Abstract

In this work we propose a novel procedure for the characterization of attosecond pulses. The method relies on the conversion of the attosecond pulse into electron wave-packets through photoionization of atoms in the presence of a weak IR field. It allows for the unique determination of the spectral phase making up the pulses by accurately taking into account the atomic physics of the photoionization process. The phases are evaluated by optimizing the fit of a perturbation theory calculation to the experimental result. The method has been called iPROOF (improved Phase Retrieval by Omega Oscillation Filtering) as it bears a similarity to the PROOF technique [Chini et al. Opt. Express 18, 13006 (2010)]. The procedure has been demonstrated for the characterization of an attosecond pulse train composed of odd and even harmonics. We observe a large phase shift between consecutive odd and even harmonics. The resulting attosecond pulse train has a complex structure not resembling a single attosecond pulse once per IR period, which is the case for zero phase. Finally, the retrieval procedure can be applied to the characterization of single attosecond pulses as well.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and therelative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 083001 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of Asymmetric Electron Emission in Two-Color Ionization of Helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, K. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds., Vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-VerlagBerlin Heidelberg2012), pp. 173–177.
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    [CrossRef]
  27. E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultravioletinfrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,”J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.35, 3435–3442 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 183001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 013001 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68, 3477–3484 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of high-order harmonic generation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3991–3998 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 2933–2936 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson, “Quantum mechanical approach to probing the birth of attosecond pulses using a two-colour field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.44, 095602 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and therelative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 083001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 183001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

J. Gagnon and V.S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B103, 303–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson, “Quantum mechanical approach to probing the birth of attosecond pulses using a two-colour field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.44, 095602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7, 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express18, 13006–13016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ge, “Quantum enhancement in laser-assisted photoionization and a method for the measurement of an attosecond XUV pulse,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V.S. Yakovlev, “The accurate frog characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B92, 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A71, 011401(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt.52, 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultravioletinfrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,”J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.35, 3435–3442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68, 3477–3484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of high-order harmonic generation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3991–3998 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of high-order harmonic generation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3991–3998 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and therelative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 083001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of Asymmetric Electron Emission in Two-Color Ionization of Helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, K. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds., Vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-VerlagBerlin Heidelberg2012), pp. 173–177.
[CrossRef]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, Thomas

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Büttiker, M.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caillat, J.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and therelative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 083001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of Asymmetric Electron Emission in Two-Color Ionization of Helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, K. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds., Vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-VerlagBerlin Heidelberg2012), pp. 173–177.
[CrossRef]

Carréand, B.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express18, 13006–13016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chini, M.

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express18, 13006–13016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cirelli, C.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7, 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocke, C. L.

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and therelative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 083001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of Asymmetric Electron Emission in Two-Color Ionization of Helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, K. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds., Vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-VerlagBerlin Heidelberg2012), pp. 173–177.
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of high-order harmonic generation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3991–3998 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corner, L.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlström, J. M.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 183001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson, “Quantum mechanical approach to probing the birth of attosecond pulses using a two-colour field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.44, 095602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bohan, A.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7, 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Echenique, P.M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckle, P.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eppink, A. T. J. B.

A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68, 3477–3484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ernstorfer, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feist, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fieß, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fordell, T.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frasinski, L. J.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

J. Gagnon and V.S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B103, 303–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V.S. Yakovlev, “The accurate frog characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B92, 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y. Ge, “Quantum enhancement in laser-assisted photoionization and a method for the measurement of an attosecond XUV pulse,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033851 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilbertson, S.

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express18, 13006–13016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gisselbrecht, M.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V.S. Yakovlev, “The accurate frog characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B92, 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenot, D.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Guénot, D.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, E.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt.52, 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173903 (2002).
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Jin, C.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
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K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
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J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 013001 (2006).
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M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
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Karpowicz, N.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7, 428–433 (2011).
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P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
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M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express18, 13006–13016 (2010).
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H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
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Kienberger, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
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M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173904 (2002).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
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Kling, M.F.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
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Klünder, K.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
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Komninos, Y.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kompa, K.L.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033905 (2005).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 183001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson, “Quantum mechanical approach to probing the birth of attosecond pulses using a two-colour field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.44, 095602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurent, G.

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and therelative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 083001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
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G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of Asymmetric Electron Emission in Two-Color Ionization of Helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, K. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds., Vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-VerlagBerlin Heidelberg2012), pp. 173–177.
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Le, A.-T.

A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lezius, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and therelative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 083001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. D.

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucchese, R. R.

A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
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Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A71, 011401(R) (2005).
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F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt.52, 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maquet, A.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 183001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashiko, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mauritsson, J.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson, “Quantum mechanical approach to probing the birth of attosecond pulses using a two-colour field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.44, 095602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mercouris, Th.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosevic, N.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morishita, T.

A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultravioletinfrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,”J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.35, 3435–3442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H.-G.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, N.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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Nagele, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Neppl, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Nicolaides, C. A.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68, 3477–3484 (1997).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pazourek, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Pfeiffer, A. N.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7, 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
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Quéré, F.

F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt.52, 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A71, 011401(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
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Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
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Salières, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
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Schafer, K. J.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 013001 (2006).
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Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Schröder, H.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
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Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolarski, M.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7, 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
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Starace, A. F.

A. F. Starace, “Theory of Atomic Photoionization,” in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 31, W. Mehlhorn, ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 1–121.

Staudte, A.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swoboda, M.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
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Taïeb, R.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultravioletinfrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,”J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.35, 3435–3442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonzani, S.

A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, Th.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A.J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J.J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and therelative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 083001 (2012).
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W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, A. S.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.S.

J. Gagnon and V.S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B103, 303–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V.S. Yakovlev, “The accurate frog characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B92, 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuo, T.

M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of high-order harmonic generation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3991–3998 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Gagnon and V.S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B103, 303–309 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V.S. Yakovlev, “The accurate frog characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B92, 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt.52, 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (5)

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson, “Quantum mechanical approach to probing the birth of attosecond pulses using a two-colour field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.44, 095602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultravioletinfrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,”J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.35, 3435–3442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 183001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7, 428–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (5)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of high-order harmonic generation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3991–3998 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the attosecond pulse characterization method. (a) The XUV attosecond pulse is converted into electron wave-packets through photoionization of atoms in the presence of a weak IR field (∼ 1011 W/cm2). Three different quantum paths contribute to the generation of energy-degenerate electron wave-packets in the continuum. Interference between these quantum paths leads to a modulation of the probability of emission P(k⃗, ε, τ) with the time delay τ between the XUV and IR pulses. (b) The probability of emission can be written as the sum of three terms: a constant term I0 symmetric along the polarization vector direction, an antisymmetric term Iω oscillating at the IR frequency, and a symmetric term I2ω oscillating at twice the IR frequency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scattering phase-shift η of the bound-to-continuum matrix element Md for argon (black), and continuum-continuum phases ϕcc for absorption (red) and emission (blue) as a function of photoelectron momentum (taken from Refs. [26] and [29], respectively). (b) Atomic phase difference φ a t . a for absorption (red) and φ a t . e for emission (blue).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic view of our experimental setup. (a) The setup combines a Ti:Sapphire laser delivering 40-fs 800-nm pulses at a repetition rate of 1kHz, a XUV-IR Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a velocity map imaging system. (b) The two-color field used for the high harmonic generation was formed by a collinear optical system composed of a β-barium borate (BBO) crystal, a rotatable calcite plate, and a zero-order half-wave plate at 800 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photoelectron emission probability from argon measured in one direction along the polarization vector (±15 deg.) as a function of time delay between the XUV and IR field and the electron energy (in harmonic order unit). (b) Photoelectron spectrum when only the XUV pulse is present. (c) FSI modulation as a function of time delay between the XUV and IR field and the electron energy. (d) Measured (blue line) and simulated (red bars) amplitude of the FSI modulation. (e) Phase of the FSI modulation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative (a) and absolute (b) spectral phases retrieved by including (blue curve) and neglecting (red curve) the contribution of the atomic physics of the photoionization process in the analysis. The absolute phases have been deduced from the relative phases by arbitrarily assigning zero phase to the harmonic 12.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal profile of the attosecond pulse train retrieved by including (a) and neglecting (b) the contribution of the atomic physics of the photoionization process in the analysis.

Equations (19)

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P ( k , ε , τ ) = | M d ( k , ε ) + M c c a ( k , ε , τ ) + M c c e ( k , ε , τ ) | 2 ,
P ( k , ε , τ ) = I 0 ( k , ε ) + I ω ( k , ε , τ ) + I 2 ω ( k , ε , τ ) .
M d ( k z ^ , ε ) = ( 8 π ) 3 / 2 i 3 E ˜ Ω λ 2 λ + 1 Y λ , m i | Y 1 , 0 | Y i , m i R k , λ | r | R n i , i e i η λ ( k ) δ m i , 0 ,
M c c ( k z ^ , ε , τ ) ( 8 π ) 2 3 2 E ˜ ω E ˜ Ω T ( k , κ ) L 2 L + 1 λ Y L , m i | Y 1 , 0 | Y λ , m i Y λ , m i | Y 1 , 0 | Y i , m i × R κ , λ | r | R n i , i e i η λ ( κ ) δ m i , 0 ,
T ( k , κ ) = 1 k κ ( 2 κ ) i Z κ ( 2 k ) i Z k Γ [ 2 + i Z ( 1 κ 1 k ) ] ( i κ k ) 2 + i Z ( 1 κ 1 k ) ,
M d ( k z ^ , ε ) = i ( 8 π ) 3 / 2 4 π E ˜ Ω R k , 1 | r | R 1 , 0 e i η 1 ( k ) M c c ( k z ^ , ε , τ ) = i E ˜ ω T ( k , κ ) M d ( κ z ^ , ε κ ) .
M d ( k z ^ , ε ) = i 4 π 8 3 E ˜ Ω [ R k , 0 | r | R 1 , 1 e i η 0 ( k ) + 2 R k , 2 | r | R 1 , 1 e i η 2 ( k ) ] M c c ( k z ^ , ε , τ ) = i E ˜ ω T ( k , κ ) M d ( κ z ^ , ε κ ) .
I ω ( k z ^ , ε , τ ) = 2 | M d | ( | M c c a | cos ( arg [ M d * M c c a ] ) + | M c c e | cos ( arg [ M d * M c c e ] ) ) .
I ω ( k z ^ , ε , τ ) = 2 E ω | M d | ( | T a | | M d a | cos ( ω τ + Δ Φ Ω a + φ a t . a ) + | T e | | M d e | cos ( ω τ + Δ Φ Ω e φ a t . e ) )
φ a t . a ( k , κ a ) = π 2 + ϕ c c ( k , κ a ) + η ( κ a ) η ( k ) φ a t . e ( k , κ e ) = π 2 + ϕ c c ( k , κ e ) + η ( κ e ) η ( k ) ,
I ω ( k z ^ , ε , τ ) = A ε cos ( ω τ + Ψ ε ) ,
A ε = 2 E ω | M d | ( | T a | 2 | M d a | 2 + | T e | 2 | M d e | 2 + 2 | T a | | T e | | M d a | | M d e | cos ( Δ Φ Ω a Δ Φ Ω e + φ a t . a + φ a t . e ) ) 1 2
Ψ ε = atan ( | T a | | M d a | sin ( Δ Φ Ω a + φ a t . a ) + | T e | | M d e | sin ( Δ Φ Ω e φ a t . e ) | T a | | M d a | cos ( Δ Φ Ω a + φ a t . a ) + | T e | | M d e | cos ( Δ Φ Ω e φ a t . e ) ) .
sin ( Δ Φ Ω e φ a t . e Ψ ε exp ) sin ( Δ Φ Ω a + φ a t . e Ψ ε exp ) = | T a | | T e | S ( ε ω ) S ( ε + ω ) ,
( Δ Φ Ω e ) 1 = Ψ ε exp + φ a t . e + asin [ | T a | | T e | S ( ε ω ) S ( ε + ω ) sin ( Δ Φ Ω a + φ a t . a Ψ ε exp ) ] ( Δ Φ Ω e ) 2 = Ψ ε exp + φ a t . e + π asin [ | T a | | T e | S ( ε ω ) S ( ε + ω ) sin ( Δ Φ Ω a + φ a t . a Ψ ε exp ) ] .
χ 2 ( α , β ) = m [ A ε exp A ε t h ( α , β ) ] 2 ,
A ε t h ( α , β ) = β S ( ε ) ( | T a | 2 S ( ε ω ) + | T e | 2 S ( ε + ω ) + 2 | T a | | T e | S ( ε ω ) S ( ε + ω ) cos ( Δ Φ Ω a ( α ) Δ Φ Ω e ( α ) + φ a t . a + φ a t . e ) ) 1 2 ,
β min ( ε ) = A ε exp S ( ε ) | T a | 2 S ( ε ω ) + | T e | 2 S ( ε + ω ) + 2 | T a | | T e | S ( ε ω ) S ( ε + ω ) β max ( ε ) = A ε exp S ( ε ) | T a | 2 S ( ε ω ) + | T e | 2 S ( ε + ω ) 2 | T a | | T e | S ( ε ω ) S ( ε + ω )
β [ max [ β min ( ε ) ] , min [ β max ( ε ) ] ] .

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