Abstract

We report balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) operated in sinusoidal gating mode with a tunable phase shifter to reduce common mode noise. This technique enables detection of small avalanche pulses, which results in reduced afterpulsing. For laser repletion rate of 20 MHz at 240 K, the dark count rate for photon detection efficiency of 10% is 8.9 kHz.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. Z.  Lu, Y.  Kang, C.  Hu, Q.  Zhou, H.-D.  Liu, J. C.  Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. L.  Yuan, A. R.  Dixon, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

A.  Restelli, J. C.  Bienfang, A. L.  Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310 nm with an InGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J. C.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Pulsed gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 49(5), 485–490 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, X.  Zheng, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Common-mode cancellation in sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 48(12), 1505–1511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A.  Tosi, A.  Della Frera, A. B.  Shehata, C.  Scarcella, “Fully programmable single-photon detection module for InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes with clean and sub-nanosecond gating transitions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(1), 013104 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

Y.  Nambu, S.  Takahashi, K.  Yoshino, A.  Tanaka, M.  Fujiwara, M.  Sasaki, A.  Tajima, S.  Yorozu, A.  Tomita, “Efficient and low-noise single-photon avalanche photodiode for 1.244-GHz clocked quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20531–20541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D.  Eisaman, J.  Fan, A.  Migdall, S. V.  Polyakov, “Invited Review Article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.  Lu, Y.  Kang, C.  Hu, Q.  Zhou, H.-D.  Liu, J. C.  Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Z. L.  Yuan, A. W.  Sharpe, J. F.  Dynes, A. R.  Dixon, A. J.  Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Jian, E.  Wu, G.  Wu, H.  Zeng, “Optically self-balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for infrared single-photon detection,” Photon. Tech. Lett. IEEE. 22(3), 173–175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R.  Dixon, Z. L.  Yuan, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J.  Zhang, R.  Thew, C.  Barreiro, H.  Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Z. L.  Yuan, A. R.  Dixon, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, R.  Ben-Michael, K.  Slomkowski, “InGaAsP–InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans. 13(4), 895–905 (2007).

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

F.  Stellari, A.  Tosi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “CMOS circuit testing via time-resolved luminescence measurements and simulations,” Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 53(1), 163–169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W.  Becker, A.  Bergmann, G. L.  Biscotti, A.  Rueck, “Advanced time-correlated single photon counting techniques for spectroscopy and imaging in biomedical systems,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 104–112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

D. S.  Bethune, W.  Risk, “An autocompensating fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans. 36(3), 340–347 (2000).

1996 (1)

Acerbi, F.

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Albota, M. A.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, C.

J.  Zhang, R.  Thew, C.  Barreiro, H.  Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

W.  Becker, A.  Bergmann, G. L.  Biscotti, A.  Rueck, “Advanced time-correlated single photon counting techniques for spectroscopy and imaging in biomedical systems,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 104–112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Michael, R.

X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, R.  Ben-Michael, K.  Slomkowski, “InGaAsP–InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans. 13(4), 895–905 (2007).

Bergmann, A.

W.  Becker, A.  Bergmann, G. L.  Biscotti, A.  Rueck, “Advanced time-correlated single photon counting techniques for spectroscopy and imaging in biomedical systems,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 104–112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bethune, D. S.

D. S.  Bethune, W.  Risk, “An autocompensating fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans. 36(3), 340–347 (2000).

Bienfang, J. C.

A.  Restelli, J. C.  Bienfang, A. L.  Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310 nm with an InGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Biscotti, G. L.

W.  Becker, A.  Bergmann, G. L.  Biscotti, A.  Rueck, “Advanced time-correlated single photon counting techniques for spectroscopy and imaging in biomedical systems,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 104–112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, X.  Zheng, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Common-mode cancellation in sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 48(12), 1505–1511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J. C.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Pulsed gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 49(5), 485–490 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, Y.  Kang, C.  Hu, Q.  Zhou, H.-D.  Liu, J. C.  Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F.  Stellari, A.  Tosi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “CMOS circuit testing via time-resolved luminescence measurements and simulations,” Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 53(1), 163–169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.  Cova, M.  Ghioni, A.  Lacaita, C.  Samori, F.  Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniels, J.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Della Frera, A.

A.  Tosi, A.  Della Frera, A. B.  Shehata, C.  Scarcella, “Fully programmable single-photon detection module for InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes with clean and sub-nanosecond gating transitions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(1), 013104 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L.  Yuan, A. W.  Sharpe, J. F.  Dynes, A. R.  Dixon, A. J.  Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R.  Dixon, Z. L.  Yuan, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L.  Yuan, A. R.  Dixon, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

A. R.  Dixon, Z. L.  Yuan, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L.  Yuan, A. W.  Sharpe, J. F.  Dynes, A. R.  Dixon, A. J.  Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L.  Yuan, A. R.  Dixon, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D.  Eisaman, J.  Fan, A.  Migdall, S. V.  Polyakov, “Invited Review Article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Entwistle, M.

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

M. D.  Eisaman, J.  Fan, A.  Migdall, S. V.  Polyakov, “Invited Review Article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felton, B. J.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fouche, D. G.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Ghioni, M.

Hatch, R. E.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichs, R. M.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

Z.  Lu, Y.  Kang, C.  Hu, Q.  Zhou, H.-D.  Liu, J. C.  Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

Itzler, M. A.

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J. C.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Pulsed gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 49(5), 485–490 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Common-mode cancellation in sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 48(12), 1505–1511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, X.  Zheng, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, R.  Ben-Michael, K.  Slomkowski, “InGaAsP–InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans. 13(4), 895–905 (2007).

Jian, Y.

Y.  Jian, E.  Wu, G.  Wu, H.  Zeng, “Optically self-balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for infrared single-photon detection,” Photon. Tech. Lett. IEEE. 22(3), 173–175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J. C.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Pulsed gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 49(5), 485–490 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Common-mode cancellation in sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 48(12), 1505–1511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, X.  Zheng, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, R.  Ben-Michael, K.  Slomkowski, “InGaAsP–InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans. 13(4), 895–905 (2007).

Kang, Y.

Z.  Lu, Y.  Kang, C.  Hu, Q.  Zhou, H.-D.  Liu, J. C.  Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kocher, D. G.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A.

Landers, D. J.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liau, Z.-L.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-D.

Z.  Lu, Y.  Kang, C.  Hu, Q.  Zhou, H.-D.  Liu, J. C.  Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loomis, A. H.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J. C.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Pulsed gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 49(5), 485–490 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, X.  Zheng, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Common-mode cancellation in sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 48(12), 1505–1511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, Y.  Kang, C.  Hu, Q.  Zhou, H.-D.  Liu, J. C.  Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marino, R. M.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A.

M. D.  Eisaman, J.  Fan, A.  Migdall, S. V.  Polyakov, “Invited Review Article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migdall, A. L.

A.  Restelli, J. C.  Bienfang, A. L.  Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310 nm with an InGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, J. G.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mori, S.

Nakamura, K.

Nambu, Y.

Namekata, N.

O'Brien, M. E.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Player, B. E.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Polyakov, S. V.

M. D.  Eisaman, J.  Fan, A.  Migdall, S. V.  Polyakov, “Invited Review Article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rathman, D. D.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Restelli, A.

A.  Restelli, J. C.  Bienfang, A. L.  Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310 nm with an InGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Retherford, L.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W.

D. S.  Bethune, W.  Risk, “An autocompensating fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans. 36(3), 340–347 (2000).

Rowe, G. S.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rueck, A.

W.  Becker, A.  Bergmann, G. L.  Biscotti, A.  Rueck, “Advanced time-correlated single photon counting techniques for spectroscopy and imaging in biomedical systems,” Proc. SPIE 5340, 104–112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Samori, C.

Sasaki, M.

Scarcella, C.

A.  Tosi, A.  Della Frera, A. B.  Shehata, C.  Scarcella, “Fully programmable single-photon detection module for InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes with clean and sub-nanosecond gating transitions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(1), 013104 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L.  Yuan, A. W.  Sharpe, J. F.  Dynes, A. R.  Dixon, A. J.  Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R.  Dixon, Z. L.  Yuan, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L.  Yuan, A. R.  Dixon, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shehata, A. B.

A.  Tosi, A.  Della Frera, A. B.  Shehata, C.  Scarcella, “Fully programmable single-photon detection module for InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes with clean and sub-nanosecond gating transitions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(1), 013104 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, A. J.

Z. L.  Yuan, A. W.  Sharpe, J. F.  Dynes, A. R.  Dixon, A. J.  Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R.  Dixon, Z. L.  Yuan, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L.  Yuan, A. R.  Dixon, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slomkowski, K.

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, R.  Ben-Michael, K.  Slomkowski, “InGaAsP–InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans. 13(4), 895–905 (2007).

Stellari, F.

F.  Stellari, A.  Tosi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “CMOS circuit testing via time-resolved luminescence measurements and simulations,” Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 53(1), 163–169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stern, A.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J. C.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Pulsed gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 49(5), 485–490 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Common-mode cancellation in sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 48(12), 1505–1511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, X.  Zheng, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Tanaka, A.

Thew, R.

J.  Zhang, R.  Thew, C.  Barreiro, H.  Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

Tosi, A.

A.  Tosi, A.  Della Frera, A. B.  Shehata, C.  Scarcella, “Fully programmable single-photon detection module for InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes with clean and sub-nanosecond gating transitions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(1), 013104 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F.  Stellari, A.  Tosi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “CMOS circuit testing via time-resolved luminescence measurements and simulations,” Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 53(1), 163–169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Willard, B. C.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

Y.  Jian, E.  Wu, G.  Wu, H.  Zeng, “Optically self-balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for infrared single-photon detection,” Photon. Tech. Lett. IEEE. 22(3), 173–175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

Y.  Jian, E.  Wu, G.  Wu, H.  Zeng, “Optically self-balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for infrared single-photon detection,” Photon. Tech. Lett. IEEE. 22(3), 173–175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yorozu, S.

Yoshino, K.

Young, D. J.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

A. R.  Dixon, Z. L.  Yuan, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L.  Yuan, A. W.  Sharpe, J. F.  Dynes, A. R.  Dixon, A. J.  Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L.  Yuan, A. R.  Dixon, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F.  Stellari, A.  Tosi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “CMOS circuit testing via time-resolved luminescence measurements and simulations,” Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 53(1), 163–169 (2004).
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S.  Cova, M.  Ghioni, A.  Lacaita, C.  Samori, F.  Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayhowski, J. J.

B. F.  Aull, A. H.  Loomis, D. J.  Young, A.  Stern, B. J.  Felton, J.  Daniels, D. J.  Landers, L.  Retherford, D. D.  Rathman, R. M.  Heinrichs, R. M.  Marino, D. G.  Fouche, M. A.  Albota, R. E.  Hatch, G. S.  Rowe, D. G.  Kocher, J. G.  Mooney, M. E.  O'Brien, B. E.  Player, B. C.  Willard, Z.-L.  Liau, J. J.  Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 5353, 105–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

J.  Zhang, R.  Thew, C.  Barreiro, H.  Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Y.  Jian, E.  Wu, G.  Wu, H.  Zeng, “Optically self-balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for infrared single-photon detection,” Photon. Tech. Lett. IEEE. 22(3), 173–175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J.  Zhang, R.  Thew, C.  Barreiro, H.  Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, X.  Zheng, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Balanced InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Z.  Lu, Y.  Kang, C.  Hu, Q.  Zhou, H.-D.  Liu, J. C.  Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Z. L.  Yuan, A. W.  Sharpe, J. F.  Dynes, A. R.  Dixon, A. J.  Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.  Zhang, R.  Thew, C.  Barreiro, H.  Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.  Restelli, J. C.  Bienfang, A. L.  Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310 nm with an InGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. R.  Dixon, Z. L.  Yuan, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L.  Yuan, A. R.  Dixon, J. F.  Dynes, A. W.  Sharpe, A. J.  Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on (1)

F.  Stellari, A.  Tosi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “CMOS circuit testing via time-resolved luminescence measurements and simulations,” Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 53(1), 163–169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. A.  Itzler, X.  Jiang, M.  Entwistle, K.  Slomkowski, A.  Tosi, F.  Acerbi, F.  Zappa, S.  Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans (3)

Z.  Lu, W.  Sun, J.  Campbell, X.  Jiang, M. A.  Itzler, “Common-mode cancellation in sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Phys., IEEE Trans 48(12), 1505–1511 (2012).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Balanced receiver layout. Dashed line indicates the circuit board hosting two diodes and other elements. Insert picture shows the actual layout of the two photodiodes. PS: Phase shifter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cancellation effect for pulsed gating (a) and sine-wave gating (b); (b) also shows an avalanche pulse at gating frequency of 80 MHz. The signals were captured with an oscilloscope without amplification.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective pulse width of 80 MHz gating rate with laser pulse width of 40 ps for balanced diodes at 240 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of balanced sine-wave gating results with and without phase shifter at 240K. Effective pulse width is 2.7 ns.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photon counting result at 20 MHz counting rate from pulsed gating and sine-wave gating, both gating schemes are realized with balanced detection.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of balanced sine wave gating result with conventional sine wave gating and self-differencing techniques

Equations (2)

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DCR× τ e =ln(1 P d )
PDE= 1 n ln( 1 P d 1 P t )

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