Abstract

Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are sensitive to operating temperature fluctuations and are also susceptible to radiation flux expected in satellite-based quantum experiments. We introduce a low power voltage adjusting mechanism to overcome the effects of in-orbit temperature fluctuations. We also present data on the performance of Si APDs after irradiation (γ-ray and proton beam). Combined with an analysis of expected orbital irradiation, we propose that a Si APD in a 400 km equatorial orbit may operate beyond the lifetime of the satellite.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

M. A. Krainak, A. W. Yu, Y. Guangning, S. X. Li, and X. Sun, “Photon-counting detectors for space-based laser receivers,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7608, 760827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Morong, D. Oi, and A. Ling, “Quantum optics for space platforms,” Opt. Photonics News23 (10), 42–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Woellert, P. Ehrenfreund, A. J. Ricco, and H. Hertzfeld, “Cubesats: Cost-effective science and technology platforms for emerging and developing nations,” Adv. Space Res.47, 663–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. MacDonald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-db channel loss,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

I. Prochazka and Y. Fumin, “Photon counting module for laser time transfer via earth orbiting satellite,” J. Mod. Opt.56, 253–260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stipčević, H. Skenderović, and D. Gracin, “Characterization of a novel avalanche photodiode for single photon detection in vis-nir range,” Opt. Express18, 17448–17459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys.11, 045007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Ursin and , “Space-quest, experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” EuroPhys. News40, 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

2003

I. Jun, M. A. Xapsos, S. R. Messenger, E. A. Burke, R. J. Walters, G. P. Summers, and T. Jordan, “Proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.50, 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Akkerman, J. Barak, M. Chadwick, J. Levinson, M. Murat, and Y. Lifshitz, “Updated NIEL calculations for estimating the damage induced by particles and gamma-rays in Si and GaAs,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.62, 301–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. Abshire, “Measurement of proton radiation damage to Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices44, 2160–2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

G. P. Summers, E. A. Burke, P. Shapiro, and S. R. Messenger, “Damage correlations in semiconductors exposed to gamma, electron and proton radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.40, 1372–1379 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. J. Dale, R. A. Howard, P. W. Marshall, B. Cummings, L. Shamey, and A. W. Delamere, “Spacecraft displacement damage dose calculations for shielded CCDs,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.1656, 476–487 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. L. Pease, A. H. Johnston, and J. L. Azarewicz, “Radiation testing of semiconductor devices for space electronics,” Proc. IEEE76, 1510–1526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Srour and J. M. McGarrity, “Radiation effects on microelectronics in space,” Proc. IEEE76, 1443–1469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. Raymond and E. Petersen, “Comparison of neutron, proton and gamma ray effects in semiconductor devices,”IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.34, 1622–1628 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J.

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. Abshire, “Measurement of proton radiation damage to Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices44, 2160–2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J. B.

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

Akkerman, A.

A. Akkerman, J. Barak, M. Chadwick, J. Levinson, M. Murat, and Y. Lifshitz, “Updated NIEL calculations for estimating the damage induced by particles and gamma-rays in Si and GaAs,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.62, 301–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Allan, G. R.

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

Ashida, H.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Azarewicz, J. L.

R. L. Pease, A. H. Johnston, and J. L. Azarewicz, “Radiation testing of semiconductor devices for space electronics,” Proc. IEEE76, 1510–1526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barak, J.

A. Akkerman, J. Barak, M. Chadwick, J. Levinson, M. Murat, and Y. Lifshitz, “Updated NIEL calculations for estimating the damage induced by particles and gamma-rays in Si and GaAs,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.62, 301–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bourgoin, J.-P.

E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. MacDonald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-db channel loss,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Burke, E. A.

I. Jun, M. A. Xapsos, S. R. Messenger, E. A. Burke, R. J. Walters, G. P. Summers, and T. Jordan, “Proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.50, 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Summers, E. A. Burke, P. Shapiro, and S. R. Messenger, “Damage correlations in semiconductors exposed to gamma, electron and proton radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.40, 1372–1379 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chadwick, M.

A. Akkerman, J. Barak, M. Chadwick, J. Levinson, M. Murat, and Y. Lifshitz, “Updated NIEL calculations for estimating the damage induced by particles and gamma-rays in Si and GaAs,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.62, 301–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

Cummings, B.

C. J. Dale, R. A. Howard, P. W. Marshall, B. Cummings, L. Shamey, and A. W. Delamere, “Spacecraft displacement damage dose calculations for shielded CCDs,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.1656, 476–487 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dale, C. J.

C. J. Dale, R. A. Howard, P. W. Marshall, B. Cummings, L. Shamey, and A. W. Delamere, “Spacecraft displacement damage dose calculations for shielded CCDs,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.1656, 476–487 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dautet, H.

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. Abshire, “Measurement of proton radiation damage to Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices44, 2160–2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, M.

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

Delamere, A. W.

C. J. Dale, R. A. Howard, P. W. Marshall, B. Cummings, L. Shamey, and A. W. Delamere, “Spacecraft displacement damage dose calculations for shielded CCDs,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.1656, 476–487 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ehrenfreund, P.

K. Woellert, P. Ehrenfreund, A. J. Ricco, and H. Hertzfeld, “Cubesats: Cost-effective science and technology platforms for emerging and developing nations,” Adv. Space Res.47, 663–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Enomoto, T.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frst, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujihashi, K.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fumin, Y.

I. Prochazka and Y. Fumin, “Photon counting module for laser time transfer via earth orbiting satellite,” J. Mod. Opt.56, 253–260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, I.

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys.11, 045007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

Gracin, D.

Guangning, Y.

M. A. Krainak, A. W. Yu, Y. Guangning, S. X. Li, and X. Sun, “Photon-counting detectors for space-based laser receivers,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7608, 760827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hertzfeld, H.

K. Woellert, P. Ehrenfreund, A. J. Ricco, and H. Hertzfeld, “Cubesats: Cost-effective science and technology platforms for emerging and developing nations,” Adv. Space Res.47, 663–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C.

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys.11, 045007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R. A.

C. J. Dale, R. A. Howard, P. W. Marshall, B. Cummings, L. Shamey, and A. W. Delamere, “Spacecraft displacement damage dose calculations for shielded CCDs,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.1656, 476–487 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hübel, H.

E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. MacDonald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-db channel loss,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inagawa, S.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

James,

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

Jennewein, T.

E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. MacDonald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-db channel loss,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, A. H.

R. L. Pease, A. H. Johnston, and J. L. Azarewicz, “Radiation testing of semiconductor devices for space electronics,” Proc. IEEE76, 1510–1526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Johnston, “Radiation damage of electronic and optoelectronic devices in space presented,” in “The 4th International Workshop on Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices for Space Application, Tsukuba, Japan,” (11–13, October, 2000).

Jordan, T.

I. Jun, M. A. Xapsos, S. R. Messenger, E. A. Burke, R. J. Walters, G. P. Summers, and T. Jordan, “Proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.50, 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jun, I.

I. Jun, M. A. Xapsos, S. R. Messenger, E. A. Burke, R. J. Walters, G. P. Summers, and T. Jordan, “Proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.50, 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, J.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, N.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, N.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Konda, Y.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M. A.

M. A. Krainak, A. W. Yu, Y. Guangning, S. X. Li, and X. Sun, “Photon-counting detectors for space-based laser receivers,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7608, 760827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

Kuramoto, Y.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys.11, 045007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A.

Lamas-Linares, A.

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys.11, 045007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levinson, J.

A. Akkerman, J. Barak, M. Chadwick, J. Levinson, M. Murat, and Y. Lifshitz, “Updated NIEL calculations for estimating the damage induced by particles and gamma-rays in Si and GaAs,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.62, 301–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. X.

M. A. Krainak, A. W. Yu, Y. Guangning, S. X. Li, and X. Sun, “Photon-counting detectors for space-based laser receivers,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7608, 760827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, Y.

A. Akkerman, J. Barak, M. Chadwick, J. Levinson, M. Murat, and Y. Lifshitz, “Updated NIEL calculations for estimating the damage induced by particles and gamma-rays in Si and GaAs,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.62, 301–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lindenthal, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ling, A.

W. Morong, D. Oi, and A. Ling, “Quantum optics for space platforms,” Opt. Photonics News23 (10), 42–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sachidananda and A. Ling, “Bias voltage Control of Avalanche Photo-Diode Using a Window Comparator,” in “Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2011 IEEE (pp. 25–26),” (IEEE Summer Topicals, 2011).

Lukemire, A. T.

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

MacDonald, A.

E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. MacDonald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-db channel loss,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, P. W.

C. J. Dale, R. A. Howard, P. W. Marshall, B. Cummings, L. Shamey, and A. W. Delamere, “Spacecraft displacement damage dose calculations for shielded CCDs,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.1656, 476–487 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matsunaga, S.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsunaga, Y.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGarrity, J. M.

J. R. Srour and J. M. McGarrity, “Radiation effects on microelectronics in space,” Proc. IEEE76, 1443–1469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

mer, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Messenger, S. R.

I. Jun, M. A. Xapsos, S. R. Messenger, E. A. Burke, R. J. Walters, G. P. Summers, and T. Jordan, “Proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.50, 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Summers, E. A. Burke, P. Shapiro, and S. R. Messenger, “Damage correlations in semiconductors exposed to gamma, electron and proton radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.40, 1372–1379 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meyenburg, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Scott, E.

E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. MacDonald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-db channel loss,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miura, Y.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, N.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morong, W.

W. Morong, D. Oi, and A. Ling, “Quantum optics for space platforms,” Opt. Photonics News23 (10), 42–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Murat, M.

A. Akkerman, J. Barak, M. Chadwick, J. Levinson, M. Murat, and Y. Lifshitz, “Updated NIEL calculations for estimating the damage induced by particles and gamma-rays in Si and GaAs,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.62, 301–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamori, T.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oi, D.

W. Morong, D. Oi, and A. Ling, “Quantum optics for space platforms,” Opt. Photonics News23 (10), 42–49 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Omagari, K.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pease, R. L.

R. L. Pease, A. H. Johnston, and J. L. Azarewicz, “Radiation testing of semiconductor devices for space electronics,” Proc. IEEE76, 1510–1526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Peloso, M. P.

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys.11, 045007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perdigues, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, E.

J. Raymond and E. Petersen, “Comparison of neutron, proton and gamma ray effects in semiconductor devices,”IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.34, 1622–1628 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Prochazka, I.

I. Prochazka and Y. Fumin, “Photon counting module for laser time transfer via earth orbiting satellite,” J. Mod. Opt.56, 253–260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, J.

J. Raymond and E. Petersen, “Comparison of neutron, proton and gamma ray effects in semiconductor devices,”IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.34, 1622–1628 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Reusser, D.

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. Abshire, “Measurement of proton radiation damage to Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices44, 2160–2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ricco, A. J.

K. Woellert, P. Ehrenfreund, A. J. Ricco, and H. Hertzfeld, “Cubesats: Cost-effective science and technology platforms for emerging and developing nations,” Adv. Space Res.47, 663–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sachidananda, S.

S. Sachidananda and A. Ling, “Bias voltage Control of Avalanche Photo-Diode Using a Window Comparator,” in “Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2011 IEEE (pp. 25–26),” (IEEE Summer Topicals, 2011).

Samori, C.

Scheidl, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shamey, L.

C. J. Dale, R. A. Howard, P. W. Marshall, B. Cummings, L. Shamey, and A. W. Delamere, “Spacecraft displacement damage dose calculations for shielded CCDs,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.1656, 476–487 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, P.

G. P. Summers, E. A. Burke, P. Shapiro, and S. R. Messenger, “Damage correlations in semiconductors exposed to gamma, electron and proton radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.40, 1372–1379 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skenderovic, H.

Sodnik, Z.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, D.

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

Srour, J. R.

J. R. Srour and J. M. McGarrity, “Radiation effects on microelectronics in space,” Proc. IEEE76, 1443–1469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stipcevic, M.

Summers, G. P.

I. Jun, M. A. Xapsos, S. R. Messenger, E. A. Burke, R. J. Walters, G. P. Summers, and T. Jordan, “Proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.50, 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Summers, E. A. Burke, P. Shapiro, and S. R. Messenger, “Damage correlations in semiconductors exposed to gamma, electron and proton radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.40, 1372–1379 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

M. A. Krainak, A. W. Yu, Y. Guangning, S. X. Li, and X. Sun, “Photon-counting detectors for space-based laser receivers,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7608, 760827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. Abshire, “Measurement of proton radiation damage to Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices44, 2160–2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tiefenbacher, F.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toizumi, T.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trojek, P.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, C.

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

Tsubuku, Y.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

R. Ursin and , “Space-quest, experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” EuroPhys. News40, 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Usui, R.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vandiver, J. C.

X. Sun, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, D. Spinhirne, James, C. Trottier, M. Davies, H. Dautet, G. R. Allan, A. T. Lukemire, and J. C. Vandiver, “Space-qualified silicon avalance-photodiode single-photon-counting modules,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1333–1350 (2004).

Walters, R. J.

I. Jun, M. A. Xapsos, S. R. Messenger, E. A. Burke, R. J. Walters, G. P. Summers, and T. Jordan, “Proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.50, 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weier, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woellert, K.

K. Woellert, P. Ehrenfreund, A. J. Ricco, and H. Hertzfeld, “Cubesats: Cost-effective science and technology platforms for emerging and developing nations,” Adv. Space Res.47, 663–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xapsos, M. A.

I. Jun, M. A. Xapsos, S. R. Messenger, E. A. Burke, R. J. Walters, G. P. Summers, and T. Jordan, “Proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.50, 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z.

E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. MacDonald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-db channel loss,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yatsu, Y.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, A. W.

M. A. Krainak, A. W. Yu, Y. Guangning, S. X. Li, and X. Sun, “Photon-counting detectors for space-based laser receivers,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7608, 760827 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

Zeilinger, A.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. mer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys.3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

K. Woellert, P. Ehrenfreund, A. J. Ricco, and H. Hertzfeld, “Cubesats: Cost-effective science and technology platforms for emerging and developing nations,” Adv. Space Res.47, 663–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

EuroPhys. News

R. Ursin and , “Space-quest, experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” EuroPhys. News40, 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. Abshire, “Measurement of proton radiation damage to Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices44, 2160–2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

J. Raymond and E. Petersen, “Comparison of neutron, proton and gamma ray effects in semiconductor devices,”IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.34, 1622–1628 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Summers, E. A. Burke, P. Shapiro, and S. R. Messenger, “Damage correlations in semiconductors exposed to gamma, electron and proton radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.40, 1372–1379 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Jun, M. A. Xapsos, S. R. Messenger, E. A. Burke, R. J. Walters, G. P. Summers, and T. Jordan, “Proton nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.50, 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. Kataoka, T. Toizumi, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Tsubuku, Y. Kuramoto, T. Enomoto, R. Usui, N. Kawai, H. Ashida, K. Omagari, K. Fujihashi, S. Inagawa, Y. Miura, Y. Konda, N. Miyashita, S. Matsunaga, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, and N. Kawabata, “In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite cute-1.7+apd ii,” J. Geophys. Res.115, A05204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

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