Abstract

Nonlinear scattering, originating from laser induced solvent micro-bubbles and/or micro-plasmas, is regarded as the principal mechanism for nonlinear optical (NLO) response of graphene dispersions at ns timescale. In this work, we report the significant enhancement of NLO response of graphene dispersions by decreasing the atmospheric pressure, which has strong influence on the formation and growth of micro-bubbles and/or micro-plasmas. A modified open-aperture Z-scan apparatus in combination with a vacuum system was used to study the effect of vacuum pressure on the NLO property of graphene dispersions prepared by liquid-phase exfoliation technique. We show that the atmospheric pressure can be utilized to control and tune the nonlinear responses of the graphene dispersions for ns laser pulses at both 532 nm and 1064 nm. The lower the vacuum pressure was, the larger the NLO response was. In contrast, the NLO property of fullerene was found to be independent of the pressure change, due to its nature of nonlinear absorption. This work affords a simple method to distinguish the nonlinear scattering and absorption mechanisms for NLO nanomaterials.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. H. Zhu, Y. X. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon49(6), 1900–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bottari, G. de la Torre, D. M. Guldi, and T. Torres, “Covalent and noncovalent phthalocyanine-carbon nanostructure systems: synthesis, photoinduced electron transfer, and application to molecular photovoltaics,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6768–6816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, Z. Y. Sun, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Control of optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions by changing solvent parameters,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(13), 6148–6156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, and W. J. Blau, “The importance of solvent properties for optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions,” Opt. Commun.283(3), 464–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Inorganic and hybrid nanostructures for optical limiting,” J. Opt. A11(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, “The chemistry of graphene oxide,” Chem. Soc. Rev.39(1), 228–240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, H. Y. Qin, and Q. D. Zheng, “Rayleigh, mie, and tyndall scatterings of polystyrene microspheres in water: wavelength, size, and angle dependences,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (9)

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Linear and nonlinear spectroscopic studies of phthalocyanine-carbon nanotube blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.465(4–6), 265–271 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 016602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Solvent effect on optical limiting properties of single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2298–2303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. B91(3–4), 521–524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, and M. S. Yur'ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc.94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.18(1), 43–90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron.17(4), 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akundi, M. A.

Bai, J. R.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balandin, A. A.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Q. L.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, W. Z.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belousova, I. M.

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, and M. S. Yur'ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc.94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bergin, S. D.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bielawski, C. W.

D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, “The chemistry of graphene oxide,” Chem. Soc. Rev.39(1), 228–240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

J. H. Zhu, Y. X. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon49(6), 1900–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, Z. Y. Sun, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Control of optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions by changing solvent parameters,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(13), 6148–6156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, and W. J. Blau, “The importance of solvent properties for optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions,” Opt. Commun.283(3), 464–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Inorganic and hybrid nanostructures for optical limiting,” J. Opt. A11(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Solvent effect on optical limiting properties of single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2298–2303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. B91(3–4), 521–524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Linear and nonlinear spectroscopic studies of phthalocyanine-carbon nanotube blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.465(4–6), 265–271 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blighe, F. M.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron.17(4), 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boland, J.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boland, J. J.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolotin, K. I.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottari, G.

G. Bottari, G. de la Torre, D. M. Guldi, and T. Torres, “Covalent and noncovalent phthalocyanine-carbon nanostructure systems: synthesis, photoinduced electron transfer, and application to molecular photovoltaics,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6768–6816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrne, M.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calizo, I.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, L.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. H. Zhu, Y. X. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon49(6), 1900–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chhowalla, M.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, J. N.

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, Z. Y. Sun, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Control of optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions by changing solvent parameters,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(13), 6148–6156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, M. J.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De, S.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Bottari, G. de la Torre, D. M. Guldi, and T. Torres, “Covalent and noncovalent phthalocyanine-carbon nanostructure systems: synthesis, photoinduced electron transfer, and application to molecular photovoltaics,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6768–6816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, “The chemistry of graphene oxide,” Chem. Soc. Rev.39(1), 228–240 (2009).
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J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duesberg, G.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eda, G.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elias, D. C.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 016602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Früchtl, D.

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, and W. J. Blau, “The importance of solvent properties for optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions,” Opt. Commun.283(3), 464–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, Z. Y. Sun, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Control of optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions by changing solvent parameters,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(13), 6148–6156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fudenberg, G.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 016602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giordani, S.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, R.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guldi, D. M.

G. Bottari, G. de la Torre, D. M. Guldi, and T. Torres, “Covalent and noncovalent phthalocyanine-carbon nanostructure systems: synthesis, photoinduced electron transfer, and application to molecular photovoltaics,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6768–6816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gun’Ko, Y. K.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, J. P.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanack, M.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, H. Y. Qin, and Q. D. Zheng, “Rayleigh, mie, and tyndall scatterings of polystyrene microspheres in water: wavelength, size, and angle dependences,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, N.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernandez, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hold, S. V.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holland, B.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hone, J.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchison, J.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaszczak, J. A.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 016602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katsnelson, M. I.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 016602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klima, M.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, S.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, C. N.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. X.

J. H. Zhu, Y. X. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon49(6), 1900–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loh, K. P.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotya, M.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGovern, I. T.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, F.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihailovic, D.

J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mironova, N. G.

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, and M. S. Yur'ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc.94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, S. V.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 016602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolosi, V.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niraj, N. P.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niraj, P.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 016602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Flaherty, S. M.

J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, “The chemistry of graphene oxide,” Chem. Soc. Rev.39(1), 228–240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, H. Y.

G. S. He, H. Y. Qin, and Q. D. Zheng, “Rayleigh, mie, and tyndall scatterings of polystyrene microspheres in water: wavelength, size, and angle dependences,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. N.

Riggs, J. E.

Y. P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.18(1), 43–90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R. S.

D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, “The chemistry of graphene oxide,” Chem. Soc. Rev.39(1), 228–240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, P.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scardaci, V.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schedin, F.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 016602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikes, K. J.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stormer, H. L.

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Streich, P. V.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. P.

Y. P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.18(1), 43–90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Z. Y.

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, Z. Y. Sun, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Control of optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions by changing solvent parameters,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(13), 6148–6156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teweldebrhan, D.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, T.

G. Bottari, G. de la Torre, D. M. Guldi, and T. Torres, “Covalent and noncovalent phthalocyanine-carbon nanostructure systems: synthesis, photoinduced electron transfer, and application to molecular photovoltaics,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6768–6816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron.17(4), 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vengust, D.

J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venkatram, N.

Wang, J.

J. H. Zhu, Y. X. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon49(6), 1900–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, Z. Y. Sun, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Control of optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions by changing solvent parameters,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(13), 6148–6156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, and W. J. Blau, “The importance of solvent properties for optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions,” Opt. Commun.283(3), 464–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Inorganic and hybrid nanostructures for optical limiting,” J. Opt. A11(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. B91(3–4), 521–524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Linear and nonlinear spectroscopic studies of phthalocyanine-carbon nanotube blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.465(4–6), 265–271 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Solvent effect on optical limiting properties of single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2298–2303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. T.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Windle, A. H.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yur'ev, M. S.

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, and M. S. Yur'ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc.94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

J. H. Zhu, Y. X. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon49(6), 1900–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. J.

J. H. Zhu, Y. X. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon49(6), 1900–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Q. D.

G. S. He, H. Y. Qin, and Q. D. Zheng, “Rayleigh, mie, and tyndall scatterings of polystyrene microspheres in water: wavelength, size, and angle dependences,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. H.

J. H. Zhu, Y. X. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon49(6), 1900–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X. D.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (3)

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater.20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater.15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. B91(3–4), 521–524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carbon (1)

J. H. Zhu, Y. X. Li, Y. Chen, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J. J. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Graphene oxide covalently functionalized with zinc phthalocyanine for broadband optical limiting,” Carbon49(6), 1900–1905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Linear and nonlinear spectroscopic studies of phthalocyanine-carbon nanotube blends,” Chem. Phys. Lett.465(4–6), 265–271 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Doyle, V. Nicolosi, S. M. O’Flaherty, D. Vengust, A. Drury, D. Mihailovic, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical response of Mo6S4.5I4.5 nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett.435(1–3), 109–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

G. Bottari, G. de la Torre, D. M. Guldi, and T. Torres, “Covalent and noncovalent phthalocyanine-carbon nanostructure systems: synthesis, photoinduced electron transfer, and application to molecular photovoltaics,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6768–6816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, “The chemistry of graphene oxide,” Chem. Soc. Rev.39(1), 228–240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y. P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.18(1), 43–90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. S. He, H. Y. Qin, and Q. D. Zheng, “Rayleigh, mie, and tyndall scatterings of polystyrene microspheres in water: wavelength, size, and angle dependences,” J. Appl. Phys.105(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Doyle, N. He, X. D. Zhuang, J. R. Bai, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.7(4-5), 1268–1283 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A (1)

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Inorganic and hybrid nanostructures for optical limiting,” J. Opt. A11(2), 024001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, Z. Y. Sun, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Control of optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions by changing solvent parameters,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(13), 6148–6156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Solvent effect on optical limiting properties of single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(7), 2298–2303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Z. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Chem. (1)

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Wang, D. Früchtl, and W. J. Blau, “The importance of solvent properties for optical limiting of carbon nanotube dispersions,” Opt. Commun.283(3), 464–468 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, and M. S. Yur'ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc.94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 016602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron.17(4), 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun.146(9–10), 351–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the modified open-aperture Z-scan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical open-aperture Z-scan data with normalized transmission as a function of the sample position Z for the graphene dispersions in NMP at (a) 532 nm and (b) 1064 nm, and (c) fullerene solutions at 532 nm under different pressures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical open-aperture Z-scans for the DMF dispersions (a) and SC dispersions (b) at different atmospheric pressures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical open-aperture Z-scan at different incident pulse energies (a) and for the three different dispersions (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The nonlinear extinction coefficient as a function of atmospheric pressure (a) for the graphene dispersions prepared in DMF (blue), NMP (green), SC (red) dispersions and C60 (brown) in toluene at 532 nm, and (b) the NMP dispersions for 532 nm and 1064 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Normalized transmission (closed) and δNL0 (open) as functions of incident intensity for the graphene dispersions with the transmission of 51%. (b) Normalized transmission as a function of the radius of micro-bubbles.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

= 3nRT 4π r B 2 p r B
T 0 =exp(- δ 0 NL)
T NL =exp(- δ NL NL)
δ NL / δ 0 =ln T NL /ln T 0
δ= 2π r 2 q 2 l=1 (2l+1) ( | a l | 2 + | b l | 2 )

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