Abstract

Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators have proven to be an excellent platform for label-free nanophotonic biosensors. The high index contrast of silicon-on-insulator allows for fabrication of micrometer-size sensors. However, it also limits the quality of the resonances by introducing an intrinsic mode-splitting. Backscattering of optical power at small waveguide variations lifts the degeneracy of the normal resonator modes. This severely deteriorates the quality of the output signal, which is of utmost importance to determine the performance of the microrings as a biosensor. We suggest an integrated interferometric approach to give access to the unsplit, high-quality normal modes of the microring resonator and experimentally show an improvement of the quality factor by a factor of 3.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. L. Arce, K. D. Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. V. Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 890–892 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental characterization of a silicon photonic biosensor consisting of two cascaded ring resonators based on the Vernier-effect and introduction of a curve fitting method for an improved detection limit,” Opt. Express18, 22747–22761 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (5)

C. L. Arce, K. D. Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. V. Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, R. Selvaraja, S Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17, 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, J. Heck, M. Sysak, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Die-to-die adhesive bonding procedure for evanescently-coupled photonic devices,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14, H326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Acoleyen, K. Komorowska, and W. Bogaerts, “One-dimensional off-chip beam steering and shaping using optical phased arrays on silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.29, 3500–3505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

J. Knittel, T. G. McRae, K. H. Lee, and W. P. Bowen, “Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 123704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental characterization of a silicon photonic biosensor consisting of two cascaded ring resonators based on the Vernier-effect and introduction of a curve fitting method for an improved detection limit,” Opt. Express18, 22747–22761 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang and D. Dai, “Highly sensitive Si nanowire-based optical sensor using a Mach Zehnder interferometer coupled microring,” Opt. Lett.35, 4229–4231 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design guidelines for optical resonator biochemical sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26, 1032–1041 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1997 (2)

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators.” Opt. Lett.22, 4–6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightw. Technol.15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Acoleyen, K. V.

Agarwal, A.

Arce, C. L.

C. L. Arce, K. D. Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. V. Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

C. L. Arce, K. D. Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. V. Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental characterization of a silicon photonic biosensor consisting of two cascaded ring resonators based on the Vernier-effect and introduction of a curve fitting method for an improved detection limit,” Opt. Express18, 22747–22761 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, R. Selvaraja, S Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17, 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Acoleyen, K. Komorowska, and W. Bogaerts, “One-dimensional off-chip beam steering and shaping using optical phased arrays on silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.29, 3500–3505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental characterization of a silicon photonic biosensor consisting of two cascaded ring resonators based on the Vernier-effect and introduction of a curve fitting method for an improved detection limit,” Opt. Express18, 22747–22761 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowen, W. P.

J. Knittel, T. G. McRae, K. H. Lee, and W. P. Bowen, “Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 123704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightw. Technol.15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

Claes, T.

C. L. Arce, K. D. Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. V. Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental characterization of a silicon photonic biosensor consisting of two cascaded ring resonators based on the Vernier-effect and introduction of a curve fitting method for an improved detection limit,” Opt. Express18, 22747–22761 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

De Koninck, Y.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightw. Technol.15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Girones, J.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Halir, S

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, R. Selvaraja, S Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17, 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightw. Technol.15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heck, J.

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, J. Heck, M. Sysak, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Die-to-die adhesive bonding procedure for evanescently-coupled photonic devices,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14, H326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heyn, P. D.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, J. Heck, M. Sysak, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Die-to-die adhesive bonding procedure for evanescently-coupled photonic devices,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14, H326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kippenberg, T. J.

Knittel, J.

J. Knittel, T. G. McRae, K. H. Lee, and W. P. Bowen, “Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 123704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Komorowska, K.

C. L. Arce, K. D. Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. V. Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Acoleyen, K. Komorowska, and W. Bogaerts, “One-dimensional off-chip beam steering and shaping using optical phased arrays on silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.29, 3500–3505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

Laine, J.-P.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightw. Technol.15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

J. Knittel, T. G. McRae, K. H. Lee, and W. P. Bowen, “Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 123704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Little, B.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightw. Technol.15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

McRae, T. G.

J. Knittel, T. G. McRae, K. H. Lee, and W. P. Bowen, “Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 123704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Molera, J.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popelka, S.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, R. Selvaraja, S Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17, 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, J. Heck, M. Sysak, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Die-to-die adhesive bonding procedure for evanescently-coupled photonic devices,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14, H326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, R. Selvaraja, S Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17, 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

Stankovic, S.

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, J. Heck, M. Sysak, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Die-to-die adhesive bonding procedure for evanescently-coupled photonic devices,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14, H326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Sysak, M.

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, J. Heck, M. Sysak, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Die-to-die adhesive bonding procedure for evanescently-coupled photonic devices,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14, H326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, R. Selvaraja, S Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17, 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Arce, K. D. Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. V. Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vaerenbergh, T. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

Van Thourhout, D.

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, J. Heck, M. Sysak, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Die-to-die adhesive bonding procedure for evanescently-coupled photonic devices,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14, H326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, R. Selvaraja, S Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17, 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vos, K. D.

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Arce, K. D. Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. V. Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 890–892 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Knittel, T. G. McRae, K. H. Lee, and W. P. Bowen, “Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 123704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, J. Heck, M. Sysak, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Die-to-die adhesive bonding procedure for evanescently-coupled photonic devices,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.14, H326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, R. Selvaraja, S Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. V. Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17, 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 654–661 (2010).
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IEEE Photon. J. (2)

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 225–235 (2009).
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T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. L. Arce, K. D. Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. V. Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 890–892 (2011).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. D. Heyn, T. V. Vaerenbergh, K. D. Vos, S. Kumar, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6, 47–73 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

The Dow Chemical Company, “Cyclotene advanced electronics resins,” (2013), http://www.dow.com/cyclotene/prod/402235.htm .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured spectra for add-drop microring resonator showing resonance splitting and backscattered power

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured spectrum of all-pass microring with resonance splitting. The full line gives the theoretical transmission after fitting the model parameters

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of the integrated interferometric circuit

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microscope image of lithographically opened BCB layer. The arrows indicate the edge of the 2×2 MMI that is covered by BCB residue

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration curve for tuning heater. A phase range of 2π is obtained for heater currents from 0 to 4mA

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interferometric output signals for different phase difference between reflected and transmitted field: (top) output 2 (bottom) output 3. The full line gives the theoretically predicted signals and the dotted line gives the experimentally recorded power

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Split all-pass transmission and interferometric output signals showing unsplit modes for a phase difference Δϕ = 0. Output power of output 1 has been scaled for clarity

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Model parameter values

Equations (4)

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d a C W d t = i Δ ω a C W 1 2 τ a C W + i 2 γ a C C W + κ s d a C C W d t = i Δ ω a C C W 1 2 τ a C C W + i 2 γ a C W
a + = 1 2 ( a C W + a C C W ) = 1 2 κ s i ( Δ ω + 1 2 γ ) 1 2 τ a = 1 2 ( a C W a C C W ) = 1 2 κ s i ( Δ ω 1 2 γ ) 1 2 τ
t = s + κ a C W and r = κ a C C W
out 1 = 1 2 t out 2 = 1 2 ( 1 2 a in + κ a C W + e i ϕ κ a C C W ) out 3 = 1 2 ( 1 2 a in + κ a C W e i ϕ κ a C C W )

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