Abstract

A Nd:YVO4 crystal consisting of three segments with different doping concentrations is originally developed for power scaling in diode-end-pumped solid-state laser. We systematically make a comparison of laser characteristics between the multi-segmented and conventional composite crystals to show the feasibility of using gain medium with multiple doping concentrations for power scale-up in end-pumped laser without introducing significant thermally accompanied effects. We further construct a dual-end-pumped actively Q-switched oscillator at 1064 nm to verify the usefulness of our crystal design, where the largest pulse energy of 1.06 mJ and the highest output power of 45 W are efficiently generated.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(26), 3549–3551 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(1), 9–18 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun.274(1), 176–181 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Li, X. Yu, F. Chen, R. Yan, M. Luo, J. Yu, and D. Chen, “Power scaling of directly dual-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser using grown-together composite crystal,” Opt. Express18(7), 7407–7414 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. J. Huang, Y. P. Huang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and K. F. Huang, “Comparative study between conventional and diffusion-bonded Nd-doped vanadate crystals in the passively mode-locked operation,” Opt. Express18(9), 9518–9524 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Kracht, R. Wilhelm, M. Frede, K. Dupré, and L. Ackermann, “407 W end-pumped multi-segmented Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express13(25), 10140–10144 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Wilhelm, D. Freiburg, M. Frede, and D. Kracht, “End-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a longitudinal hyperbolic dopant concentration profile,” Opt. Express16(24), 20106–20116 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Wilhelm, M. Frede, and D. Kracht, “Power scaling of end-pumped solid-state rod lasers by longitudinal dopant concentration gradients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(3), 232–244 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.35(2), 234–239 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Yan, Q. Liu, X. Fu, Y. Wang, L. Huang, D. Wang, and M. Gong, “A 108 W, 500 kHz Q-switching Nd:YVO4 laser with the MOPA configuration,” Opt. Express16(5), 3356–3361 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Xiang, D. Wang, S. Pan, Y. Dong, Z. Zhao, T. Li, J. Ge, C. Liu, and J. Chen, “Beam quality improvement by gain guiding effect in end-pumped Nd:YVO₄ laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express19(21), 21060–21073 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Q. Liu, H. Chen, X. Yan, and M. Gong, “36.5 W high beam quality 532 nm green laser based on dual-rod AO Q-switched resonator,” Opt. Commun.284(13), 3383–3386 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient high-power UV laser generated by an optimized flat-flat actively Q-switched laser with extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Opt. Commun.285(1), 59–63 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Liu, X. Yan, M. Gong, H. Liu, G. Zhang, and N. Ye, “High-power 266 nm ultraviolet generation in yttrium aluminum borate,” Opt. Lett.36(14), 2653–2655 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient high-power UV laser generated by an optimized flat-flat actively Q-switched laser with extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Opt. Commun.285(1), 59–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun.274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

1999 (1)

Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.35(2), 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(26), 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, L.

Chen, D.

Chen, F.

Chen, H.

Q. Liu, H. Chen, X. Yan, and M. Gong, “36.5 W high beam quality 532 nm green laser based on dual-rod AO Q-switched resonator,” Opt. Commun.284(13), 3383–3386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient high-power UV laser generated by an optimized flat-flat actively Q-switched laser with extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Opt. Commun.285(1), 59–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Huang, Y. P. Huang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and K. F. Huang, “Comparative study between conventional and diffusion-bonded Nd-doped vanadate crystals in the passively mode-locked operation,” Opt. Express18(9), 9518–9524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.35(2), 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, P. Y.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient high-power UV laser generated by an optimized flat-flat actively Q-switched laser with extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Opt. Commun.285(1), 59–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Dupré, K.

Frede, M.

Freiburg, D.

Fu, X.

Ge, J.

Gong, M.

Hanson, F.

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(26), 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. F.

Huang, L.

Huang, Y. J.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient high-power UV laser generated by an optimized flat-flat actively Q-switched laser with extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Opt. Commun.285(1), 59–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Huang, Y. P. Huang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and K. F. Huang, “Comparative study between conventional and diffusion-bonded Nd-doped vanadate crystals in the passively mode-locked operation,” Opt. Express18(9), 9518–9524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. P.

Inaba, H.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasamatsu, T.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kracht, D.

Li, T.

Z. Xiang, D. Wang, S. Pan, Y. Dong, Z. Zhao, T. Li, J. Ge, C. Liu, and J. Chen, “Beam quality improvement by gain guiding effect in end-pumped Nd:YVO₄ laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express19(21), 21060–21073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun.274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, X. Yu, F. Chen, R. Yan, M. Luo, J. Yu, and D. Chen, “Power scaling of directly dual-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser using grown-together composite crystal,” Opt. Express18(7), 7407–7414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun.274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. C.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient high-power UV laser generated by an optimized flat-flat actively Q-switched laser with extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Opt. Commun.285(1), 59–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Huang, Y. P. Huang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and K. F. Huang, “Comparative study between conventional and diffusion-bonded Nd-doped vanadate crystals in the passively mode-locked operation,” Opt. Express18(9), 9518–9524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Liu, H.

Liu, Q.

Luo, M.

Pan, S.

Su, K. W.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient high-power UV laser generated by an optimized flat-flat actively Q-switched laser with extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Opt. Commun.285(1), 59–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Huang, Y. P. Huang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and K. F. Huang, “Comparative study between conventional and diffusion-bonded Nd-doped vanadate crystals in the passively mode-locked operation,” Opt. Express18(9), 9518–9524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taguchi, N.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekane, M.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

Wang, Y.

Wilhelm, R.

Xiang, Z.

Yan, R.

Yan, X.

Yang, H.

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun.274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, N.

Yu, J.

Yu, X.

Zhang, G.

Zhao, Z.

Zhuo, Z.

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun.274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hanson, “Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(26), 3549–3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Wilhelm, M. Frede, and D. Kracht, “Power scaling of end-pumped solid-state rod lasers by longitudinal dopant concentration gradients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(3), 232–244 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.35(2), 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(1), 9–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X. Li, and H. Yang, “Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser,” Opt. Commun.274(1), 176–181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, H. Chen, X. Yan, and M. Gong, “36.5 W high beam quality 532 nm green laser based on dual-rod AO Q-switched resonator,” Opt. Commun.284(13), 3383–3386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient high-power UV laser generated by an optimized flat-flat actively Q-switched laser with extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Opt. Commun.285(1), 59–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental arrangement for the comparison of the multi-segmented and conventional composite crystals; Schematic configurations for the (b) YVO4/0.1% Nd:YVO4, (c) YVO4/0.2% Nd:YVO4, and (d) YVO4/0.1% + 0.3% Nd:YVO4 crystals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output powers with respect to the absorbed pump power for each laser crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized output powers versus the temperature of the laser diode, and (b) thermal focal lengths as a function of the absorbed pump power, for each laser crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic diagram for the dual-end-pumped actively Q-switched multi-segmented Nd:YVO4 oscillator; Dependences of (b) the output power and pulse width, (c) pulse energy and peak power on the pulse repetition rate.

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