Abstract

Optical metamaterials have unique properties which result from geometric confinement of the optical conductivity. We developed a series of infrared metasurfaces based on an array of metallic square loop antennas. The far-field absorption spectrum can be designed with resonances across the infrared by scaling the geometric dimensions. We measure the amplitude and phase of the resonant mode as standing wave patterns within the square loops using scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Further, using a broad-band synchrotron-based FTIR microscope and s-SNOM at the Advanced Light Source, we are able to correlate far-field spectra to near-field modes of the metasurface as the resonance is tuned between samples. The results highlight the importance of multi-modal imaging for the design and characterization of optical metamaterials.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

X. G. Xu and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field infrared vibrational dynamics and tip-enhanced decoherence,” Nano Lett.13(4), 1588–1595 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (8)

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett.12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Butt, Q. Dai, N. Lal, T. D. Wilkinson, J. J. Baumberg, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Metamaterial filter for the near-visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(8), 083106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, A. Alù, C. Argyropoulos, J. V. Foreman, and M. J. Bloemer, “Thermal emission from a metamaterial wire medium slab,” Opt. Express20(9), 9784–9789 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater.11(5), 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” Ant. Propagat. Mag.54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Feng, M. Pu, C. Hu, and X. Luo, “Engineering the dispersion of metamaterial surface for broadband infrared absorption,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2133–2135 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, R. L. Olmon, D. J. Shelton, B. A. Lail, I. Brener, M. B. Sinclair, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Phase resolved near-field mode imaging for the design of frequency-selective surfaces,” Opt. Express20(11), 11986–11993 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

S. L. Wadsworth, P. G. Clem, E. D. Branson, and G. D. Boreman, “Broadband circularly-polarized infrared emission from multilayer metamaterials,” Opt. Mater. Express1(3), 466–479 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Mason, S. Smith, and D. Wasserman, “Strong absorption and selective thermal emission from a midinfrared metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 241105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, L. Yang, C. Hu, X. Luo, and M. Hong, “Tunable bandwidth of band-stop filter by metamaterial cell coupling in optical frequency,” Opt. Express19(6), 5283–5289 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Krenz, R. L. Olmon, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Near-field measurement of infrared coplanar strip transmission line attenuation and propagation constants,” Opt. Express18(21), 21678–21686 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Extarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, T. E. May, and P. Lerch, “Improved spatial resolution for reflection mode infrared microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(12), 126106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Extarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Albella, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alda, J.

Alonso-Gonzalez, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

Amaratunga, G. A. J.

H. Butt, Q. Dai, N. Lal, T. D. Wilkinson, J. J. Baumberg, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Metamaterial filter for the near-visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(8), 083106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Amarie, S.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett.12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argyropoulos, C.

Arju, N.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arzubiaga, L.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

H. Butt, Q. Dai, N. Lal, T. D. Wilkinson, J. J. Baumberg, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Metamaterial filter for the near-visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(8), 083106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H. A.

H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, T. E. May, and P. Lerch, “Improved spatial resolution for reflection mode infrared microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(12), 126106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, and M. B. Raschke, (in preparation).

Biener, G.

Bloemer, M. J.

Booth, J.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” Ant. Propagat. Mag.54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G.

Boreman, G. D.

Branson, E. D.

Brener, I.

Butt, H.

H. Butt, Q. Dai, N. Lal, T. D. Wilkinson, J. J. Baumberg, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Metamaterial filter for the near-visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(8), 083106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casanova, F.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuvilin, A.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clem, P. G.

Crozier, K.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Extarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D’Aguanno, G.

Dai, Q.

H. Butt, Q. Dai, N. Lal, T. D. Wilkinson, J. J. Baumberg, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Metamaterial filter for the near-visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(8), 083106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dorfmüller, J.

Etrich, C.

Feng, Q.

Foreman, J. V.

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Extarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Extarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Ginn, J.

Ginn, J. C.

Golmar, F.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J. A.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” Ant. Propagat. Mag.54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Govyadinov, A.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett.12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

Hillenbrand, R.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett.12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Extarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, C. L.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” Ant. Propagat. Mag.54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.

Hu, C.

Huang, L.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, A. J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Extarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hueso, L. E.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huth, F.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett.12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, G.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N. M.

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater.11(5), 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, A. C.

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett.12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, K.

Khanikaev, A.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinzel, E. C.

Kleiner, V.

Krenz, P. M.

Kuester, E. F.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” Ant. Propagat. Mag.54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lail, B.

Lail, B. A.

Lal, N.

H. Butt, Q. Dai, N. Lal, T. D. Wilkinson, J. J. Baumberg, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Metamaterial filter for the near-visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(8), 083106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Larouche, S.

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater.11(5), 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

Lerch, P.

H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, T. E. May, and P. Lerch, “Improved spatial resolution for reflection mode infrared microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(12), 126106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Martin, M. C.

H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, T. E. May, and P. Lerch, “Improved spatial resolution for reflection mode infrared microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(12), 126106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, and M. B. Raschke, (in preparation).

Mason, J. A.

J. A. Mason, S. Smith, and D. Wasserman, “Strong absorption and selective thermal emission from a midinfrared metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 241105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mattiucci, N.

May, T. E.

H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, T. E. May, and P. Lerch, “Improved spatial resolution for reflection mode infrared microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(12), 126106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mühlenbernd, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niv, A.

Nordlander, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuansing, W.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett.12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” Ant. Propagat. Mag.54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Olmon, R. L.

Padilla, W. J.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

Pu, M.

Qiu, M.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rang, M.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

X. G. Xu and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field infrared vibrational dynamics and tip-enhanced decoherence,” Nano Lett.13(4), 1588–1595 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, R. L. Olmon, D. J. Shelton, B. A. Lail, I. Brener, M. B. Sinclair, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Phase resolved near-field mode imaging for the design of frequency-selective surfaces,” Opt. Express20(11), 11986–11993 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Krenz, R. L. Olmon, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Near-field measurement of infrared coplanar strip transmission line attenuation and propagation constants,” Opt. Express18(21), 21678–21686 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, and M. B. Raschke, (in preparation).

Rockstuhl, C.

Saraf, L. V.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarriugarte, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnell, M.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Extarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, D. J.

Shvets, G.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinclair, M. B.

Smith, D. R.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” Ant. Propagat. Mag.54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater.11(5), 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S.

J. A. Mason, S. Smith, and D. Wasserman, “Strong absorption and selective thermal emission from a midinfrared metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 241105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sobhani, H.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, Q.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, Y. J.

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater.11(5), 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, T.

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater.11(5), 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

Wadsworth, S. L.

Wang, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, D.

J. A. Mason, S. Smith, and D. Wasserman, “Strong absorption and selective thermal emission from a midinfrared metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 241105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

H. Butt, Q. Dai, N. Lal, T. D. Wilkinson, J. J. Baumberg, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Metamaterial filter for the near-visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(8), 083106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X. G.

X. G. Xu and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field infrared vibrational dynamics and tip-enhanced decoherence,” Nano Lett.13(4), 1588–1595 (2013).
[PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ant. Propagat. Mag. (1)

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” Ant. Propagat. Mag.54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Butt, Q. Dai, N. Lal, T. D. Wilkinson, J. J. Baumberg, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Metamaterial filter for the near-visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(8), 083106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Mason, S. Smith, and D. Wasserman, “Strong absorption and selective thermal emission from a midinfrared metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 241105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett.12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. G. Xu and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field infrared vibrational dynamics and tip-enhanced decoherence,” Nano Lett.13(4), 1588–1595 (2013).
[PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett.12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater.11(5), 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Extarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, T. E. May, and P. Lerch, “Improved spatial resolution for reflection mode infrared microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(12), 126106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. L. Olmon, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, and M. B. Raschke, (in preparation).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated absorptivity at 10.6 µm and 60° angle of incidence as a function of the loop edge length for the Al square loop designs. Unit cell schematics depicting the simulated near-field of the resonant cases at 2.0 µm and 3.75 µm are shown near their respective peaks for clarity. Near-field analysis shows that the 2.0 µm loops display a dipolar resonance while the 3.75 µm loops display a quadrupolar resonance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the fabricated metasurfaces (a) small Al square loop metasurface, (b) large Al loop metasurface, (d) tightly spaced gold loop metasurface with 1.79 μm periodicity (e) widely spaced gold loops with 5.79 μm periodicity. Experimental and simulated absorptivity, Al loop arrays as well as the BCB substrate (c) and Au loop arrays (f).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of (a) monochromatic s-SNOM with a CO2 laser source. The reference arm contains a moving mirror (MM) and quarter waveplate to allow interferometric detection with s- and p-polarized light. A wire grid polarizer (WGP) is also used to decrease background interference. Broadband synchrotron based s-SNOM (b) relies on a similar experimental setup. The reference arm is blocked during spatial imaging.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of s-SNOM data and HFSS simulations for the small loop metasurface showing the normalized s-SNOM amplitude (a) and relative phase (c), as compared to the normalized electric field amplitude (b) and relative phase (d) values simulated in HFSS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of s-SNOM data and HFSS simulations for the large loop metasurface showing the normalized s-SNOM amplitude (a) and relative phase (c), as compared to the normalized electric field amplitude (b) and relative phase (d) values simulated in HFSS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Synchrotron based infrared s-SNOM of small aluminum loops using p-polarized light showing topography (a), lock-in demodulations 1 Ω and 2 Ω (b) and (c), and line cuts of the intensity (d). Here, Ω denotes the harmonic of the demodulation, such that 2 Ω refers to the second harmonic.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Synchrotron based infrared s-SNOM of gold loops with 1.79 μm periodicity with s-polarized light showing topography (a), lock-in demodulations 1 and 2 (b) and (c), and line cuts of the intensity (d). An anti-symmetric dipole response is observed in the vertical line cut along the gold loops, while a symmetric response is resolve in the horizontal line cut.

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