Abstract

We present design and first demonstration of optics for a telescopic contact lens with independent optical paths for switching between normal and magnified vision. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision. We present an experimental demonstration of the contact lens mounted on a life-sized optomechanical model eye and, using a pair of modified commercial 3D television glasses, demonstrate electrically operated polarization switching between normal and magnified vision.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. S. Friedman, B. J. O'Colmain, and I. Mestril, “2012Fifth Edition of Vision Problems in the U.S.,” http://www.visionproblemsus.org/introduction/acknowledgments.html .
  2. C. Dickinson, Low Vision: Principles and Practice (Buttorworth-Heinemann, 1998).
  3. J. P. Szlyk, W. Seiple, D. J. Laderman, R. Kelsch, J. Stelmack, and T. McMahon, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Bioptic Telescopes for Persons with Central Vision Loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.37(1), 101–108 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  4. A. Isen, “Feinbloom miniscope contact lens,” Encyclopedia of contact lens practice. 13, 53–55 (1963).
  5. J. Lavinsky, G. Tomasetto, and E. Soares, “Use of a contact lens telescopic system in low vision patients,” Int. J. Rehabil. Res.24(4), 337–340 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. S. Lane and B. D. Kuppermann, “The implantable miniature telescope for macular degeneration,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol.17(1), 94–98 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Peli, “The optical functional advantages of an intraocular low-vision telescope,” Optom. Vis. Sci.79(4), 225–233 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. J. Tremblay, R. A. Stack, R. L. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, “Ultrathin cameras using annular folded optics,” Appl. Opt.46(4), 463–471 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. J. Tremblay, R. D. Beer, A. Arianpour, and J. E. Ford, “Telescopic vision contact lens,” Proc. SPIE7885, 788510, 788510-8 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. F. Provines, A. J. Rahe, M. G. Block, T. Pena, and T. J. Tredici, “Yellow lens effects upon visual acquisition performance,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med.63(7), 561–564 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  11. HDS HI 1.54 (pahrifocon A),” http://www.gpspecialists.com/pdf/hsdhi_insert.pdf
  12. R. Watkins, “Zemax Models of the Human Eye,” http://www.radiantzemax.com/kb-en/KnowledgebaseArticle50285.aspx .
  13. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.181(3), 576–593 (1965).
    [PubMed]
  14. R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, “Functional organization of the peripheral retina: Sensitivity to periodic stimuli,” Vision Res.14(12), 1333–1337 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. M. Anstis, “Letter: A chart demonstrating variations in acuity with retinal position,” Vision Res.14(7), 589–592 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Arianpour, E. J. Tremblay, I. Stamenov, J. E. Ford, D. J. Schanzlin, and Y. Lo, “An Optomechanical Model Eye for Ophthalmological Refractive Studies,” J. Refract. Surg.29(2), 126–132 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

A. Arianpour, E. J. Tremblay, I. Stamenov, J. E. Ford, D. J. Schanzlin, and Y. Lo, “An Optomechanical Model Eye for Ophthalmological Refractive Studies,” J. Refract. Surg.29(2), 126–132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

E. J. Tremblay, R. D. Beer, A. Arianpour, and J. E. Ford, “Telescopic vision contact lens,” Proc. SPIE7885, 788510, 788510-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

S. S. Lane and B. D. Kuppermann, “The implantable miniature telescope for macular degeneration,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol.17(1), 94–98 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

E. Peli, “The optical functional advantages of an intraocular low-vision telescope,” Optom. Vis. Sci.79(4), 225–233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. Lavinsky, G. Tomasetto, and E. Soares, “Use of a contact lens telescopic system in low vision patients,” Int. J. Rehabil. Res.24(4), 337–340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. P. Szlyk, W. Seiple, D. J. Laderman, R. Kelsch, J. Stelmack, and T. McMahon, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Bioptic Telescopes for Persons with Central Vision Loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.37(1), 101–108 (2000).
[PubMed]

1992

W. F. Provines, A. J. Rahe, M. G. Block, T. Pena, and T. J. Tredici, “Yellow lens effects upon visual acquisition performance,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med.63(7), 561–564 (1992).
[PubMed]

1974

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, “Functional organization of the peripheral retina: Sensitivity to periodic stimuli,” Vision Res.14(12), 1333–1337 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Anstis, “Letter: A chart demonstrating variations in acuity with retinal position,” Vision Res.14(7), 589–592 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.181(3), 576–593 (1965).
[PubMed]

Anstis, S. M.

S. M. Anstis, “Letter: A chart demonstrating variations in acuity with retinal position,” Vision Res.14(7), 589–592 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arianpour, A.

A. Arianpour, E. J. Tremblay, I. Stamenov, J. E. Ford, D. J. Schanzlin, and Y. Lo, “An Optomechanical Model Eye for Ophthalmological Refractive Studies,” J. Refract. Surg.29(2), 126–132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Tremblay, R. D. Beer, A. Arianpour, and J. E. Ford, “Telescopic vision contact lens,” Proc. SPIE7885, 788510, 788510-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beer, R. D.

E. J. Tremblay, R. D. Beer, A. Arianpour, and J. E. Ford, “Telescopic vision contact lens,” Proc. SPIE7885, 788510, 788510-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Block, M. G.

W. F. Provines, A. J. Rahe, M. G. Block, T. Pena, and T. J. Tredici, “Yellow lens effects upon visual acquisition performance,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med.63(7), 561–564 (1992).
[PubMed]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.181(3), 576–593 (1965).
[PubMed]

Cavonius, C. R.

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, “Functional organization of the peripheral retina: Sensitivity to periodic stimuli,” Vision Res.14(12), 1333–1337 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, J. E.

A. Arianpour, E. J. Tremblay, I. Stamenov, J. E. Ford, D. J. Schanzlin, and Y. Lo, “An Optomechanical Model Eye for Ophthalmological Refractive Studies,” J. Refract. Surg.29(2), 126–132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Tremblay, R. D. Beer, A. Arianpour, and J. E. Ford, “Telescopic vision contact lens,” Proc. SPIE7885, 788510, 788510-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Tremblay, R. A. Stack, R. L. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, “Ultrathin cameras using annular folded optics,” Appl. Opt.46(4), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.181(3), 576–593 (1965).
[PubMed]

Hilz, R.

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, “Functional organization of the peripheral retina: Sensitivity to periodic stimuli,” Vision Res.14(12), 1333–1337 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelsch, R.

J. P. Szlyk, W. Seiple, D. J. Laderman, R. Kelsch, J. Stelmack, and T. McMahon, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Bioptic Telescopes for Persons with Central Vision Loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.37(1), 101–108 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kuppermann, B. D.

S. S. Lane and B. D. Kuppermann, “The implantable miniature telescope for macular degeneration,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol.17(1), 94–98 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laderman, D. J.

J. P. Szlyk, W. Seiple, D. J. Laderman, R. Kelsch, J. Stelmack, and T. McMahon, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Bioptic Telescopes for Persons with Central Vision Loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.37(1), 101–108 (2000).
[PubMed]

Lane, S. S.

S. S. Lane and B. D. Kuppermann, “The implantable miniature telescope for macular degeneration,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol.17(1), 94–98 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavinsky, J.

J. Lavinsky, G. Tomasetto, and E. Soares, “Use of a contact lens telescopic system in low vision patients,” Int. J. Rehabil. Res.24(4), 337–340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, Y.

A. Arianpour, E. J. Tremblay, I. Stamenov, J. E. Ford, D. J. Schanzlin, and Y. Lo, “An Optomechanical Model Eye for Ophthalmological Refractive Studies,” J. Refract. Surg.29(2), 126–132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMahon, T.

J. P. Szlyk, W. Seiple, D. J. Laderman, R. Kelsch, J. Stelmack, and T. McMahon, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Bioptic Telescopes for Persons with Central Vision Loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.37(1), 101–108 (2000).
[PubMed]

Morrison, R. L.

Peli, E.

E. Peli, “The optical functional advantages of an intraocular low-vision telescope,” Optom. Vis. Sci.79(4), 225–233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pena, T.

W. F. Provines, A. J. Rahe, M. G. Block, T. Pena, and T. J. Tredici, “Yellow lens effects upon visual acquisition performance,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med.63(7), 561–564 (1992).
[PubMed]

Provines, W. F.

W. F. Provines, A. J. Rahe, M. G. Block, T. Pena, and T. J. Tredici, “Yellow lens effects upon visual acquisition performance,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med.63(7), 561–564 (1992).
[PubMed]

Rahe, A. J.

W. F. Provines, A. J. Rahe, M. G. Block, T. Pena, and T. J. Tredici, “Yellow lens effects upon visual acquisition performance,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med.63(7), 561–564 (1992).
[PubMed]

Schanzlin, D. J.

A. Arianpour, E. J. Tremblay, I. Stamenov, J. E. Ford, D. J. Schanzlin, and Y. Lo, “An Optomechanical Model Eye for Ophthalmological Refractive Studies,” J. Refract. Surg.29(2), 126–132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seiple, W.

J. P. Szlyk, W. Seiple, D. J. Laderman, R. Kelsch, J. Stelmack, and T. McMahon, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Bioptic Telescopes for Persons with Central Vision Loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.37(1), 101–108 (2000).
[PubMed]

Soares, E.

J. Lavinsky, G. Tomasetto, and E. Soares, “Use of a contact lens telescopic system in low vision patients,” Int. J. Rehabil. Res.24(4), 337–340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stack, R. A.

Stamenov, I.

A. Arianpour, E. J. Tremblay, I. Stamenov, J. E. Ford, D. J. Schanzlin, and Y. Lo, “An Optomechanical Model Eye for Ophthalmological Refractive Studies,” J. Refract. Surg.29(2), 126–132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelmack, J.

J. P. Szlyk, W. Seiple, D. J. Laderman, R. Kelsch, J. Stelmack, and T. McMahon, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Bioptic Telescopes for Persons with Central Vision Loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.37(1), 101–108 (2000).
[PubMed]

Szlyk, J. P.

J. P. Szlyk, W. Seiple, D. J. Laderman, R. Kelsch, J. Stelmack, and T. McMahon, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Bioptic Telescopes for Persons with Central Vision Loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.37(1), 101–108 (2000).
[PubMed]

Tomasetto, G.

J. Lavinsky, G. Tomasetto, and E. Soares, “Use of a contact lens telescopic system in low vision patients,” Int. J. Rehabil. Res.24(4), 337–340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tredici, T. J.

W. F. Provines, A. J. Rahe, M. G. Block, T. Pena, and T. J. Tredici, “Yellow lens effects upon visual acquisition performance,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med.63(7), 561–564 (1992).
[PubMed]

Tremblay, E. J.

A. Arianpour, E. J. Tremblay, I. Stamenov, J. E. Ford, D. J. Schanzlin, and Y. Lo, “An Optomechanical Model Eye for Ophthalmological Refractive Studies,” J. Refract. Surg.29(2), 126–132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Tremblay, R. D. Beer, A. Arianpour, and J. E. Ford, “Telescopic vision contact lens,” Proc. SPIE7885, 788510, 788510-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Tremblay, R. A. Stack, R. L. Morrison, and J. E. Ford, “Ultrathin cameras using annular folded optics,” Appl. Opt.46(4), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Aviat. Space Environ. Med.

W. F. Provines, A. J. Rahe, M. G. Block, T. Pena, and T. J. Tredici, “Yellow lens effects upon visual acquisition performance,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med.63(7), 561–564 (1992).
[PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol.

S. S. Lane and B. D. Kuppermann, “The implantable miniature telescope for macular degeneration,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol.17(1), 94–98 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Rehabil. Res.

J. Lavinsky, G. Tomasetto, and E. Soares, “Use of a contact lens telescopic system in low vision patients,” Int. J. Rehabil. Res.24(4), 337–340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Physiol.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.181(3), 576–593 (1965).
[PubMed]

J. Refract. Surg.

A. Arianpour, E. J. Tremblay, I. Stamenov, J. E. Ford, D. J. Schanzlin, and Y. Lo, “An Optomechanical Model Eye for Ophthalmological Refractive Studies,” J. Refract. Surg.29(2), 126–132 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.

J. P. Szlyk, W. Seiple, D. J. Laderman, R. Kelsch, J. Stelmack, and T. McMahon, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Bioptic Telescopes for Persons with Central Vision Loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.37(1), 101–108 (2000).
[PubMed]

Optom. Vis. Sci.

E. Peli, “The optical functional advantages of an intraocular low-vision telescope,” Optom. Vis. Sci.79(4), 225–233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

E. J. Tremblay, R. D. Beer, A. Arianpour, and J. E. Ford, “Telescopic vision contact lens,” Proc. SPIE7885, 788510, 788510-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, “Functional organization of the peripheral retina: Sensitivity to periodic stimuli,” Vision Res.14(12), 1333–1337 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Anstis, “Letter: A chart demonstrating variations in acuity with retinal position,” Vision Res.14(7), 589–592 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

HDS HI 1.54 (pahrifocon A),” http://www.gpspecialists.com/pdf/hsdhi_insert.pdf

R. Watkins, “Zemax Models of the Human Eye,” http://www.radiantzemax.com/kb-en/KnowledgebaseArticle50285.aspx .

A. Isen, “Feinbloom miniscope contact lens,” Encyclopedia of contact lens practice. 13, 53–55 (1963).

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O'Colmain, and I. Mestril, “2012Fifth Edition of Vision Problems in the U.S.,” http://www.visionproblemsus.org/introduction/acknowledgments.html .

C. Dickinson, Low Vision: Principles and Practice (Buttorworth-Heinemann, 1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the magnifying contact lens. (a) Unmagnified (1x) optical path through the central clear aperture of the contact lens. (b) Magnified (2.8x) multiple-reflection path through the contact lens. (c) Expanded view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated optical performance of the 2.8x magnifying contact lens & human eye. (a) Polychromatic modulation transfer function. (b) Estimated neuronal contrast threshold at 2.8x as a function of retinal eccentricity. (c) Decimal Acuity as a function of retinal eccentricity. (d) Relative illumination of the magnified image with varying iris diameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Contact lens front view. (b) Contact lens back view. (c) Contact lens on optomechanical eye. (d) Central aperture (1x) blocked with LC glasses. (e) Central aperture (1x) open with LC glasses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images captured through the contact lens and optomechanical eye. (a) USAF resolution chart @ 1x. (b) USAF resolution chart @ 2.8x. (c) Outdoor image taken with optomechanical eye. (d) Outdoor image taken with contact lens and both apertures (1x + 2.8x). (e) Outdoor image taken with contact lens @ 2.8x.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Initial layout of an all-refractive telescopic contact lens, using two rigid gas permeable polymer materials to correct chromatic aberration without diffractive optics.

Metrics