 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core–shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. M. Weisse, C. H. Lee, D. R. Kim, and X. Zheng, “Fabrication of flexible and vertical silicon nanowire electronics,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3339–3343 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. Rasool, M. A. Rafiq, C. B. Li, E. Krali, Z. A. K. Durrani, and M. M. Hasan, “Enhanced electrical and dielectric properties of polymer covered silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 023114 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Y. Jung, Z. Guo, S. W. Jee, H. D. Um, K. T. Park, and J. H. Lee, “A strong antireflective solar cell prepared by tapering silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A286–A292 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. C. Hsieh, T. Y. Tsai, D. Wan, H. L. Chen, and N. H. Tai, “Iridescence of patterned carbon nanotube forests on flexible substrates: from darkest materials to colorful films,” ACS Nano4(3), 1327–1336 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).
  29. R. Lu, J. Sha, W. Xia, Y. Fang, L. Gu, and Y. Wang, “A 3D-SERS substrate with high stability: Silicon nanowire arrays decorated by silver nanoparticles,” CrystEngComm (2013), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 073111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. F. Toor, H. M. Branz, M. R. Page, K. M. Jones, and H. C. Yuan, “Multi-scale surface texture to improve blue response of nanoporous black silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. Lv, H. Shen, Y. Jiang, C. Gao, H. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Porous-pyramids structured silicon surface with low reflectance over a broad band by electrochemical etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(14), 5451–5454 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).
  37. J. Wang, W. B. White, and J. H. Adair, “Optical properties of core–shell structured Ag/SiO2 nanocomposites,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B166(3), 235–238 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  38. K. Kim, H. S. Kim, and H. K. Park, “Facile method to prepare surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering-active Ag nanostructures on silica spheres,” Langmuir22(19), 8083–8088 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. Z. J. Jiang and C. Y. Liu, “Seed-mediated growth technique for the preparation of a silver nanoshell on a silica sphere,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(45), 12411–12415 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  40. K. S. Chou and C. C. Chen, “Fabrication and characterization of silver core and porous silica shell nanocomposite particles,” Microporous Mesoporous Mater.98(1-3), 208–213 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  41. C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “The effect of plasmonic particles on solar absorption in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

R. Lu, J. Sha, W. Xia, Y. Fang, L. Gu, and Y. Wang, “A 3D-SERS substrate with high stability: Silicon nanowire arrays decorated by silver nanoparticles,” CrystEngComm (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

H. Lv, H. Shen, Y. Jiang, C. Gao, H. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Porous-pyramids structured silicon surface with low reflectance over a broad band by electrochemical etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(14), 5451–5454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Weisse, C. H. Lee, D. R. Kim, and X. Zheng, “Fabrication of flexible and vertical silicon nanowire electronics,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3339–3343 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rasool, M. A. Rafiq, C. B. Li, E. Krali, Z. A. K. Durrani, and M. M. Hasan, “Enhanced electrical and dielectric properties of polymer covered silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 023114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core–shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater.23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Toor, H. M. Branz, M. R. Page, K. M. Jones, and H. C. Yuan, “Multi-scale surface texture to improve blue response of nanoporous black silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (9)

K. C. Hsieh, T. Y. Tsai, D. Wan, H. L. Chen, and N. H. Tai, “Iridescence of patterned carbon nanotube forests on flexible substrates: from darkest materials to colorful films,” ACS Nano4(3), 1327–1336 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “The effect of plasmonic particles on solar absorption in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Srivastava, D. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kar, V. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Excellent antireflection properties of vertical silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Y. Jung, Z. Guo, S. W. Jee, H. D. Um, K. T. Park, and J. H. Lee, “A strong antireflective solar cell prepared by tapering silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A286–A292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, W. B. White, and J. H. Adair, “Optical properties of core–shell structured Ag/SiO2 nanocomposites,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B166(3), 235–238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “Platinum nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowires for efficient solar energy conversion,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3704–3709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S. Y. Lin, “Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2527–2529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chou and C. C. Chen, “Fabrication and characterization of silver core and porous silica shell nanocomposite particles,” Microporous Mesoporous Mater.98(1-3), 208–213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Kim, H. S. Kim, and H. K. Park, “Facile method to prepare surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering-active Ag nanostructures on silica spheres,” Langmuir22(19), 8083–8088 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Lee, S. Y. Bae, S. Mobasser, and H. Manohara, “A novel silicon nanotips antireflection surface for the micro Sun sensor,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2438–2442 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Z. J. Jiang and C. Y. Liu, “Seed-mediated growth technique for the preparation of a silver nanoshell on a silica sphere,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(45), 12411–12415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (2)

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength periodic structures for semiconductor anti-reflection coating in the visible domain,” Proc. SPIE2776, 300–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Kolesar, V. M. Bright, and D. M. Sowders, “Optical reflectance reduction of textured silicon surfaces coated with an antireflective thin film,” Thin Solid Films290–291, 23–29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adair, J. H.

J. Wang, W. B. White, and J. H. Adair, “Optical properties of core–shell structured Ag/SiO2 nanocomposites,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B166(3), 235–238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aromaa, M.

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater.23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aura, S.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, S. Y.

C. Lee, S. Y. Bae, S. Mobasser, and H. Manohara, “A novel silicon nanotips antireflection surface for the micro Sun sensor,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2438–2442 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Branz, H. M.

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Toor, H. M. Branz, M. R. Page, K. M. Jones, and H. C. Yuan, “Multi-scale surface texture to improve blue response of nanoporous black silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bright, V. M.

E. S. Kolesar, V. M. Bright, and D. M. Sowders, “Optical reflectance reduction of textured silicon surfaces coated with an antireflective thin film,” Thin Solid Films290–291, 23–29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callahan, D. M.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater.23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carey, J. E.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

K. S. Chou and C. C. Chen, “Fabrication and characterization of silver core and porous silica shell nanocomposite particles,” Microporous Mesoporous Mater.98(1-3), 208–213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. F.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. L.

K. C. Hsieh, T. Y. Tsai, D. Wan, H. L. Chen, and N. H. Tai, “Iridescence of patterned carbon nanotube forests on flexible substrates: from darkest materials to colorful films,” ACS Nano4(3), 1327–1336 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, K. S.

K. S. Chou and C. C. Chen, “Fabrication and characterization of silver core and porous silica shell nanocomposite particles,” Microporous Mesoporous Mater.98(1-3), 208–213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crouch, C. H.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, D.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Boor, J.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derkacs, D.

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, W.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Durrani, Z. A. K.

K. Rasool, M. A. Rafiq, C. B. Li, E. Krali, Z. A. K. Durrani, and M. M. Hasan, “Enhanced electrical and dielectric properties of polymer covered silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 023114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Falk, F.

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core–shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, X.

M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

R. Lu, J. Sha, W. Xia, Y. Fang, L. Gu, and Y. Wang, “A 3D-SERS substrate with high stability: Silicon nanowire arrays decorated by silver nanoparticles,” CrystEngComm (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franssila, S.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

H. Lv, H. Shen, Y. Jiang, C. Gao, H. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Porous-pyramids structured silicon surface with low reflectance over a broad band by electrochemical etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(14), 5451–5454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geyer, N.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gösele, U.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gothoskar, P.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater.23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigoras, K.

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L.

R. Lu, J. Sha, W. Xia, Y. Fang, L. Gu, and Y. Wang, “A 3D-SERS substrate with high stability: Silicon nanowire arrays decorated by silver nanoparticles,” CrystEngComm (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

Hane, K.

Hasan, M. M.

K. Rasool, M. A. Rafiq, C. B. Li, E. Krali, Z. A. K. Durrani, and M. M. Hasan, “Enhanced electrical and dielectric properties of polymer covered silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 023114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, K. C.

K. C. Hsieh, T. Y. Tsai, D. Wan, H. L. Chen, and N. H. Tai, “Iridescence of patterned carbon nanotube forests on flexible substrates: from darkest materials to colorful films,” ACS Nano4(3), 1327–1336 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y. K.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. F.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husain, M.

S. K. Srivastava, D. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kar, V. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Excellent antireflection properties of vertical silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. S.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jee, S. W.

Jen, Y. J.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, G.

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core–shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jia, R.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

H. Lv, H. Shen, Y. Jiang, C. Gao, H. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Porous-pyramids structured silicon surface with low reflectance over a broad band by electrochemical etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(14), 5451–5454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. J.

Z. J. Jiang and C. Y. Liu, “Seed-mediated growth technique for the preparation of a silver nanoshell on a silica sphere,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(45), 12411–12415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jie, J. S.

M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jokinen, V.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, K. M.

F. Toor, H. M. Branz, M. R. Page, K. M. Jones, and H. C. Yuan, “Multi-scale surface texture to improve blue response of nanoporous black silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J. Y.

Kanamori, Y.

Kar, M.

S. K. Srivastava, D. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kar, V. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Excellent antireflection properties of vertical silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karger, A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Keskinen, H.

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. R.

J. M. Weisse, C. H. Lee, D. R. Kim, and X. Zheng, “Fabrication of flexible and vertical silicon nanowire electronics,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3339–3343 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. S.

K. Kim, H. S. Kim, and H. K. Park, “Facile method to prepare surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering-active Ag nanostructures on silica spheres,” Langmuir22(19), 8083–8088 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S. Y. Lin, “Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2527–2529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, H. S. Kim, and H. K. Park, “Facile method to prepare surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering-active Ag nanostructures on silica spheres,” Langmuir22(19), 8083–8088 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. S.

Koh, W. S.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kolesar, E. S.

E. S. Kolesar, V. M. Bright, and D. M. Sowders, “Optical reflectance reduction of textured silicon surfaces coated with an antireflective thin film,” Thin Solid Films290–291, 23–29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kotiaho, T.

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krali, E.

K. Rasool, M. A. Rafiq, C. B. Li, E. Krali, Z. A. K. Durrani, and M. M. Hasan, “Enhanced electrical and dielectric properties of polymer covered silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 023114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, D.

S. K. Srivastava, D. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kar, V. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Excellent antireflection properties of vertical silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

S. K. Srivastava, D. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kar, V. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Excellent antireflection properties of vertical silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, M. L.

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength periodic structures for semiconductor anti-reflection coating in the visible domain,” Proc. SPIE2776, 300–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, S. Y. Bae, S. Mobasser, and H. Manohara, “A novel silicon nanotips antireflection surface for the micro Sun sensor,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2438–2442 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. H.

J. M. Weisse, C. H. Lee, D. R. Kim, and X. Zheng, “Fabrication of flexible and vertical silicon nanowire electronics,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3339–3343 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, S. T.

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “Platinum nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowires for efficient solar energy conversion,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3704–3709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levinson, J. A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Li, C. B.

K. Rasool, M. A. Rafiq, C. B. Li, E. Krali, Z. A. K. Durrani, and M. M. Hasan, “Enhanced electrical and dielectric properties of polymer covered silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 023114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “The effect of plasmonic particles on solar absorption in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

M. L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S. Y. Lin, “Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2527–2529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Liu, C. Y.

Z. J. Jiang and C. Y. Liu, “Seed-mediated growth technique for the preparation of a silver nanoshell on a silica sphere,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(45), 12411–12415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. A.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Liu, X.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, R.

R. Lu, J. Sha, W. Xia, Y. Fang, L. Gu, and Y. Wang, “A 3D-SERS substrate with high stability: Silicon nanowire arrays decorated by silver nanoparticles,” CrystEngComm (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Luosujarvi, L.

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lv, H.

H. Lv, H. Shen, Y. Jiang, C. Gao, H. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Porous-pyramids structured silicon surface with low reflectance over a broad band by electrochemical etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(14), 5451–5454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Makela, J. M.

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manohara, H.

C. Lee, S. Y. Bae, S. Mobasser, and H. Manohara, “A novel silicon nanotips antireflection surface for the micro Sun sensor,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2438–2442 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matheu, P.

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPheeters, C.

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Y.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mobasser, S.

C. Lee, S. Y. Bae, S. Mobasser, and H. Manohara, “A novel silicon nanotips antireflection surface for the micro Sun sensor,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2438–2442 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mont, F. W.

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength periodic structures for semiconductor anti-reflection coating in the visible domain,” Proc. SPIE2776, 300–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater.23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, J.

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Page, M. R.

F. Toor, H. M. Branz, M. R. Page, K. M. Jones, and H. C. Yuan, “Multi-scale surface texture to improve blue response of nanoporous black silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. K.

K. Kim, H. S. Kim, and H. K. Park, “Facile method to prepare surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering-active Ag nanostructures on silica spheres,” Langmuir22(19), 8083–8088 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K. T.

Peng, C. Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, K. Q.

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “Platinum nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowires for efficient solar energy conversion,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3704–3709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povinelli, M. L.

C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “The effect of plasmonic particles on solar absorption in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poxson, D. J.

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rafiq, M. A.

K. Rasool, M. A. Rafiq, C. B. Li, E. Krali, Z. A. K. Durrani, and M. M. Hasan, “Enhanced electrical and dielectric properties of polymer covered silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 023114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rasool, K.

K. Rasool, M. A. Rafiq, C. B. Li, E. Krali, Z. A. K. Durrani, and M. M. Hasan, “Enhanced electrical and dielectric properties of polymer covered silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 023114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sainiemi, L.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Schubert, E. F.

M. L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S. Y. Lin, “Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2527–2529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Sha, J.

R. Lu, J. Sha, W. Xia, Y. Fang, L. Gu, and Y. Wang, “A 3D-SERS substrate with high stability: Silicon nanowire arrays decorated by silver nanoparticles,” CrystEngComm (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

H. Lv, H. Shen, Y. Jiang, C. Gao, H. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Porous-pyramids structured silicon surface with low reflectance over a broad band by electrochemical etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(14), 5451–5454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shpak, M.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sian, S. Y.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sill, I.

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core–shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Singh, P. K.

S. K. Srivastava, D. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kar, V. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Excellent antireflection properties of vertical silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Sowders, D. M.

E. S. Kolesar, V. M. Bright, and D. M. Sowders, “Optical reflectance reduction of textured silicon surfaces coated with an antireflective thin film,” Thin Solid Films290–291, 23–29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Srivastava, S. K.

S. K. Srivastava, D. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kar, V. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Excellent antireflection properties of vertical silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steglich, M.

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core–shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suvanto, P.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, N. H.

K. C. Hsieh, T. Y. Tsai, D. Wan, H. L. Chen, and N. H. Tai, “Iridescence of patterned carbon nanotube forests on flexible substrates: from darkest materials to colorful films,” ACS Nano4(3), 1327–1336 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toor, F.

F. Toor, H. M. Branz, M. R. Page, K. M. Jones, and H. C. Yuan, “Multi-scale surface texture to improve blue response of nanoporous black silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. Y.

K. C. Hsieh, T. Y. Tsai, D. Wan, H. L. Chen, and N. H. Tai, “Iridescence of patterned carbon nanotube forests on flexible substrates: from darkest materials to colorful films,” ACS Nano4(3), 1327–1336 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Um, H. D.

Wan, D.

K. C. Hsieh, T. Y. Tsai, D. Wan, H. L. Chen, and N. H. Tai, “Iridescence of patterned carbon nanotube forests on flexible substrates: from darkest materials to colorful films,” ACS Nano4(3), 1327–1336 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, W. B. White, and J. H. Adair, “Optical properties of core–shell structured Ag/SiO2 nanocomposites,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B166(3), 235–238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “Platinum nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowires for efficient solar energy conversion,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3704–3709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

R. Lu, J. Sha, W. Xia, Y. Fang, L. Gu, and Y. Wang, “A 3D-SERS substrate with high stability: Silicon nanowire arrays decorated by silver nanoparticles,” CrystEngComm (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Weisse, J. M.

J. M. Weisse, C. H. Lee, D. R. Kim, and X. Zheng, “Fabrication of flexible and vertical silicon nanowire electronics,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3339–3343 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, P.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W. B.

J. Wang, W. B. White, and J. H. Adair, “Optical properties of core–shell structured Ag/SiO2 nanocomposites,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B166(3), 235–238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, N. B.

M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. T.

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “Platinum nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowires for efficient solar energy conversion,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3704–3709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Xia, W.

R. Lu, J. Sha, W. Xia, Y. Fang, L. Gu, and Y. Wang, “A 3D-SERS substrate with high stability: Silicon nanowire arrays decorated by silver nanoparticles,” CrystEngComm (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Xing, Z.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, T.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. C.

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Toor, H. M. Branz, M. R. Page, K. M. Jones, and H. C. Yuan, “Multi-scale surface texture to improve blue response of nanoporous black silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J.

H. Lv, H. Shen, Y. Jiang, C. Gao, H. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Porous-pyramids structured silicon surface with low reflectance over a broad band by electrochemical etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(14), 5451–5454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. L.

M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R. Q.

M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Lv, H. Shen, Y. Jiang, C. Gao, H. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Porous-pyramids structured silicon surface with low reflectance over a broad band by electrochemical etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(14), 5451–5454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

J. M. Weisse, C. H. Lee, D. R. Kim, and X. Zheng, “Fabrication of flexible and vertical silicon nanowire electronics,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3339–3343 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

K. C. Hsieh, T. Y. Tsai, D. Wan, H. L. Chen, and N. H. Tai, “Iridescence of patterned carbon nanotube forests on flexible substrates: from darkest materials to colorful films,” ACS Nano4(3), 1327–1336 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (4)

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater.23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23(1), 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Matheu, S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, C. McPheeters, and E. T. Yu, “Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Rasool, M. A. Rafiq, C. B. Li, E. Krali, Z. A. K. Durrani, and M. M. Hasan, “Enhanced electrical and dielectric properties of polymer covered silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 023114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Toor, H. M. Branz, M. R. Page, K. M. Jones, and H. C. Yuan, “Multi-scale surface texture to improve blue response of nanoporous black silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “The effect of plasmonic particles on solar absorption in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(7), 071110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

H. Lv, H. Shen, Y. Jiang, C. Gao, H. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Porous-pyramids structured silicon surface with low reflectance over a broad band by electrochemical etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(14), 5451–5454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

CrystEngComm (1)

R. Lu, J. Sha, W. Xia, Y. Fang, L. Gu, and Y. Wang, “A 3D-SERS substrate with high stability: Silicon nanowire arrays decorated by silver nanoparticles,” CrystEngComm (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

Z. J. Jiang and C. Y. Liu, “Seed-mediated growth technique for the preparation of a silver nanoshell on a silica sphere,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(45), 12411–12415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

M. L. Zhang, K. Q. Peng, X. Fan, J. S. Jie, R. Q. Zhang, S. T. Lee, and N. B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

K. Kim, H. S. Kim, and H. K. Park, “Facile method to prepare surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering-active Ag nanostructures on silica spheres,” Langmuir22(19), 8083–8088 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

J. Wang, W. B. White, and J. H. Adair, “Optical properties of core–shell structured Ag/SiO2 nanocomposites,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B166(3), 235–238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microporous Mesoporous Mater. (1)

K. S. Chou and C. C. Chen, “Fabrication and characterization of silver core and porous silica shell nanocomposite particles,” Microporous Mesoporous Mater.98(1-3), 208–213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

J. M. Weisse, C. H. Lee, D. R. Kim, and X. Zheng, “Fabrication of flexible and vertical silicon nanowire electronics,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3339–3343 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett.9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “Platinum nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowires for efficient solar energy conversion,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3704–3709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lee, S. Y. Bae, S. Mobasser, and H. Manohara, “A novel silicon nanotips antireflection surface for the micro Sun sensor,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2438–2442 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsu, H. C. Lo, C. F. Chen, C. T. Wu, J. S. Hwang, D. Das, J. Tsai, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, “Generally applicable self-masked dry etching technique for nanotip array fabrication,” Nano Lett.4(3), 471–475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

L. Sainiemi, H. Keskinen, M. Aromaa, L. Luosujarvi, K. Grigoras, T. Kotiaho, J. M. Makela, and S. Franssila, “Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis,” Nanotechnology18(50), 505303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength periodic structures for semiconductor anti-reflection coating in the visible domain,” Proc. SPIE2776, 300–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

S. K. Srivastava, D. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kar, V. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Excellent antireflection properties of vertical silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core–shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowire arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

E. S. Kolesar, V. M. Bright, and D. M. Sowders, “Optical reflectance reduction of textured silicon surfaces coated with an antireflective thin film,” Thin Solid Films290–291, 23–29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional SEM images of original SiNWs before (a, b) and after (c) annealing at 550 °C in ambient air for 60 min. (d) The corresponding TEM image of (c). (e) The magnified view of the white square in (d). (f) The magnified view of the white square in (e). Dark-blue dashed curves indicate the AgNPs, and light-blue dashed curves show the contour of SiO2 caps.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)-(f) Reflectance spectra for SiNWs annealed at 550 °C under varying annealing times: 0 (original SiNWs), 4, 6, 10, 30, and 60 min, respectively, at wavelength range of 300-1200 nm. The inset shows reflectance spectrum of 60min-annealed SiNWs at wavelength range of 1200-2500 nm. Curves around 870 nm are not shown in all spectra due to strong spectrum oscillations caused by detector changes. (g) Photographs of original SiNWs before (left) and after (right) annealing at 550 °C for 60 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)-(f) Schematic diagrams of surface morphologies of SiNWs after various treatments. (g) The corresponding TEM image of (d). (h)-(k) Reflectance spectra for SiNWs after various treatments, corresponding to (c), (d), (e), and (f), respectively. (l) The corresponding TEM image of (f).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance spectra for 8.5μm-SiNWs and 2.1μm-SiNWs before (a, c) and after (b, d) annealing at 550 °C in ambient air for 60 min; (e) The corresponding SEM image of (d).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ sca = 1 6π ( 2π λ ) 4 |α | 2 ,
α=4π r 3 ε m ε s ε m +2 ε s .

Metrics