Abstract

Multi-pulse laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) for metallic mirrors are important issue for laser diagnostics in future fusion devices. In this paper, the mechanism of multi-pulse LIDT and the influence of the slip formation and oxidization in atmosphere were investigated experimentally with a Nd:YAG pulse laser whose pulse width and wavelength are ∼5 ns and 1064 nm, respectively. From detailed surface analysis of laser irradiated part by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it was found that the miniaturization of crystal size and slip formation were observed on damaged area. Oxidization feature was also revealed from the TEM analysis. It was shown that the multi-pulse LIDT could be increased under vacuum condition compared with that in air atmosphere.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor i. simulation mirror tests under neutron and ion bombardment,” Plasma Devices and Operations15, 33–75 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor ii. the mirror tests on the large fusion devices under operation,” Plasma Dev. Operations15, 127–146 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, M. F. Becker, O. Motojima, K. Narihara, and B. Schunke, “Materials selection for the in situ mirrors of laser diagnostics in fusion devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 2016–2025 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and O. Naito, “Optimization of optical filters for ITER edge thomson scattering diagnostics,” Fusion Eng. and Des.84, 2214–2220 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and V. S. Voitsenya, “Assessment of laser transmission mirror materials for ITER edge Thomson scattering diagnostics,” Plasma Fusion Research3, 032 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. S. Lee, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “A theoretical model for multiple-pulse laser-induced damage to metal mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys.54, 5727–5731 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Gorshkov, I. Bel’bas, M. Maslov, V. Sannikov, and K. Vukolov, “Laser damage investigations of Cu mirrors,” Fusion Eng. and Des.74, 859–863 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Sato, S. Kajita, R. Yasuhara, N. Ohno, and Y. Tawara, “Assessment of multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold of metallic mirrors for thomson scattering system,” Optics Express21, 9333–9342 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. F. Figueira and S. J. Thomas, “Damage thresholds at metal surfaces for short pulse IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18, 1381 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Linke, P. Lorenzetto, P. Majerus, M. Merola, D. Pitzer, and M. Rödig, “EU development of high heat flux components,” Fusion Sci. Technol.47, 678–685 (2005).
  15. M. F. Becker, C. Ma, and R. M. Walser, “Predicting multipulse laser-induced failure for molybdenum metal mirrors,” Appl. Opt.30, 5239–5246 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Porteus, D. Decker, W. Faith, D. Grandjean, S. Seitel, and M. J. Soileau, M. J. “Pulsed laser-induced melting of precision diamond-machined Cu, Ag, and Au at infrared wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.17, 2078–2085 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Kajita, S. Takamura, N. Ohno, and T. Nishimoto, “Alleviation of helium holes/bubbles on tungsten surface by use of transient heat load,” Plasma Fusion Res.2, 009 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

M. Sato, S. Kajita, R. Yasuhara, N. Ohno, and Y. Tawara, “Assessment of multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold of metallic mirrors for thomson scattering system,” Optics Express21, 9333–9342 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and O. Naito, “Optimization of optical filters for ITER edge thomson scattering diagnostics,” Fusion Eng. and Des.84, 2214–2220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and V. S. Voitsenya, “Assessment of laser transmission mirror materials for ITER edge Thomson scattering diagnostics,” Plasma Fusion Research3, 032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor i. simulation mirror tests under neutron and ion bombardment,” Plasma Devices and Operations15, 33–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor ii. the mirror tests on the large fusion devices under operation,” Plasma Dev. Operations15, 127–146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kajita, S. Takamura, N. Ohno, and T. Nishimoto, “Alleviation of helium holes/bubbles on tungsten surface by use of transient heat load,” Plasma Fusion Res.2, 009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Linke, P. Lorenzetto, P. Majerus, M. Merola, D. Pitzer, and M. Rödig, “EU development of high heat flux components,” Fusion Sci. Technol.47, 678–685 (2005).

A. Gorshkov, I. Bel’bas, M. Maslov, V. Sannikov, and K. Vukolov, “Laser damage investigations of Cu mirrors,” Fusion Eng. and Des.74, 859–863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, M. F. Becker, O. Motojima, K. Narihara, and B. Schunke, “Materials selection for the in situ mirrors of laser diagnostics in fusion devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 2016–2025 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. F. Becker, C. Ma, and R. M. Walser, “Predicting multipulse laser-induced failure for molybdenum metal mirrors,” Appl. Opt.30, 5239–5246 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Porteus, D. Decker, W. Faith, D. Grandjean, S. Seitel, and M. J. Soileau, M. J. “Pulsed laser-induced melting of precision diamond-machined Cu, Ag, and Au at infrared wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.17, 2078–2085 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. S. Lee, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “A theoretical model for multiple-pulse laser-induced damage to metal mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys.54, 5727–5731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. F. Figueira and S. J. Thomas, “Damage thresholds at metal surfaces for short pulse IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18, 1381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bardamid, A. F.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

C. S. Lee, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “A theoretical model for multiple-pulse laser-induced damage to metal mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys.54, 5727–5731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M. F.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, M. F. Becker, O. Motojima, K. Narihara, and B. Schunke, “Materials selection for the in situ mirrors of laser diagnostics in fusion devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 2016–2025 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Becker, C. Ma, and R. M. Walser, “Predicting multipulse laser-induced failure for molybdenum metal mirrors,” Appl. Opt.30, 5239–5246 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bel’bas, I.

A. Gorshkov, I. Bel’bas, M. Maslov, V. Sannikov, and K. Vukolov, “Laser damage investigations of Cu mirrors,” Fusion Eng. and Des.74, 859–863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biel, W.

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coad, J.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Temmerman, G.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Decker, D.

J. Porteus, D. Decker, W. Faith, D. Grandjean, S. Seitel, and M. J. Soileau, M. J. “Pulsed laser-induced melting of precision diamond-machined Cu, Ag, and Au at infrared wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.17, 2078–2085 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ebizuka, N.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faith, W.

J. Porteus, D. Decker, W. Faith, D. Grandjean, S. Seitel, and M. J. Soileau, M. J. “Pulsed laser-induced melting of precision diamond-machined Cu, Ag, and Au at infrared wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.17, 2078–2085 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Farcage, D.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Figueira, J. F.

J. F. Figueira and S. J. Thomas, “Damage thresholds at metal surfaces for short pulse IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18, 1381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, H.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Funaba, H.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorshkov, A.

A. Gorshkov, I. Bel’bas, M. Maslov, V. Sannikov, and K. Vukolov, “Laser damage investigations of Cu mirrors,” Fusion Eng. and Des.74, 859–863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, D.

J. Porteus, D. Decker, W. Faith, D. Grandjean, S. Seitel, and M. J. Soileau, M. J. “Pulsed laser-induced melting of precision diamond-machined Cu, Ag, and Au at infrared wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.17, 2078–2085 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gritsyna, V. T.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hatae, T.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and O. Naito, “Optimization of optical filters for ITER edge thomson scattering diagnostics,” Fusion Eng. and Des.84, 2214–2220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and V. S. Voitsenya, “Assessment of laser transmission mirror materials for ITER edge Thomson scattering diagnostics,” Plasma Fusion Research3, 032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, Y.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hole, D.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Howard, J.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, D.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kajita, S.

M. Sato, S. Kajita, R. Yasuhara, N. Ohno, and Y. Tawara, “Assessment of multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold of metallic mirrors for thomson scattering system,” Optics Express21, 9333–9342 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and O. Naito, “Optimization of optical filters for ITER edge thomson scattering diagnostics,” Fusion Eng. and Des.84, 2214–2220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and V. S. Voitsenya, “Assessment of laser transmission mirror materials for ITER edge Thomson scattering diagnostics,” Plasma Fusion Research3, 032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kajita, S. Takamura, N. Ohno, and T. Nishimoto, “Alleviation of helium holes/bubbles on tungsten surface by use of transient heat load,” Plasma Fusion Res.2, 009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koguchi, H.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Konovalov, V. G.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, M. F. Becker, O. Motojima, K. Narihara, and B. Schunke, “Materials selection for the in situ mirrors of laser diagnostics in fusion devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 2016–2025 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koumvakalis, N.

C. S. Lee, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “A theoretical model for multiple-pulse laser-induced damage to metal mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys.54, 5727–5731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Laengner, M.

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

C. S. Lee, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “A theoretical model for multiple-pulse laser-induced damage to metal mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys.54, 5727–5731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Leontyev, A.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Linke, J.

J. Linke, P. Lorenzetto, P. Majerus, M. Merola, D. Pitzer, and M. Rödig, “EU development of high heat flux components,” Fusion Sci. Technol.47, 678–685 (2005).

Litnovsky, A.

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzetto, P.

J. Linke, P. Lorenzetto, P. Majerus, M. Merola, D. Pitzer, and M. Rödig, “EU development of high heat flux components,” Fusion Sci. Technol.47, 678–685 (2005).

Ma, C.

Majerus, P.

J. Linke, P. Lorenzetto, P. Majerus, M. Merola, D. Pitzer, and M. Rödig, “EU development of high heat flux components,” Fusion Sci. Technol.47, 678–685 (2005).

Marot, L.

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, M.

A. Gorshkov, I. Bel’bas, M. Maslov, V. Sannikov, and K. Vukolov, “Laser damage investigations of Cu mirrors,” Fusion Eng. and Des.74, 859–863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matveeva, M.

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Merola, M.

J. Linke, P. Lorenzetto, P. Majerus, M. Merola, D. Pitzer, and M. Rödig, “EU development of high heat flux components,” Fusion Sci. Technol.47, 678–685 (2005).

Motojima, O.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, M. F. Becker, O. Motojima, K. Narihara, and B. Schunke, “Materials selection for the in situ mirrors of laser diagnostics in fusion devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 2016–2025 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naito, O.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and O. Naito, “Optimization of optical filters for ITER edge thomson scattering diagnostics,” Fusion Eng. and Des.84, 2214–2220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Narihara, K.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, M. F. Becker, O. Motojima, K. Narihara, and B. Schunke, “Materials selection for the in situ mirrors of laser diagnostics in fusion devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 2016–2025 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishimoto, T.

S. Kajita, S. Takamura, N. Ohno, and T. Nishimoto, “Alleviation of helium holes/bubbles on tungsten surface by use of transient heat load,” Plasma Fusion Res.2, 009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, N.

M. Sato, S. Kajita, R. Yasuhara, N. Ohno, and Y. Tawara, “Assessment of multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold of metallic mirrors for thomson scattering system,” Optics Express21, 9333–9342 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kajita, S. Takamura, N. Ohno, and T. Nishimoto, “Alleviation of helium holes/bubbles on tungsten surface by use of transient heat load,” Plasma Fusion Res.2, 009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orlinski, D. V.

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor i. simulation mirror tests under neutron and ion bombardment,” Plasma Devices and Operations15, 33–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor ii. the mirror tests on the large fusion devices under operation,” Plasma Dev. Operations15, 127–146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orlinskij, D. V.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Philipps, V.

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pitzer, D.

J. Linke, P. Lorenzetto, P. Majerus, M. Merola, D. Pitzer, and M. Rödig, “EU development of high heat flux components,” Fusion Sci. Technol.47, 678–685 (2005).

Porteus, J.

J. Porteus, D. Decker, W. Faith, D. Grandjean, S. Seitel, and M. J. Soileau, M. J. “Pulsed laser-induced melting of precision diamond-machined Cu, Ag, and Au at infrared wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.17, 2078–2085 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rödig, M.

J. Linke, P. Lorenzetto, P. Majerus, M. Merola, D. Pitzer, and M. Rödig, “EU development of high heat flux components,” Fusion Sci. Technol.47, 678–685 (2005).

Rubel, M.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Samm, U.

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sannikov, V.

A. Gorshkov, I. Bel’bas, M. Maslov, V. Sannikov, and K. Vukolov, “Laser damage investigations of Cu mirrors,” Fusion Eng. and Des.74, 859–863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

M. Sato, S. Kajita, R. Yasuhara, N. Ohno, and Y. Tawara, “Assessment of multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold of metallic mirrors for thomson scattering system,” Optics Express21, 9333–9342 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, A.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, C.

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schunke, B.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, M. F. Becker, O. Motojima, K. Narihara, and B. Schunke, “Materials selection for the in situ mirrors of laser diagnostics in fusion devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 2016–2025 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seitel, S.

J. Porteus, D. Decker, W. Faith, D. Grandjean, S. Seitel, and M. J. Soileau, M. J. “Pulsed laser-induced melting of precision diamond-machined Cu, Ag, and Au at infrared wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.17, 2078–2085 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Semerok, A.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shtan’, A. F.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

J. Porteus, D. Decker, W. Faith, D. Grandjean, S. Seitel, and M. J. Soileau, M. J. “Pulsed laser-induced melting of precision diamond-machined Cu, Ag, and Au at infrared wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.17, 2078–2085 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Solodovchenko, S. I.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takamura, S.

S. Kajita, S. Takamura, N. Ohno, and T. Nishimoto, “Alleviation of helium holes/bubbles on tungsten surface by use of transient heat load,” Plasma Fusion Res.2, 009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, Y.

M. Sato, S. Kajita, R. Yasuhara, N. Ohno, and Y. Tawara, “Assessment of multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold of metallic mirrors for thomson scattering system,” Optics Express21, 9333–9342 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S. J.

J. F. Figueira and S. J. Thomas, “Damage thresholds at metal surfaces for short pulse IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18, 1381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Thro, P.-Y.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Voitsenya, V.

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Voitsenya, V. S.

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and V. S. Voitsenya, “Assessment of laser transmission mirror materials for ITER edge Thomson scattering diagnostics,” Plasma Fusion Research3, 032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor ii. the mirror tests on the large fusion devices under operation,” Plasma Dev. Operations15, 127–146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor i. simulation mirror tests under neutron and ion bombardment,” Plasma Devices and Operations15, 33–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, M. F. Becker, O. Motojima, K. Narihara, and B. Schunke, “Materials selection for the in situ mirrors of laser diagnostics in fusion devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 2016–2025 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vukolov, K.

A. Gorshkov, I. Bel’bas, M. Maslov, V. Sannikov, and K. Vukolov, “Laser damage investigations of Cu mirrors,” Fusion Eng. and Des.74, 859–863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vukolov, K. Y.

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor i. simulation mirror tests under neutron and ion bombardment,” Plasma Devices and Operations15, 33–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor ii. the mirror tests on the large fusion devices under operation,” Plasma Dev. Operations15, 127–146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walser, R. M.

Widdowson, A.

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yakimov, K. I.

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, I.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yasuhara, R.

M. Sato, S. Kajita, R. Yasuhara, N. Ohno, and Y. Tawara, “Assessment of multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold of metallic mirrors for thomson scattering system,” Optics Express21, 9333–9342 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Fusion Eng. and Des. (3)

A. Litnovsky, M. Laengner, M. Matveeva, C. Schulz, L. Marot, V. Voitsenya, V. Philipps, W. Biel, and U. Samm, “Development of in situ cleaning techniques for diagnostic mirrors in ITER,” Fusion Eng. and Des.86, 1780–1783 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and O. Naito, “Optimization of optical filters for ITER edge thomson scattering diagnostics,” Fusion Eng. and Des.84, 2214–2220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gorshkov, I. Bel’bas, M. Maslov, V. Sannikov, and K. Vukolov, “Laser damage investigations of Cu mirrors,” Fusion Eng. and Des.74, 859–863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fusion Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Linke, P. Lorenzetto, P. Majerus, M. Merola, D. Pitzer, and M. Rödig, “EU development of high heat flux components,” Fusion Sci. Technol.47, 678–685 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. F. Figueira and S. J. Thomas, “Damage thresholds at metal surfaces for short pulse IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18, 1381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Porteus, D. Decker, W. Faith, D. Grandjean, S. Seitel, and M. J. Soileau, M. J. “Pulsed laser-induced melting of precision diamond-machined Cu, Ag, and Au at infrared wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.17, 2078–2085 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. S. Lee, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “A theoretical model for multiple-pulse laser-induced damage to metal mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys.54, 5727–5731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater. (1)

A. Widdowson, J. Coad, G. de Temmerman, D. Farcage, D. Hole, D. Ivanova, A. Leontyev, M. Rubel, A. Semerok, A. Schmidt, and P.-Y. Thro, “Removal of beryllium-containing films deposited in JET from mirror surfaces by laser cleaning,” J. Nucl. Mater.415, S1199–S1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Physics: Conference Series (1)

T. Hatae, J. Howard, N. Ebizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, K. Narihara, I. Yamada, H. Funaba, Y. Hirano, H. Koguchi, S. Kajita, and O. Naito, “Progress in development of the advanced thomson scattering diagnostics,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series227, 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (1)

M. Sato, S. Kajita, R. Yasuhara, N. Ohno, and Y. Tawara, “Assessment of multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold of metallic mirrors for thomson scattering system,” Optics Express21, 9333–9342 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasma Dev. Operations (1)

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor ii. the mirror tests on the large fusion devices under operation,” Plasma Dev. Operations15, 127–146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plasma Devices and Operations (1)

D. V. Orlinski, V. S. Voitsenya, and K. Y. Vukolov, “First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor i. simulation mirror tests under neutron and ion bombardment,” Plasma Devices and Operations15, 33–75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plasma Fusion Res. (1)

S. Kajita, S. Takamura, N. Ohno, and T. Nishimoto, “Alleviation of helium holes/bubbles on tungsten surface by use of transient heat load,” Plasma Fusion Res.2, 009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plasma Fusion Research (1)

S. Kajita, T. Hatae, and V. S. Voitsenya, “Assessment of laser transmission mirror materials for ITER edge Thomson scattering diagnostics,” Plasma Fusion Research3, 032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, M. F. Becker, O. Motojima, K. Narihara, and B. Schunke, “Materials selection for the in situ mirrors of laser diagnostics in fusion devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 2016–2025 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Voitsenya, V. G. Konovalov, A. F. Shtan’, S. I. Solodovchenko, M. F. Becker, A. F. Bardamid, K. I. Yakimov, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. V. Orlinskij, “Some problems of the material choice for the first mirrors of plasma diagnostics in a fusion reactor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70, 790–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of experimental setup in (a) the air and (b) vacuum condition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical Temporal evolutions of the laser power reflected from mirror surface. Two cases in vacuum and air conditions were presented.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multi-pulse LIDT for various Cu mirrors in the air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculation results of the Cu ion irradiation damage with SRIM-2012 code. (a) is the projected picture of the calculated ion trajectory and cascade collision feature and (b) is the calculated depth profiles of dpa and apa.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TEM micrographs of the Cu sample exposed to the ion beam at different magnifications.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multi-pulse LIDT for OFHC Cu mirrors in the air without irradiation and with irradiation at 5.5 and 16.5 dpa.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) A SEM micrograph of sample (ii) after the irradiation with laser pulses. (b) and (c) cross sectional views of the TEM micrographs of the sample. (b) corresponds to the central part the laser beam and (c) edge part of the laser beam.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Expanded TEM images of the sample at the laser beam center region. (b) and (c) are the bright field image (BFI) and dark field image (DFI) from the same position.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Multi-pulse LIDT for OFHC Cu mirrors in the air and vacuum conditions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The roughness and hardness of samples (i) and (ii).

Metrics