Abstract

We present a systematic experimental study of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of silicon-germanium (SiGe) waveguides, conducted on samples of varying cross-sectional dimensions and Ge concentrations. The evolution of the various optical properties for waveguide widths in the range 0.3 to 2 µm and Ge concentrations varying between 10 and 30% is considered. Finally, we comment on the comparative performance of the waveguides, when they are considered for nonlinear applications at telecommunications wavelengths.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012 (2)

2011 (2)

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

H. Garcia and R. Kalyanaraman, “Phonon-assisted two-photon absorption in the presence of a dc-field: the nonlinear Franz–Keldysh effect in indirect gap semiconductors,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.39(12), 2737–2746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Dulkeith, F. N. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express14(9), 3853–3863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express14(12), 5524–5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express13(12), 4629–4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lamminpaa, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, and H. Ludvigsen, “Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.11(3), 278–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(5), 1149–1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express12(21), 5269–5273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express12(5), 829–834 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Douglas, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express10(22), 1305–1313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejco, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.14(20), 1140–1142 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Alloatti, L.

Andreadakis, N. C.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Batagelj, B.

B. Batagelj, “Conversion efficiency of fiber wavelength converter based on degenerate FWM,” in 2nd International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), (2000), pp. 179–182.

Bhat, R.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

Bogatscher, S.

Bogris, A.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Boskovic, A.

Boyraz, O.

Braun, R.

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brun, M.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Cassan, E.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. G.

Chernikov, S. V.

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

Cohen, O.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coudevylle, J. R.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coudevylle, J.-R.

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Delong, K. W.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejco, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.14(20), 1140–1142 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

Dimitropoulos, D.

Douglas, J. P.

J. P. Douglas, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drake, J.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dulkeith, E.

Dumon, P.

Edmond, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ettabib, M. A.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Fang, A.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

Frigerio, J.

Fukuda, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, H.

H. Garcia and R. Kalyanaraman, “Phonon-assisted two-photon absorption in the presence of a dc-field: the nonlinear Franz–Keldysh effect in indirect gap semiconductors,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.39(12), 2737–2746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. S.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

Hak, D.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammani, K.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Han, Y.

Harpin, A.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hon, N. K.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Humlícek, J.

Ikonen, E.

A. Lamminpaa, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, and H. Ludvigsen, “Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.11(3), 278–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Indukuri, T.

Isella, G.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

Jalali, B.

Johnson, T. J.

Jones, L.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Jones, R.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalyanaraman, R.

H. Garcia and R. Kalyanaraman, “Phonon-assisted two-photon absorption in the presence of a dc-field: the nonlinear Franz–Keldysh effect in indirect gap semiconductors,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.39(12), 2737–2746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kapsalis, A.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Karthe, W.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kekoua, M. G.

Khoutsishvili, E. V.

Koos, C.

Koza, M. A.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Labeye, P.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Lamminpaa, A.

A. Lamminpaa, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, and H. Ludvigsen, “Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.11(3), 278–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, X.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, H. P.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Levring, O. A.

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(5), 1149–1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A. S.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, D. J.

L. Tsybeskov and D. J. Lockwood, “Silicon-Germanium nanostructures for light emitters and on-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1284–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

A. Lamminpaa, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, and H. Ludvigsen, “Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.11(3), 278–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

S. Mas, J. Matres, J. Marti, and C. J. Oton, “Accurate chromatic dispersion characterization of photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. J.4(3), 825–831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marttila, P.

A. Lamminpaa, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, and H. Ludvigsen, “Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.11(3), 278–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mas, S.

S. Mas, J. Matres, J. Marti, and C. J. Oton, “Accurate chromatic dispersion characterization of photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. J.4(3), 825–831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matres, J.

S. Mas, J. Matres, J. Marti, and C. J. Oton, “Accurate chromatic dispersion characterization of photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. J.4(3), 825–831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Michael, C. P.

Mizrahi, V.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicoletti, S.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Niemi, T.

A. Lamminpaa, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, and H. Ludvigsen, “Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.11(3), 278–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Oton, C. J.

S. Mas, J. Matres, J. Marti, and C. J. Oton, “Accurate chromatic dispersion characterization of photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. J.4(3), 825–831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

Paniccia, M.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

Parmigiani, F.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Penty, R. V.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Perahia, R.

Petropoulos, P.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Richter, B.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S. W.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochford, K. B.

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H. S.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Röseler, A.

Rotenberg, N.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rouifed, M. S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rouifed, M.-S.

Saifi, M. A.

Schares, L.

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scimeca, M. L.

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

Sibbett, W.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. B. D.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejco, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.14(20), 1140–1142 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Taylor, J. R.

Tittelbach, G.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(5), 1149–1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Tsybeskov, L.

L. Tsybeskov and D. J. Lockwood, “Silicon-Germanium nanostructures for light emitters and on-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1284–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallaitis, T.

van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Waarts, R.

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

White, I. H.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F. N.

Yamada, K.

Zettler, T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(18), 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(5), 1149–1153 (2004).
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IEEE Photon. J. (1)

S. Mas, J. Matres, J. Marti, and C. J. Oton, “Accurate chromatic dispersion characterization of photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. J.4(3), 825–831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J. R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
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J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

H. Garcia and R. Kalyanaraman, “Phonon-assisted two-photon absorption in the presence of a dc-field: the nonlinear Franz–Keldysh effect in indirect gap semiconductors,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.39(12), 2737–2746 (2006).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 535–544 (2010).
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Nature (2)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (11)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express10(22), 1305–1313 (2002).
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O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express12(21), 5269–5273 (2004).
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O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express12(5), 829–834 (2004).
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E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express14(12), 5524–5534 (2006).
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H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express13(12), 4629–4637 (2005).
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Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
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Q. Lin, T. J. Johnson, R. Perahia, C. P. Michael, and O. J. Painter, “A proposal for highly tunable optical parametric oscillation in silicon micro-resonators,” Opt. Express16(14), 10596–10610 (2008).
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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, F. N. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express14(9), 3853–3863 (2006).
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T. Vallaitis, S. Bogatscher, L. Alloatti, P. Dumon, R. Baets, M. L. Scimeca, I. Biaggio, F. Diederich, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical properties of highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) waveguide geometries,” Opt. Express17(20), 17357–17368 (2009).
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M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud PSK signals in a silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. Lamminpaa, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, and H. Ludvigsen, “Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.11(3), 278–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. Tsybeskov and D. J. Lockwood, “Silicon-Germanium nanostructures for light emitters and on-chip optical interconnects,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1284–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Douglas, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion in a silicon germanium waveguide,” in OFC/NFOEC (Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013), p. OTh1C.4.

B. Batagelj, “Conversion efficiency of fiber wavelength converter based on degenerate FWM,” in 2nd International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), (2000), pp. 179–182.

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